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SERINDIA - STEIN

 
  Although the set of maps was published as one volume of Serindia - the report on the Second Expedition, they were compiled and carefully corrected at the Survey of India to correct discrepancies. There are areas Stein surveyed during the Third Expedition that are not included in this map series. A very valuable discussion of the whole topographic survey and creation of the maps was published in Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkestan and Kansu: From the surveys made during Sir Aurel Stein's Explorations 1900-1, 1906-8, 1913-15. published by Trigonometrical Survey Office, Dehra Dun, India 1923.
The maps are not numbered in the sequence in which they might be used to follow his narration in Serindia or Innermostasia. Rather, they are numbered from west to east in columns and from north to south in each column. Additional maps were published in other volumes describing Stein's 'personal narrative'.
 
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The title page of Volume V of Serindia - containing the detailed map sheets. Unfortunately map sheets # 26, 46, 60, and 61 are missing from the copy I received from inter library loan. I have substituted the much more difficult to read PDF versions from the Internet. A description of each map sheet - its geographic coordinates and relation to the other maps is here along with the list of the several photos I made of sections of the maps.

 
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The publishing information and Rochester University Library logo from the copy of Serindia that the library graciously loaned for use.

 
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The list of map sheets in volume V of Serindia.

 
 

These map sheets were created in India from original topographic surveys conducted by Sir Aurel Stein and his three Indian assistants. Each sheet contains an area one degree east from the SW corner and one degree north. Thus 75-76 E 40-41 N means the rectangle from meridian at 75 degrees east to 76 degrees east and from the latitude line at 40 degrees north to 41 degrees north. In addition to basic topographic information created by plane table, astronomical observations, photography, barometric measurements, and theodolite the maps show with dotted red lines the paths the surveyors followed, their base camps are numbered and many archeological and other human constructions are noted.

 
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Map sheet #1 - Tu rung-art Dawan - 75-76 E - 40-41 N - This shows the mountains northwest of Kashgar on the Chinese side of the water shed with Russia in the Pamirs with the Chakman River flowing south toward Kashgar. The pass is at the extreme northern border at 11,400 feet elevation. The Chakman karaul fort guards the river valley.

 
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Map sheet #2 - Kashgar - 75-76 E - 39-40 N - The sheet is partly empty. Kashgar town and the Chakmak River valley are on the east side. The river splits into the Ar tush and Astu Artush Rivers. Islak Karaul fort is north of Kashgar.

 
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Map sheet #3 - Kara - Tash River - 75-76 E - 38-39 N - The Buss-msal Pass is shown at 14,900 feet elevation. The head waters of the Kara Tash River flowing north are in the mountains in the southern half and the river appears again in a small area in the NE corner.

 
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Map sheet # 4 - Tash-Kurgan River 75-76 E, 37-38 N - Shows the mountains in the northern third and unexplored blank in the south. The Tash-kurgan town is on the river at 10,225 feet elevation. The river bends east. It has its headwaters in the Pamirs. Tash-kurgan is the first important town reached when entering Chinese Turkestan from the direction of Afghanistan or northwest Pakistan. The red line showing Stein's route leaves the river to strike north through mountains toward Kashgar.

 
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Map sheet # 4 - Tash-Kurgan River 75-76 E, 37-38 N - Shows the mountains in the northern third and unexplored blank in the south. The Tash-kurgan town is on the river at 10,225 feet elevation. The river bends east. It has its headwaters in the Pamirs. Tash-kurgan is the first important town reached when entering Chinese Turkestan from the direction of Afghanistan or northwest Pakistan. The red line showing Stein's route leaves the river to strike north through mountains toward Kashgar.

 
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Map sheet # 5 - Terek Dawan - 76-77 E - 40-41 N - This shows the mountains in the southern quarter with unexplored blank to the north. It is along the northern tier of surveying completed by R. B. Lal Singh. Kok-Kiya fort appears along with the Terek Pass at 12,100 feet elevation. The surveyor's route shows in red.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 6 - Khah -Arik showing the road north from near Yangi-shahr to map sheet # 5 toward Turfan . The Terek river valley is north of # 6 and east of Kashgar

 
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Section of map sheet # 6 - Khan-Arik - The main town is Yangi Shahr in a narrow cultivated valley SE of Yangi and NE of the road over pass .

 
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This detail of map sheet # 6 shows also the road from west of Yangi-Shahr heading northeast and then north

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 7 Yangi-Hissar showing that town and the western part of the road from Kashgar to Yarkand via Kelpin oasis. It also shows part of the road from SW at Tash-kurgan toward Kashgar - note the karaul - fort - in the pass. The open areas are unsurveyed desert.

 
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Details from map sheet # 7 - Yangi-Hissar - The road from Tash-kurgan through unsurveyed area enters from the south. Another road from the same town is at upper NW corner.

 
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This detail from map sheet # 7 - Yangi-Hissar - The road from Tash-kurgan through unsurveyed area enters from the south west. The road from Kashgar to Yarkand via Kelpin crosses from NW toward SE. Note the karaul -fort blocking the road from Tash-kurgan in a narrow pass. The road toward Yarkand is in open desert that was not surveyed.

 
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The north west part of map sheet # 8 -Tiznaf River showing the Yashkar river flowing toward desert.

 
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This is detail of SE part of map sheet # 8 - Tiznaf River - showing the river and area near it that was surveyed. The area is along the southern border between Kashgar and Yarkand

 
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The south east part of map sheet # 8 -Tiznaf River - showing the river flowing toward desert.

 
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Detail from map sheet # 9 - Oi-Bulak - It shows only the road from Kashgar north-east toward Turfan with the narrow areas either side that were surveyed during taking this route.

 
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Another Detail from map sheet # 9 - Oi-Bulak - It shows only the road from Kashgar north-east toward Turfan with the narrow areas either side that were surveyed during taking this route.

 
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Detail from map sheet # 10 - Abad, Tarim - This shows only the Yarkand River in the southern and SE quadrant. Unsurveyed areas off the route are blank. Abd Char Sharubar Bazar is toward the center along the southern edge.

 
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Detain of map sheet # 11 - Yarkand - It shows the Yarkand River flowing from the south to north with cultivation on both sides. Actually at this point there are two rivers that then join north of town. The road from Kashgar arrives on the western border of the cultivation. This area was greatly expanded between Stein's visits in 1900 and 1911. It shows the ruins of Tatar and Uigur places. Yarkand was the major market place on the southern border of the Taklamakan and foothills of the K'un- lun mountains with Indian and Afghan merchants. It was on the fantastic mountain route over the Karakorum Pass.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 11 - Yarkand - It shows the area north of the city with the Yarkand River flowing from the south to north with cultivation on both sides. This area was greatly expanded between Stein's visits in 1900 and 1911. It shows the ruins of Tatar and Uigur places. The Yarkand River provided a route across the desert between Yarkand and the Tarim basin. The river had great seasonal flood in late spring with melting snow on southern mountains and then very scanty flow in fall and what was left froze in winter.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 11 - Yarkand - It shows the continuation of the river flowing north into the desert with several ruins Stein found marked in red. The river is like the ancient Nile - with a huge annual flood - but with much less flow toward fall and of course it froze over winter. Desert marks a sharp boundary to the cultivation on both sides.

 
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Another detailed look at map sheet # 11 - Yarkand - showing two rivers flowing north from the southern mountains and Stein's route in red for his effort to reach the headwaters.

 
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Detail of the southern part of map sheet # 12 - Karghalik - This is continuation south of sheet # 11 that showed the Yarkand river - On this sheet we see Stein's and his surveyor team's criss crossing the mountain ranges seeking the headwaters of the river. Karghalik is at the northern edge. The road south leads toward Shah i dulla much further into the mountains where Stein meet his convoy on the way back to India over the Karakorum pass.

 
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Detail part of map sheet # 12 - Karghalik - This is continuation south of sheet # 11 that showed the Yarkand river - On this sheet we see Stein's and his surveyor team's criss crossing the mountain ranges seeking the headwaters of the river. Karghalik is at the northern edge. The road south toward Shah i dulla leads much further into the mountains where Stein meet his convoy on the way back over the Karakorum pass.

 
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Detail of northern part of map sheet # 12 - Karghalik - This is continuation south of sheet # 11 that showed the Yarkand river . Karghalik is at the northern edge. The Tiznaf River appears also in a small section of map sheet # 8 just west of this map sheet.

 
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Detail of north eastern quadrant of map sheet # 13 - Sarigart - It shows some of the head waters of the Yarkand River due south of map sheet # 12 - Stein's survey of the other tributaries went east onto map sheet # 17. Note the pass at 11,420 feet elevation where the western survey line ended. Sarigart pass and village are in the far north east area when Stein's route goes east - note also that he entered and left this sheet from the east toward the southern section.

 
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Detail of the eastern section of map sheet # 13 - Sarigart - This shows the mountains south of Yarkand and passes into the southern ranges. Sarigart Pass is at 13,800 feet

 
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Detail of section of map sheet # 14 - Kelpin - Kelpin is an oasis in a narrow valley with mountains on three sides and a dry river bed at the valley mouth. Stein found a ruined fort and other buildings in the valley. It is on the northern flank of the Taklamakan. Stein also found a ruined fort south of Kelpin at 78 degrees 59' E - 40 degrees 8' N, along his route south toward Maral-bashi (on the next map # 25)

 
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Detail of section of map sheet # 14 - Kelpin - Kelpin is an oasis in a narrow valley with mountains on three sides and a dry river bed at the valley mouth. Stein found a ruined fort and other buildings in the valley. It is on the northern flank of the Taklamakan. Stein also found a ruined fort south of Kelpin at 78 degrees 59' E - 40 degrees 8' N, along his route south toward Maral-bashi (on the next map # 25)

 
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Detail of section of map sheet # 14 - Kelpin - Kelpin is an oasis in a narrow valley with mountains on three sides and a dry river bed at the valley mouth. Stein found a ruined fort and other buildings in the valley. It is on the northern flank of the Taklamakan. This detail shows the road north from Kelpin

 
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Detail of northern section of map sheet # 14 - Kelpin - Kelpin is an oasis in a narrow valley with mountains on three sides and a dry river bed at the valley mouth. It is off this map to the south east. Instead this detail shows the Tushkan River flowing west to east along the foot hills of the T'ien Shan with Stein's route along it. Kashgar is to the west and Turfan is to the east. The topographic survey only includes areas adjacent to the survey route.

 
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Detail of the northern part of map sheet # 15 - Marl-bashi - the survey shows areas adjacent to the line of march with Maral-bashi fort toward the north center. Also shown are Topa shahr shrine and monastery, Tumshak tagh shahri fort. There are more ruins in the far NE map corner. The route to Yarkand exits in the SW corner and Stein did not survey the desert area immediately south of this map sheet, but continued on map sheet # 11 to the SW.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 16 - Sanju - This shows several of Stein's exploration routes into the K'un-lun east of Kilian on which he crossed the rivers that flow north out of the mountains. The Kilian River flows from the southern border NW out of the map and then back in from the south-west and the others from the southern edge. There is a ruined stupa at 78 degrees 14'E - 37 degrees 15' N. Sanju Bazar, also called Saidulla, is on the river at 6040 feet elevation in south center of the map. The route from Kargalik enters the map from the north-west.

 
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This is the southern half of map sheet # 17 - Shah i dulla - in the mountains on the Karakash River. This is the main caravan route south toward the Karakorum pass going off the map in west-center of the southern border. Here the river is flowing SE to NW. Shah i dulla Mazar is on the river at 78 degrees 3' E - 36 Degrees 24' N. The mountains already reach to 23,757 feet elevation. There are many glaciers. Stein's camps are at 10,000 feet and more. the Hindustash Pass is at 17,750 feet by glacier passes over 11,000 feet. The headwaters of the Sanju River and others flow north. The Kilian Pass is at 17,910 feet. In the final days of his second expedition Stein hurried west from adjacent map sheet 21 and 22 to reach Shah i dulla where his heavy baggage caravan was to meet him, hen rushed south over the Karakorum suffering already with serious frost bite.

 
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Detail of the eastern part of map sheet #17 - Shah i dulla - The village is on the Karakash River near the western map edge. This is on the main caravan route continuing here south up the river toward the Karakorum pass. Here the river is flowing SE to NW. Shah i dulla Mazar is on the river at 78 degrees 3' E - 36 Degrees 24' N. The mountains already reach to 23,757 feet elevation. There are many glaciers. Stein's camps are at 10,000 feet and more. The Hindustash Pass is at 17,750 feet by glacier passes over 11,000 feet. The headwaters of the Sanju River and others flow north. The Kilian Pass north of Shah i dulla is at 17,910 feet.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 17 - Shah i dulla - It shows the route south from Kargalik and the Sanju River flowing north. The Karakash River flows off the map sheet toward the NW. The watershed first line of the mountain range that separates flow directly north and flow south into a basin before flowing west clearly shows across the map sheet. Three of Stein's routes into the mountains are clearly shown.

 
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Map sheet # 18 - Karakorum Pass - This shows only the terrain immediately adjacent to Stein's hurried route south across the pass at 18,687 feet, while returning from his second expedition. The other areas are well mapped by the Topographic Survey of India. The caravan route leads south from Shah - i dulla on the Karakasch River in map sheet # 17 and then across several ridges and along several high river valleys. This is the route by which he sent large caravans loaded with his findings from both his second and third expeditions.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 19 - Uch-Turfan - the north-western area was not surveyed at yet. Uch, Turfan is at 79 degrees 10' E - 41 degrees 6' N in an oasis area next to the Tushkan River. The road SW leads to Kashgar.

 
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Detail of the southern half of map sheet # 20 - Khotan - The walled city is in the SE corner on the Kara Kash River flowing north into the desert and the Yungung Kash flowing parallel until they meet to become the Khotan River north of the city. The extensive cultivated area was being expanded between Stein's first and second visits. The main west-east road - caravan route - along the southern border of the Taklamakan and northern foothills of the K'un-lun Range crosses in the southern half of the map. Several ancient forts appear. The abrupt edge of the cultivated area and desert is shown. The ruin of the ancient town is now under many feet of alluvial soil between arms of the river. The routes show that Stein visited many sited around Khotan.

 
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Detail of the eastern half of map sheet # 20 - Khotan - The walled city is in the SE corner on the Kara Kash River flowing north into the desert and the Yungung Kash flowing parallel until they meet to become the Khotan River north of the city. The extensive cultivated area was being expanded between Stein's first and second visits. The main west-east road - caravan route - along the southern border of the Taklamakan and northern foothills of the K'un-lun Range crosses in the southern half of the map. The route north to Ak-su across the desert is shown on the north-east border..

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 20 - Khotan - Most of the area is unsurveyed desert. The Kara Kash River flows north-east onto map sheets 27 and 27

 
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The south-east part of map sheet # 20 - Khotan.

 
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The eastern part of map sheet # 20 - Khotan.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 21 - Nissa - south of Khotan. Stein was determined to find the sources of the rivers flowing north out of the mountains and also if possible reach a point from which he could tie his survey in with the Indian survey on the other side of the mountains. The Yurung Kash River flows from the Southern edge into the desert. Stein shows glaciers along this southern edge and peaks to 12,500 and 13,350 feet where he was turned back in efforts to go south. Nissa is a village at 79 degrees 34' E - 36 degrees 15' N. The Kara Kash River is in the mountains along the western map edge over 11,000 feet.

 
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Detail of the south western part of map sheet # 21 - Nissa - south of Khotan. The Yurung Kash River flows from the Southern edge into the desert. The Kara Kash River is in the mountains along the western map edge over 11,000 feet.

 
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The north western section of map sheet # 21 - Nissa - The Kara Kash River here flows along the whole western side and off the map sheet to the north, toward Khotan.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 22 - Khitai Dawan - Stein's effort to reach the rivers' sources and watershed range continued south and east through inland salt basins and streams flowing into these. The Kara Kash River flows north west. The Khitai Pass is at 16,505 feet elevation. Stein's route here is back from SE to NW.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 22 - Khitai Dawan - Stein's effort to reach the rivers' sources and watershed range continued south and east through inland salt basins and streams flowing into these. The Kara Kash River flows north west. The Khitai Pass is at 16,505 feet elevation (at B2). Stein 's route here is back from SE to NW.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 23 - Aksu - Here we jump back to the northern edge of Stein's exploration. Aksu is the important town in the oasis at extreme southwest corner. (Yangi-shahr) - old Aksu ruin is just south. The eastern area was not surveyed until Stein's third exploration.

 
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The western half of map sheet # 23 - Aksu - Here we jump back to the northern edge of Stein's exploration. Aksu is the important town in the oasis at extreme southwest corner. (Yangi-shahr) - old Aksu ruin is just south. The eastern area was not surveyed until Stein's third exploration. This section shows Stein's foray north into the T'ien shan to see some ruins. The Terang Darya flows south out of these hills.,

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 24 - Aksu-Yarkand River - Here we see the Aksu River flowing south east out of the T'ien Shan and meeting (when all are flowing) the Yarkand and Khotan Rivers flowing east and north east respectively. The joined river flows east to become the Tarim River, which eventually when there is sufficient water flows into the Lop Nor basin. The caravan route between Aksu and Khotan follows the Khotan river south..

 
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The north west border of map sheet # 24 - Aksu-Yarkand River Junction - Shows the Aksu river flowing south.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 25 - Mazar Tagh - This shows the Kara-Kash River flowing north from the southern border to become the Khotan River that flows off the northern edge toward map # 24. Mazar Tagh is a ruined Tibetan fortress on a bluff on the left (west) side of the river at 80 degrees 40 'E - 38 degrees 27' N. Stein visited and spent a lot of time excavating this ruin. The river valley is narrow with limited cultivation along the southern part but only intermittent growth along most of the banks.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 25 - Mazar Tagh - This shows the length of the Khotan River and the location of Mazar Tagh fortress on the west bank.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 25 - Mazar Tagh - This shows the Khotan river continuing north of the fortress and Stein's route along it.

 
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Map sheet # 26 - Khotan River - Unfortunately this map sheet is missing from the Serindia Volume V sent by inter library loan. Here all I can do is substitute the PDF version available on the Internet.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 27 - Sampula - This shows the Yurung Kash River along the west edge flowing into the Kara Kash to become the Khotan River that continues north into the desert. The road to the SW goes to Khotan and north to Aksu. Stein found many ruins as shown in red, especially at RAWAK. Along the southern edge the road from the west connects Khotan with Keriya to the east.

 
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Detail of the northern part of map sheet # 27 Sampula - It shows the RAWAK site at the southern edge and the two rivers, Yurung Kash and Kara Kash, trending north east before joining.

 
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The northern section of map sheet # 27 - Sampula - The two rivers continue to flow north east a few miles apart.

 
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A detailed look at the south west section of map sheet # 27 - Sampula - The Yurung Kash River is there. Many of the ruins Stein found are shown north east of Yurung-kash Bazar (also called Arish Bazar). A route from Khotan comes there from the west. Sampula Bazar is at 80 degrees 11' E - 37 degrees 02' N. East of it is Lop Bazar.

 
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A detailed look at the SE section of map sheet # 27 - Sampula - The road from Khotan in the west continues east toward Keriya. More ruins including another RAWAK appear. Stein made a circuit to the north to explore the ruins at Ulugh Mazar.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 28 - Chakar - just south of Sampula - Only the areas adjacent to Stein's route have been surveyed. The Chakar area is in the north east corner of this photo. It shows the mountain range and rivers west to north east over which Stein traveled. The Chira River flows NE. His route is from Karanghu Tagh

 
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Detail of the north eastern part of map sheet # 28 - Chakar - Chakar is near the eastern border.

 
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A more detailed view of the north east section of map sheet # 28 - Chakar - the town is near the eastern side.

 
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A detailed view of a section of map sheet # 29 - Zailik - This shows the most southern section of Stein's route from east to west through an interior basin between high ranges south of the Taklamakan. He was determined to find the head waters of the Yurung Kash after he was blocked by impassible gorges when attempting to follow the river upstream directly. So he went far east, then south, and then back west behind ( that is south of ) the first range of mountains. Off the western edge he is moving toward Shah i dulla on map sheet # 17 but first crossing map sheet # 22. He barely made it. Due to lack of anything growing in this dry basin he lost most of the ponies and donkeys. At the western edge is a piece of a dry lake.

 
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A detailed view of a part of map sheet # 29 - Zailik - just north of the above view showing some of the ridges and valleys with streams flowing from glaciers. Some ridges form the watershed between streams flowing north eventually into the desert and streams flowing south into an inland basin.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 29 - Zailik - shows the Yurung Kash River flowing west, north of the water shed range. The peaks are over 21,000 feet elevation

 
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Detail of the north west corner of map sheet #29 - Zailik -

 
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Here we have the eastern part of map sheet # 30 - Kara Dong. It shows the Keriya River flowing north from the south edge along the east side. The entire western part was unsurveyed as Stein only did what he could while following the river bed south. The Kara Dong ruin is at 81 degrees 55' E - 38 Degrees 32' N. There is no map sheet directly north of this one. Stein was searching for the dry river bed moving south from Shahyar and his route shows on map sheet 36, NE of this one.

 
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Here we have the north eastern part of map sheet #30 - Kara Dong. Stein was traveling south and searching for the northern end of the Keriya River, which is shown here.

 
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This is the south west corner of map sheet # 31 - Domoko - Traveling up stream on the Keriya River bed he shifted westward to return to the ruins at Domoko. These include the ruin at Khadalik (81 degrees 11' E - 37 degrees 5' N). The road to Keriya town is in the south west corner also. Old Domoko is on the Domoko River, which disappears into the desert. There is a gap in the survey of the Keriya River at this point south of where Stein left it.

 
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This is the eastern edge of map sheet # 31 Domoko showing the Keriya river south of map sheet # 30 to the location where Stein left it to travel west to Domoko.

 
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This is the far north east corner of map sheet # 31 - Domoko - showing the Keriya River bed (it flows north when it flows at all) and Stein's route south from Kara Dong.

 
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This is the southern half of map sheet # 32 - Keriya. It shows the upper Keriya River and others flowing north from the mountains that form the southern edge of the Taklamakan -But Stein went much further south to find the sources of the Keriya. The road east from Khotan at Domoko is in the far north west corner.

 
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This is the center section (meaning north to to south) of map sheet # 32 - Keriya - It shows some of Stein's survey routes toward the mountains and across the northern part.

 
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This is the northern section of map sheet # 32 - Keriya - The river is flowing northward on the eastern side and Keriya town is on the river. The Domoko oasis is on the far north west corner.

 
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This is the northern section of map sheet # 33 - Yurung Kash Source - This with the sections below shows one of Stein's most difficult survey routes. He was not one to let himself be thwarted by waterless deserts or 20,000 foot mountain ranges. Blocked from proceeding directly south, up the Yurung Kash River by an impassable gorge (and unwilling local porters), he determined to bypass the obstacle by going east and then south around the range and then back west through high desolate interior basins. (See also map sheets #29, 28, 21,22, 17 and 18 for the complete route. He describes this expedition in the final chapter of Serindia. Here we see some of the glaciers and mountains over 17,000 feet elevation. By this route he also found the sources of the Keriya River.

 
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This is the central section of map sheet # 33 - Yurung Kash Sources - Note here the many glaciers and mountain peaks in a range south of the basin to the north and north of another basin toward the south. Stein's route criss crosses the basins and ranges. The sources of the Keriya river are toward the south east corner and the Yurung Kash flows out on the west side.

 
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This is the southern part of map sheet # 33 Yurung Kash Source and shows the furthermost line of Stein's survey from east to west - here is found the source of the Keriya River on the east side. And he found a dead lake in a basin that shows on the west side and into map sheet # 29.

 
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This is the north western side of map sheet # 33 - Yurung-Kash Source - Again we see the several ranges and basins between them with glaciers and here the source of the Yurung Kash River. Stein's final route west is at the south western corner.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 34 - Kuchar - We jump back to the northern side of the desert. Shahyar fort is at 82 degrees 37' E - 41 degrees 11' N - this section shows the road north from Shahyar toward Kuchar. Shahyar was the last inhabited place at which Stein could assemble resources and prepare for his dangerous effort to enter the desert from the north in search of the dry basin of the Keriya River. The end of the Shahyar River into the desert is east of the fort. A short piece of the Tarim River appears at the southern map edge.

 
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The central section of map sheet # 34 - Kuchar - The walled town, Kuchar, is in the eastern section in an oasis formed by the remnants of rivers flowing south from the T'ien Shan. It is on the west-east routes between Kashgar and Korla.

 
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Detail of the northeast part of map sheet # 34 - Kuchar - Here we see the town and oasis with various streams and routes south west to Khotan River and north east to Korla. Several of Stein's ruins are shown in red.

 
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Detail of the northern part of map sheet # 34 Kuchar - The large empty space was not visited or surveyed. The cultivated area is possible by the water from the Muzart and Kuchar Rivers before they disappear into the sand. But part of the Muzart River flows into the Shahyar River to the south.

 
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Detail of the south eastern side of map sheet # 35 Desert South of Shahyar. The map sheet is well named as there is nothing here but the bare line of Stein's trek south into the desert in search of the Keriya River - further south. Here he marks the locations of his camps 315 to 318 in the midst of high sand dunes and remnants of dead vegetation. He notes where they dug wells and found water at depths of 4 - 5 feet.

 
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Detail of the north eastern side of map sheet # 35 - Desert South of Shahyar - In the north eastern corner Stein crossed the Tarim River by his camp 312. Camp 316 is the last one at the southern edge of this section. He was a very skilled and experienced surveyor and took astronomical observations at each point to determine locations.

 
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The north western side of map sheet # 35 - Desert south of Shahyar - This shows the northern part of Stein's route south across the desert to the Keriya River.

 
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The north west side of map sheet # 36 - Dry Delta of the Keriya River. Comparing this section with the map sheets north and south one sees that here Stein was really hurting. Notice that he is veering south west in his search. This continues on map sheet 30. The Keriya River had shifted westward in the years since it was seen by Swedish explorer Sven Hedin. But he finally caught a glimpse from a high sand dune of the river shining as ice sheets in the sun miles to the SW.

 
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The south west side of map sheet # 36 Delta of the Keriya River. Here Stein continued south along the northern remains of the Keriya River.

 
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The south east section of map sheet # 37 - Niya - This shows the southern start of Stein's march north from Keriya to the Niya ruined Buddhist town. The then occupied Niya Bazar oasis is at the southern end on the road from Keriya. The ruin was 90 miles north of the oasis.

 
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The north east section of map sheet # 37 - Niya - Here is the end of the river in the desert at Iman Jifar Sadul Mazar ( a local shrine at which Stein was able to hire laborers and store his heavy baggage. The Niya ruin is north of the shrine.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 37 Niya - showing in red the major buildings excavated from deep sand by Aurel Stein's crew. This was one of his major discoveries that yielded up a very large number of relics from Buddhist occupation. He returned here during his third expedition see Niya.

 
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The central part of map sheet # 38 - Surghak - showing the 20,000 foot mountain range south of the Taklamakan and rivers flowing north. Here Stein was traveling back westward across the streams and spurs toward Polur in his successful effort to go around the mountains south of Khotan. The southern part of the map sheet is blank - unexplored region south of the mountains.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 38 - Surghak - The route south from Niya is at upper east side. Here Stein's trek westward begins where the streams flow out of the mountains northward into the desert. Surghak is on the river on the east side.

 
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The northern section of map sheet # 39 - Inchike River - The main road between Kuchar and Bugur crosses here with several ruins of ancient watch towers and small guard forts from Han times.

 
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The central - west- east - section of map sheet # 39 - Inchike River - This is north of the river and shows the main west-east road north of the desert with remains of watch towers and small forts dating back to Han times.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 39 Inchike River - The Inchike Darya is here flowing eastward from Shahyar toward Korla

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 40 Endere - Stein moved here directly from Niya to excavate the ruins he had heard about, which turned out to be extensive. The Yartung and Endere Rivers flow north into the desert. There are several ruins of ancient forts. The route from here eastward is toward Charchan.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 40 Endere - showing some of the ruins Stein dug out of the desert sand. The route west to Niya and east to Charchan appears as it crosses the Endere River.

 
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More detail from map sheet # 40 - Endere - showing the location of many ruins Stein found in the desert here.

 
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The northern section of map sheet # 41 Kara Sai - the rest is unsurveyed blank being south of the mountain chain. The many streams from the mountains flow north into the desert . This shows Stein's route eastward across the streams and spurs from Polur.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 42 Bugur - The caravan route east from Shahyar follows the river line of the Inchike River .

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 42 Bugur - The town is on the western edge on the Kizil River. The road from Kuchar goes SE to the Inchike River on the other section, then E to Korla.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 43 Kapa - The caravan route between Surghak on the west toward map sheet 47 to the east follows valleys in the mountains south of the desert. This is the southern of the two west-east caravan routes from Khotan to Tun Huang. Stein noted that gold was still being found at isolated places.

 
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The northern section of map sheet # 43 Kapa - This shows the northern of the two caravan routes between Khotan and Tun-huang. This one is closer the desert obviously but passes through some partially cultivated and grazing areas fed by springs from the rivers to the south. There is blank desert between this line and that shown in the southern section of map sheet # 42.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 44 - Kara Shahr River - The river flows NW to SE but Stein's survey of this far northern part of the Taklamakan is very limited to his route in the far SE corner.

 
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Part of map sheet # 45 Konche River - The Inchike Darya flows eastward on the southern part of the map. The Charchan Darya is parallel north of it as they flow toward the Konche Darya. The ruin at Gumbaz that Stein found near the Charchan Darya, otherwise he didn't find much during his traverse of this part of the desert. The route east from Shahyar toward Korla crosses the center.

 
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Map sheet # 46 Charchan - is missing from this volume - here is the PDF from the Internet - very difficult to read. This is unfortunate since this is one of the most important maps in the volume (not surprising that it would be taken) but we do have a poor version from Stein's third expedition Innermostasia.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 47 Achchan - This shows the foothills on the south side of the desert and the southern route east from Kapa toward Tun Huang.

 
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This detail is further north in map sheet # 47 Achchan - showing the streams flowing north into the desert

 
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North east part of map sheet # 47 Achchan - The southern route here is curving north.

 
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The north central part of map sheet # 47 Achchan - with the Charchan Darya flowing north and the routes from west and east both curved north to reach the oasis.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 48 Kara-Shahr - The northern half of this map is unsurveyed blank area. This shows the Kara-shahr Darya flowing SE and the walled town at an oasis on the river. There is one ruin found at the eastern edge of the map. The roads south lead to Korla.

 
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Part of map sheet # 49 Korla - Korla Bazar is in the NW corner on the road from Shahyar. Stein found several ruins near the village.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 49 Korla - The town is in the oasis on the Konche Darya (here flowing SW) on the western side. Ming-oi, (86 degrees 28' E - 41 degrees 55' N) where Stein found many ruins, a whole settlement, is near the northern border on the road to Kara-Shahr. The road off the SE side is to Turfan.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 49 Korla - Shows both Korla Bazar and Ming-oi and the road between them.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 50 Charchan River. The southern foothills and streams flowing from them north to the desert. The southern route east from Charchan toward Tun Huang crosses these at elevations over 5,000 feet.

 
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Detail from map sheet # 50 Charchan River - Shows the river itself here with marsh on both sides flowing NE toward Lop nor. The northern caravan route follows the river

 
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Detail of part of the SE corner of map sheet # 50 Charchan showing the southern route across the streams and foothills.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 50 Charchan - The northern caravan route turns off the river and goes east toward Tun Huang.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 51 Ushak Tal - The northern 2/3 of this sheet is bare, unsurveyed. The southern section here shows the road west to east from Kara-shahr toward Turfan across the steppe. Nothing significant was found along this section. Ushak-tal is in the small oasis toward the western side.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 52 Altun Dawan - The pass is at 6,050 feet elevation. This sheet is on the northern edge of the desert, which was not surveyed to the south. The road west to east is from Korla to Singer. Stein and his associate surveyors did much more work here and around Singer during their third exploration.

 
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Detail from map sheet # 52 Altun Darwan - showing the pass and route that generally follows one stream , then crosses to another, and then continues over foothills.

 
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The southern section of map sheet # 53 Vash-Shahri - back again in the foothills south of the desert showing the west-east route across then.

 
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The central section of map sheet # 53 Vash-Shahri - The Bazar is in the oasis on the Vash Shahri River, near the junction of two routes from the west.

 
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The northern section of map sheet # 53 Vash-Shahri - The Vash-Shari Bazar oasis is in the center. The route east toward Charklik is in the NE corner.

 
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The southern section of map sheet# 54 Toksun - The road from Kara-shahr enters on the western edge. The road leading east off the map goes to Turfan and off the southern edge to Singer. This is a separate ridge between desert and the T'ien Shan - with water shed at 5,840 feet elevation.

 
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The north east part of map sheet # 54 Toksun - This old fort ( two forts) is in the oasis in NE corner at 88 degrees 59' E - 42 degrees 55' N.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 54 Toksun - here we see the town and forts along the road toward Turfan and also the ruined temple Stein found in an oasis in the NE corner of the map.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 54 Toksun showing the area between Toksun and the temple at NE corner.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 55 Singer - there is nothing on the southern half. Singer is an isolated oasis in a basin in mountains between the T'ien Shan and the Taklamakan - Stein and his associates spent a lot more time and did more survey here during the third expedition. This map shows only the route there from the west from Korla and north to Turfan.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 56 Merdek-kol - The ruin is in a small oasis at 88 degrees 35' E - 40 degrees 10' N. surrounded by desert north of Charklik and west of Lop Nor. The northern and western of this area were not surveyed.

 
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Greater detail of map sheet # 56 Merdek -kol - Stein came across this ruin while exploring around Lou-lan and Lop nor salt sea. The route between those and Charklik crosses at the SE corner.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 57 Charklik - This shows the Charklik River flowing north out of the southern mountains and about to turn eastward. Charklik oasis town is in the river delta - Miran is in the north east corner with the caravan route between them. Stein had quite an adventure at Charklik during his third expedition - see Innermostasia. He found the ruined Tibetan fort just south of Miran. See maps from the third expedition.

 
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The map sheet # 57 Charklik - This is one of the most important maps in the series, we are fortunate that no one took it. This shows the entire area from Charklik oasis (88 degrees 14' E - 39 degrees 1' N) east to Miran (88 degrees 57' E - 39 Degrees 15' N) and Abdal (89 degrees E - 39 Degrees 31' N) and north to where the Tarim River flows SE from the west to its delta by the Lop sea. The Charchan river joins it when there is sufficient water flow and just north of Abdal the Su-lo Ho river is flowing west into its delta. All this is in the south east corner of the Taklamakan desert basin. The route from Charklik north to Lou-lan goes off the map on the northern edge. There is a ruined stupa at Charklin and the walls of the Tibetan fort at Miran. Stein and his associates did a lot more surveying and exploring in this area during their third expedition - see Innermostasia.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 57 Charklik - here the Tarim river, after flowing east through the northern border of the desert has turned south toward its delta by the Lop Nor.

 
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Detail from map sheet # 57 Charklik showing the area between Abdal and Miran and Lop Ortang to the west - In this area the Su-lo Ho, Tarim, and Charchan Rivers flow into the delta - that is into the sand and dry salt sea.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 57 Charklik - A more detailed view of the location of Miran and Abdal. At Miran - or just south of the small town, Stein found the ruin of a Tibetan frontier fortress. He used Abdal as supply depot for his extensive excavation work at Lou-lan.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 57 Charklik showing the immediate area around the oasis. Stein revisited this place during his third expedition.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 58 Ortang-Aghzi - the northern half is blank. This is in the northern most tier of maps Stein and team surveyed. It shows the foot hills and streams flowing south up to the passes north of Turfan. Ortang-Aghzi is the ruin at the head of one river valley on the east side.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 59 Turfan - directly south of Ortang-Aghzi. Stein spent quite a bit of time exploring this area, as one can see from the red notations of ruins, despite the Germans having already worked extensively here. Kara-Khoja, in the central oasis , in particular, revealed a large quantity of relics. Turfan oasis (Yangi-shahr) is at the western side. The road west leads to Toksun, the road east to Hami.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 59 Turfan. Further south one enters the desert. The road south west leads to Singer. Ruins of forts Chang Hassar and Kichik hassar art at 89 degrees 34' E - 42 degrees 36' N.

 
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Detail of the north east corner of map sheet # 59 Turfan - Shows in more detail the Kara-Khoja ruined town and the location of other ruins of shrines and temples.

 
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More detail of map sheet # 59 Turfan - Shows in more detail the Kara-Khoja ruined town and the location of other ruins of shrines and temples. Here we can read also Astana - the location of a large cemetery where Stein excavated some graves

 
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The map # 60 Lou lan site is missing from the copy of Serindia volume V sent from Rochester. As a poor substitute here is the PDF file of this map sheet from the Internet. It cannot be expanded into legibility. This is probably the most important map sheet in the entire book as it shows the location of the ruined town at Lou lan. But fortunately Stein returned there during his third expedition and spent even more time excavating and studying the buildings. We have the maps from that report - Innermostasia.

 
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The map sheet # 61 Lop Nor is also missing from the copy of Serindia sent from the Univ. of Rochester library. It is the other important map sheet as it shows the area directly south of Lou lan and north of Abdal. This is the key region in which the Tarim, Charklik and So-lo Ho all enter into their deltas in swamp and dry salt lake areas. The exact location of this area was disputed until Stein performed detailed astronomical observations and survey. He returned here in the third expedition and we have the maps from that report - Innermostasia.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 62 Chiktam - The northern half of the sheet is blank. This shows the south side of the mountain range north of the Taklamakan with streams flowing south. The road south west to north east is between Turfan and Hami.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 63 Pichan - Only the NW corner of this sheet contains survey results. This is because Stein's route passed through this corner. The remainder of the area was not surveyed. Through here passes the Turfan - Hami road. Stein found one ancient watch tower in this section. The map sheet is north of the Taklamakan

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 64 Lowaza - At the furthermost south west corner the southern route from Charchan to Tun-huang appears. A few of the streams flowing north from the mountains in map sheet # 65 are shown. The map sheet is south of the Taklamakan

 
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The middle section of map sheet # 64 Lowaza - Here the caravan route from the west - Charklik to Tun-huang appears crossing the desert south of the Lop Nor salt sea.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 64 Lowaza - Lowaza is a oasis -well at the center of the road from Charklik to Tun-huang on the northern of the two caravan routes.

 
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The northern section of map sheet # 65 Bash-Kurghan - The remainder of this map sheet is blank. This sheet shows the southern road between Charklik and Tun-huang across the hills and the streams flowing north into the desert. Bash-kurghan is the pass at the center at 11,260 feet at 90 degrees 30' E - 38 degrees 57' N. While this route obviously is made difficult by the necessity to cross many streams and ridges it has the advantage of water availability compared with the northern route shown on map sheet # 64..

 
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The center (west-east) of map sheet # 66 Ch'i-ku-ching - The northern and southern portions of this map sheet are blank. It shows only the west - east road between Turfan and Hami with adjacent terrain.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 67 Achchik-kundak - which is a well station at the center of the road from Charklik to Tun-Huang. The road lies south of the salt lake plain and well south of the foothills of the Kurak-tagh hills to the north - this area is at the extreme eastern border of the Taklamakan desert.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 68 Panja - This again shows the southern of the two routes between Charklik and Tun-huang through the mountains. Only the terrain immediate to the route was surveyed.

 
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The northern section of map sheet # 68 Panja - only the extreme northwest corner was surveyed and that because the northern route between Charklik and Tun-huang passes here. Panja is a small well oasis on the route.

 
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The southern part of map sheet# 69 Kara-dobe - In the center of the tier of map sheets at the extreme north of Stein's surveying during the second expedition. But he did much more during the third expeditions. This shows the route NW - SE from Turfan to Hami. Kara-dobe is an interesting narrow cultivated valley south of the road in which Stein found springs and ruins of temples, and ruins at Kichik Taghucha and Tazgan-chik nearer to the road..

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 69 Kara-dobe - This shows the road from Turfan to the west toward Hami with Stein's camps at the small but critical oases along this desolate route.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 70 Besh-toghrak - Again the northern route from Charklik toward Tun huang crosses along the edge of the salt desert and kumush steppe. Besh-toghrak is an important small oasis toward the eastern border.

 
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The some detail of map sheet # 70 Besh-toghrak - Again the northern route from Charklik toward Tun-huang crosses along the edge of the salt desert and kumush steppe. Besh-toghrak is an important small oasis toward the eastern border. This the location that Stein, moving south east across the Lop sea, found the caravan route.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 71 Elghan-bulak - at the far south in the hills with streams flowing north - the southern route from Charklik to Tun-huang crosses many streams and then follows a river valley east. There are passes at 8,230 and 10,330 feet elevation. Elghan-bulak is the spring at the far western edge. The northern half of this map sheet is blank.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 72 Bar-kul Dawan (pass) which is at 9,200 feet elevation at the limit of Stein's survey on this expedition. But in the third expedition he visited Barkul lake and surveyed the northern side of this range. Only the SE corner of this map was surveyed. Khowar Pass is at 9,500 feet

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 73 Kumul - south of map # 72, but Stein did not survey the desert further SW. This sheet shows the route from the west at Turfan toward An-hsi. Kumul is the oasis toward the center.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 73 Kumul to show that walled town and oasis along the main caravan route north of the Taklamakan.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 74 Toghrak-bulak - This is at the far eastern edge of the Taklamakan where the Su-lo Ho flows west into its delta. The caravan route from Charklik to Tun-huang enters from the NW and then crosses the western end of the Han Dynasty wall. Stein literally came across the wall and towers unexpectedly as he hurried to Tun-huang. Here we see his several tracks as he then surveyed them and later returned for more surveying. We have more detail on this area in other maps and photos. Han wall.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 74 Toghrak -bulak showing where the caravan route intersects to Han wall. Note the three detached watch towers on plateaus north of the wall. The towers west to east are numbers T vid, vib, iva, ivc, ivb, iii, i, ii, iia, vii, viii, ixa, ix, x, xii, xiic, xix,xiva, xxb, xvi, xvii, xviia.

 
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Another detail of map sheet # 74 Toghrak-bulak showing the detached watch towers south west of the end of the Han wall guarding this side from being turned unexpectedly.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 74 Toghrak-bulak showing the Han wall just east of the location where the caravan route reaches the wall and then continues for a space going east along the wall.

 
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More detail of map sheet # 74 Toghrak-bulak showing the Han wall east of the caravan route from the north west.

 
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More detail of map sheet # 74 Toghrak-bulak showing the Han wall east of the caravan route from the north west.

 
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More detail of map sheet # 74 Toghrak-bulak the caravan route from the north west. Toghrak-bulak is legible in this detail on the caravan route just north of the wall at Stein's camp # 154 just before he reached the wall itself.

 
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More detail of map sheet # 74 Toghrak-bulak - Stein excavated these four detached watch towers and deduced their functions.

 
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Another view of the southern part of map sheet # 74 Toghrak-bulak showing the western end of the Han wall.

 
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Detail of map sheet# 74 Toghrak-bulak which appears in the left center north of the Han wall.

 
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Detail of map sheet# 74 Toghrak-bulak showing the western end of the watch towers of the Han wall.

 
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Detail of map sheet# 74 Toghrak-bulak showing the western end of the Han wall.

 
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The southern section of map sheet # 75 Khan-Ambal - Here the southern route between Charklik and Tun-huang continues across the foot hills and streams curving northeast. Khan Ambal is a stop by a stream on the west side of the map.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 75 Khan-Ambal - this shows the rest of the route trending NE seen in the southern half of this map sheet.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 76 Khotum-tam - Most of this sheet is blank, It shows the route on the northern edge of the Taklamakan from NW to SE - Hami to An-hsi. This is still the route the modern highway between these two small but important towns follows. But in Han times and even when Stein went this way it was a very dangerous route due to lack of water.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 77 Sha-chuan - tzu - Only the north east corner was surveyed. It shows part of the main road from Hami going SE toward An-hsi. Sha-chuan-tzu is the stopping point in the eastern part of the road.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang - Well, here we at last reach the major destination - the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas at Tun-huang - now called Dunhuang. We have a separate section with details. In this overview we see the relation of this walled town to the western part of the Han Wall just south of the Su-lo Ho and the caravan route SE from the wall. Khara nor lake is in the river. Towers xviii, xix, xxi, xxii xxiib, xxiic are all along the wall area. Then there are towers xxiid, xxiii, xxiiic on the caravan route. Tun huang walled town is at 94 degrees 47' E - 40 degrees 8 ' N. The Tang Ho flowing north provides water for the cultivated area. The older town is a ruin across the river. The road SW off the map is to Nan hu. Stein also found several ruined towers on a route NW from Nan hu to the Han wall. In the NE where the Tang Ho meets the Su-lo Ho there are towers xxiv and xxv. The road to An-hsi goes east from the town.

 
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Detail of part of the northern area of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang - This shows the towers of the Han wall north of town along the Su-lo Ho. Stein analyzed the roll of each tower. One can now use Google earth to look at this area and then zoom in to bring the town and caves into detail. Then click on some amazing photography that shows what the city and cave area look like. Clearly there has been much more dramatic change in the 100 years since Stein was there than in the 2,000 years between the Han wall construction and his visit.

 
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Detail of the SW corner of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang - this shows the isolated towers Stein found on a desert track between Nan-hu and the western end of the Han wall.

 
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Detail of the NE section of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang - This shows the walled town and the site of the caves in the narrow gorge SE of town where Stein set up his camp # 178. He found the ruins of several other villages.

 
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More detail of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang - the cave is named Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Detail of the NE section of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang - this shows the river barely reaching the Su-lo Ho and several of the ruined villages Stein found near it. Two isolated towers are xxiv and xxv.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang showing the area south west of the town and the Tang Ho flowing north to irrigate the cultivated area.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang showing the Su-lo ho and section of the Han wall and caravan route south of it.

 
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Detail of part of map sheet # 78 Tun-huang - this shows more detail of the area just south of the Su-lo Ho where there are Han wall towers and the caravan passing eastward near it.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 79 Nan-Hu - There is nothing to the south. The southern road from the west - from Charklik - enters here and passes on to Tun-huang. Nan -Hu is at 94 degrees 15' E - 39 degrees 55' N. The ruin of the older village is adjacent to the west. Stein did not find much here. But the trail north and north west toward the Han wall was of great interest and he found along it several ruins and ruined towers.

 
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Detail of part of northern part of map sheet # 79 Nan-hu - The southern road from Charklik enters here and traversing the oasis proceeds on to Tun-huang

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 80 Ma-lien-ching-tzu - The road leading south is toward An-hsi.

 
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Part of the map sheet # 80 Ma-lien-ching-tzu - showing some of the oases and places along this road through desolate desert from An-hsi north and north west toward Hami.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 80 Ma-lien-ching-tzu - the road northwest from An-hsi to Hami across desolate desert. The small but important oasis of Ma-lien-ching-tsu is right on the road.

 
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Another view of the western part of map sheet # 80 Ma-lien-ching-tzu showing more of the main road from An'hsi north west to Hami.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 81 An-hsi. The oasis town is in the far north east corner. It was an important starting point for travelers headed for Hami and the northern side of the Taklamakan and T'ien Shan. The road from Tun-huang crosses from the west. A part of the Han wall is visible to the north west near the Su-lo Ho. Stein explored also the ruin of the old An-hsi south of the contemporary walled town. There is another series of caves with Buddhist art in the ravine to the south east - Hsiao-ch'ien-fung. And there are ruins on the T'a-shih river..

 
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Detail of map sheet # 81 An-hsi showing the section of the Han wall that Stein found near An-hsi.

 
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The middle section of map sheet # 81 - An-hsi - This shows the Su-lo Ho reaching its delta in the desert and swamp with a section of the Han wall toward the western end and another just south of An-hsi.

 
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Detail of a section of map sheet# 81 An-hsi showing a section of the Han wall and towers south of the Su-lo Ho.

 
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Detail of a section of map sheet # 81 - An-hsi showing several ruins along the caravan route.

 
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The northern section of map sheet # 81 An-hsi showing the road leaving An-hsi and going north, crossing the Su-lo Ho, and then across the desert toward Hami.

 
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Detail of map sheet# 81 An-hsi showing the Su-lo Ho flowing westward near to An-hsi.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 81 An-hsi showing the town, ruin of the old town, section of the Han wall, and adjacent river.

 
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Another detailed view of map sheet # 81 An-hsi and the areas around the walled town.

 
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Detail of western side of map sheet # 81 An-hsi showing the delta of the Su-lo Ho and part of the Han wall

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 82 Kashkar Pass - Only the east side of the map is surveyed in a semicircle route - This is one of the maps in the Nan-shan mountains south of the corridor. Stein explored more of this range on his third expedition. The Kashkar pass is at 17,000 feet elevation. This shows how steep this range is. The streams flow NE toward the Su-lo Ho and An-hsi.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 83 Ch'iao-tzu - the northern half of the sheet is blank. It was not surveyed, being north of the northern edge of the Ganzu corridor. Here the Su-lo Ho flows west. There are many ruined forts and walls. The Ch'iao-tzu fort is jus north of the oasis in green at 96 degrees 18' E - 40 degrees 20' N. As the dotted red line indicates Stein made an excursion south into the desert to examine these ruins.

 
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Detail of the central part of map sheet # 83 Ch'iao-tzu - This shows that fort in the green oasis in south center and the course of the Su-lo Ho across the northern part. Important here to note that Stein found that the Han Wall at this point shifted from being north of the river to the east and then south of the river to the west. He described the reasons in the report.

 
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Detail of the center of map sheet # 83 Ch'iao-tzu - This shows the map sheet from its southern border north across the Su-lo Ho.

 
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Expanded detail of map sheet # 83 Ch'iao-tzu - This shows in detail the area between the fort and the river with the many ruins Stein explored showing well in red. The area is so flat that topographic detail is not needed.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 83 Ch'iao-tzu showing the Han wall north of the Su-lo Ho.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 84 Ch'ang-ma - This shows the south side of the corridor as far south and the crest of the Nan- Shah mountain range. The streams flow north toward the Su-lo Ho. Ch'ang ma fort is at 96 degrees 53' E - 39 degrees 52' N. It is at the point of the river where it is still flowing north out of the mountains before turning west, and where it can guard the defile through which the river flows. flows. The survey route into the mountains reveals several other forts.

 
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Part of the southern half of map sheet # 84 Ch'ang-ma - This shows the steep rise of the Nan-shan mountains to elevations over 17,000 feet and even several glaciers.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 85 Yu men Hsien - Here we see the Su-lo Ho flowing in on the west side from map sheet # 84 and then making the double turn to the west to flow through the narrow corridor. A few more of the Han detached towers are north east of the river. Yu men Hsien fort is at 97 degrees 10' E - 40 degrees 21' N in a small oasis formed from a branch of the river.

 
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The west-central part of map sheet # 85 - Yu men Hsien - This shows the double bend in the Su-lo Ho and the fort at Yu-men-Hsien. Han watch towers protecting the space north east of the river are shown also.

 
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Expanded detail of part of map sheet # 85 Yu-men-Hsien - This shows the fort and river clearly.

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 86 T'u'-ta-fan - Only the north east portion of this map sheet was surveyed. This shows the mountains reach 17,000 - 18,000 feet elevation in the Nan-shan.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 86 T'u'-ta-fan - This is on the southern side of the corridor showing how steep the Nan-shan range is. Stein spent much more time surveying in these mountains during his third expedition. Here he shows only the northern side of the foothills and streams. The road from Ch'ian-ma-pao-tzu going eastward to Su-chou crosses the pass at over 8,200 feet elevation. There are two ruins and a deserted town near An-hsi. He found a ruined fort guarding the opening of a pass shown in the SE corner here.

 
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The north-eastern part of map sheet # 86 T'u'-ta-fan - Here is the main road SE from An-hsi to Su-chou through the corridor with several forts along its route..

 
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The north-eastern quarter of map sheet # 87 Suess Range - The crest of the range is to 18,900 - 20,000 feet elevation. The streams here flow north into the Su-lo Ho that is flowing NW out of the mountains. Stein's route barely enters this map sheet as he was only attempting to fix the crest of the range.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 88 Su-chou - This part of the map sheet shows three mountain ranges SW of Su-chou (one then called Richthofen Range) with elevations to 18,000 feet. Stein's path along the valleys between these ranges shows his effort to find the sources of the several rivers including the Su-chou. He loved to explore in desolate high mountains.

 
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The middle of map sheet # 88 Su-chou - Here we see this important city now called Jiuquan. This was the main base for Han and later military and commercial movement west through the corridor and into Central Asia. The road from An-hsi comes from the north-west and the road continuing to Kan-chou goes SE. Su-chou is at 98 degrees 35' E - 39 degrees 45' N. It is near the Pei-tan Ho. There are sections of the Han and Ming walls north of the city. The Ming Great Wall here trends north-east. There are towers and small forts all along the road.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 88 Su-chou - Here the walled city is near the center of the map. The main road from An-hsi to Kan-chou crosses NW to SE. The most interesting feature of this map is the Ming Great Wall that appears in the northern part coming SW from the mountains. And here we have the medieval fortress - Chia-yu-kum which was the fortified gateway to and from the west. It is now the famous (restored) fortress at Jinyuguan. We have Stein's photo of the fortress at a distance and it looks practically the same as it does today. Stein gave much thought to this wall, which he quickly identified as not being the Han wall.

 
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Detail of the eastern part of map sheet # 88 Su-chou - This shows the portions of the Ming Great Wall that Stein investigated north and north-east of Su-chou.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 88 Su-chou showing the city and adjacent sections of the Ming Great Wall near the Pei-ta Ho.

 
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The southern part of map sheet# 89 Su-lo Ho Sources - Here Stein moved into the mountains SW of Su-chou to trace the Su-lo Ho to its head waters. He found them in the valley between mountain ranges to 17,000 feet with the river then flowing NW onto map sheet # 87.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 89 Su-lo Ho Sources - a more detailed view of the river valley from which the river flows and Stein's route tracing this. The mountains to the north were called the Alexander III Range at that time.

 
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The northern half of map sheet # 89 Su-lo Ho Sources - Here we see in addition to the Su-lo Ho flowing NW south of the Alexander III Range, also the Pei-tan Ho flowing parallel north of that range and south of the Tola Shan Range. Both ranges reach elevations of over 18,000 feet. But when the two rivers exit the mountains they turn sharply in different directions - the Su-lo Ho to the west and the Pei-tan Ho to the north-east.

 
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The southern half of map sheet # 90 Chin-t'a - The fort is at the extreme south west corner here. This map shows the far north-east end of Stein's exploration during his second expedition. He here was checking on possible locations for walls and towers to the Pei-tan Ho.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 90 Chin-t'a with Stein's route north east in search of extensions of the Han or Ming wall.

 
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The southern part of map sheet# 91 Ma-Yang - This is the area east of Su-chou with road toward Kan-chou. The Kan-chou River is in the northeast corner. Ma yang is one of the several forts near the road.

 
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The middle to northern part of map sheet # 91 Ma-Yang. The Su-chou - Kan-chou road crosses near the southern edge with the several forts shown along it. In the north-east the Kan-chou River is flowing north. Along the northern edge there are several sections of the Ming Great Wall.

 
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The northern edge of map sheet # 91 Ma-Yang - This map sheet shows the center of the Gansu corridor east of its narrowest point. The Kan-chou river here flows north. It and the Su-chou River eventually join forces to continue north toward Mongolia - called during Stein's time the Et-sin gol.

 
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Detail of the northern part of map sheet # 91 Ma-Yang - This shows the section of wall and part of the Kan-chou River.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 91 Ma-Yang - showing the section of wall and several other detached watch towers along the road and on over-looking ridges..

 
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Detail of map sheet # 91 Ma-Yang - showing detached watch towers along and north of the Su-chou road

 
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The southern part of map sheet # 92 T'o-lai-shan Here Stein found the water shed between those rivers flowing north and then west into the interior of Asia and rivers flowing east and eventually into the Pacific. The continuation of the Richthofen Range is included as is the To-la Shan Range. The Ta Tung River flows SE into the Huang Ho while the Pei-ta Ho flows NW. The watershed was crossed at about 13,600 feet.

 
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The center of map sheet # 92 T'o-lai shan - Here are the Richthofen and T'o lan shan Ranges in parallel from NW to SE with the Kan-chou and Pei-ta Ho flowing NW in valleys between and the source of the Ta Tung River flowing SE at the bottom of this view.

 
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The northern part of map sheet # 92 T'o-lai-shan - This shows the Richthofen and T'o la Shan Ranges with the Kan-chou and Pei-ta Ho.

 
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This is the southern half of map sheet # 93 Sha-ho kou - East of Su-chou and north of Kan-chou with the road between them from NW to SE. The road parallels the Kan-chou River. There are many forts along this section such as Kao-t'ia-Hsien.

 
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Detail of map sheet # 93 Sha-ho-kou - This shows the road and several of the forts along it.

 
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The northern half of map sheet# 94 Kan-chou - The important regional city is in the north-east corner next to the Kan-chou River where it splits into several channels before reuniting again and turning more north and west. Here it is seen flowing east and north out of the high mountains to the SW. This was the furthermost east Stein traveled during his second expedition. From here he returned north-west and went along the northern side of the Taklamakan.

 
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Detail of the north east corner of map sheet # 94 Kan-chou - This shows the city and a ruined fort across the Kan-chou River.

 
   

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