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RUIN OF DESERT CATHAY - PHOTOGRAPHS

 
 

These are photographs of the illustrations in Sir Aurel Stein's report - Ruin of Desert Cathay - for the text go herecathaychapters.htm.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 1 - View from Makaland Fort, looking north into the Swat Valley - ground on left is the Crater Camp location For this expedition Stein is traveling by a route much further west than he used for first expediton - through the Swat Valley past Mingagora to Chitral. He is taking advantage of an unusual opportunity having received permission to enter from the local mirs.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 2 - Chakdara fort, in Swat Valley, Pakistan, seen from north

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 3 - Shikarai hamlet above Dir, with Dir levies on road - The levies were the local armed detachment assigned to guard and guide Stein during his passage through Dir.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 4 - Ruin of old Hindu temple,Gumbat, Talas valley

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 5 - Ruin of Karwan-balasi near Bozai-Gumbaz, Little Pamir. Ghajab Beg (Karaul Beg) on left; Mubarak Shah (Ak-sakal) on right. The Beg is local official and the Ak-sakal is the senior representative of the merchants.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 6 - Pathan and Gujar carriers collected at Kolandi, above Dir; Dir levies on flanks - The local carriers were recruited in each valley to carry Stein's gear to the top of the next pass where the next carriers would take over - the levies were part of the armed guard Stein was assigned for protection during is time in Dir. Dir is now very close to the border with Afghanistan, separated by one narrow mountain range. From there going north one crosses the Lowarai pass into Chitral, which is a long valley trending north-east just south of the Wakhan Corridor.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 7 View of the Lowarai pass from Gujar post. This was one of the passes reputed to be most dangerous, but Stein crossed it without trouble.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 8 - Gorge near Ziarat, below Lowarai pass.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 9 - Snow-beds of avalanches from side valley of Buzagol, above Ashret -Stein had to be careful about avalanches because he had to cross these passes early in spring while snow was still dangerous since later in the season the snow melt would turn the streams into raging torents.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 10 - Tangi-tar Gorge below Tar-bashl - Line of holes cut into foot of rock is seen on left - Kirghiz riding on yaks in foreground

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 11 - Bashgali Kafirs settled at Ayun, Chitral - the Kafirs were former or still nomadic and the lowest social category in the mountain valleys.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 12 - Chitrali villagers collected for anthropometrical examination - Stein used every opportunity to collect scientific information for other experts to use - such as linguistic and physical measurements that could be used to sort out the genological trees of the many different ethnic groups he met. The appendices of his major reports are full of tables of these measurements.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 13 - Tirich-mir (Turch-mir) Peak, seen from below Chitral Agency - (now in Pakistan) - The Tirich-mir Peak (25,230 feet) the highest peak in the Hindu Kush range is near the Afghan border where it narrows into the Wakhan corridor, north-west of Chitral town.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 14 - Mosque in grove of Chinars (Bazar-Masjid), near Chitral Agency

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 15 - Bashgali Kafirs, anthropometrically examined at Chitral Agency

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 16 - Oxus Vallley near Sarhad, with range towards Great Pamir, seen from Kansir spur=The fields of Sarhad, Afghanistan, on alluvial terrace above right river bank. - This is the Wakhan corridor between Pakistan and Tajikistan - Sarhadd is on the north, right, bank of the Oxus about 2/3 of way east up the Wakhan Corridor.Directly north of the Darkot Pass.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 17 - Villagers of Buni, Mastuj, with Khan Sahib Pir Bakhsh and Kurban on extreme right - Mastuj is toward the north-eastern end of the Chitral valley and is now on the border between the Pakistan North-west Frontier Province and the Gilgit part of the Northern Areas separated from them by another range but also not far from the Afghan border.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 18 - Bahadur Khan - Governor of Mastuj, seated in center with his two sons, Khan Sahib Pir Bakhsh on his right and Mastuji attendants.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay19 - Obaidullah Khan, with his sons and villagers, Miragram

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 20 - Parlour in Obaidullah's house, Miragram - Ceiling with sky-light of characteristic construction; below this, open fire-place; carpets of local make - Stein received a rare honor to be invited into the private dwelling of a local chieftan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 21 - Defile of Darband, Yarkhun Valley, with ruined watch-towers seen from north

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 22 - Top of Darkot Pass, looking to north-west across Darkot Glacier towards Indus-Oxus watershed. Small specks of black on glacier below arrow indicate Surveyor's party. (that would be Ram Singh) - The Darkot is north-east of Mastuj, about central to the Wakhan corridor into which it leads from Pakistan. From it going south the path leads directly to Yasin. Stein was determined to see this pass as it was used by the famous Chinese general who invaded Gilgit.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 23 - On the Baroghil Saddle, looking toward Oxus Valley - Wakhi carriers relieve a floundering pony of its load - The Baroghil is close to and north-east of the Darkot Pass and easier to cross at 12,460 feet elevation.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 24 - View from approach of Baroghil Saddle to south-west, toward Darkot Range. Here Stein is looking back toward his visit to the Darkot Pass.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 25 - Kirghiz shifting felt tent at Gumbaz-otek. Simple enough, when you want to move just pick of and go. In Stein's day of early 1900's the Kirghiz continued their nomadic ways clear across the Pamirs and into the Hindu Kush and Karakorum ranges. They didn't pay much attention to niceties of international borders.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 26 - Afghan escort with baggage preparing to cross Baharak Stream - Colonel Shirin-dil Khan ( of Royal Afghan Army) on extreme right. The Baharak is tributary of the Oxus in the Wakhan Corridor. Stein was delighted to receive the exceptional privlege of entering Afghan territory during this expedition but not the other two. He was efusive in praise and thanks to Colonel Shirin-dil Khan who had waited for a month near Sarhad while Stein tarried in the high mountains and who then insisted on personally supervising Stein's baggage train up to the Wakhjir pass into Sarikol, China.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 26a - Detail view of previous photo of Colonel Shirin-dil Khan and Afghan porters and troops with Stein's baggage.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 27 - View across Lake Chakmaktin towards Ak-tash, Little Pamir - Stein finally reaches China.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 28 - In the felt tent of Muhammad Isa, Kirghiz head-man of Afghan Pamirs - A, B Afghan officers - C Muhammad Isa - Stein was welcomed everywhere and had a remarkable ability to deal with and even be befriended by everyone of whatever ethnic group.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 29 - Oxus source glaciers seen from mouth of Wakhjir valley

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 30 - Wakhi Head-men and carriers at Kok-torok - Mubarak Shah - Karaul Beg - Talmiksh and Dash in foreground

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay31 - Head of Ab-panja valley, looking toward Wakhjir Pass and Oxus source glaciers. The pass is the direct and ancient road between Afghanistan and Chinese Turkestan at 15,837 feet. Still, Stein had to cross in early spring with deep snow that nearly defeated even his hired yaks.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 32 - Watch-station at foot of Minataka Pass with Sarikolis - The Minataka Pass is close by and further east of the Wakhjir pass and opens the Sarikol plateau.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 33 -Hunza Dak runners (on left) and Sarikoli frontier guards, with their children, at Mintaka Karaul - The remarkable Hunza Dak runners carried mail and priority items on foot between India and Central Asia over the Minataka and Karakorum passes

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 34 - Chinese fort of Tash-kurgan seen from near left bank of river - the small town was capital of the Sarikol region in China on Afghan and Indian border.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay35 - Ruined wall and bastion of Kiz-kurghan seen from south-west - this ancient fortress to guard a gorge on route to Kashgar from Sarakol was high on a precipice that Stein had to climb to have a look.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 36 - Our train of yaks and ponies crossing the Kashka-su Dawan, view to south

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 37 -Kirghiz headmen and followers in front of felt tent, Tohle-bulan - Remanents of the nomadic Kirghiz are still present in the Wakhan area far from the Kirghiz republic to the north, on the other side of Tajikistan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 38 - Hassan Akhun, head camel-man on several expeditions - Hassan Akhun was one of the most important members of Stein's expeditions. He was hired for the first expedition for his expert knowledge of camels and also travel throughout the desert. Stein valued his experience so much that he sent word ahead asking him to join the second expedition and Hassan Akhun valued his association with Stein so much that he rushed to meet him at Kashgar. In addition, he had marvelous camels.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 39 - Chang-ssu-yeh, Chinese secretary and helpmate during second expedition - The Chinese secretary - interpreter whom Stein hired at Kashgar for the first expedition was entirely unsatisfactory. Stein became good friends with the gentleman pictured here who was assigned at Kashgar for the second expedition. He was not only the secretary and interpreter but also a highly educated Chinese scholar whose familiarity with ancient orthography greatly assisted in understanding the ancient Han dynasty texts they uncovered. He was also an astute diplomat who was instrumental in the purchase of the thousands of manuscripts from the T'aost monk at Tun-huang.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 40 - Ruins of old fort, Khakanning-shahri, above right bank of Artush River near Kashgar - not much of a place, but Stein early in his expedition was eager to visit any location of potential archeological interest that was brought to his attention. Stein was taken there during period he was awaiting the completion of his desert caravan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 41 - Muhammadan shrine and cemetery on road to Kashgar

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 42 - Reception by Hindu traders at Bigil, near Yarkand - Pandin Butha Mal fourth in front from left - Stein was always greeted with great respect and protocol. He noted too that as an official of the Indian government - the government of these traders upon which they depended for support - they had a strong interest in treating him royally. Many of these gentlemen were usurious money exchangers.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 43 - Bazar group by canal bank, near Karghalik. Karghalik was most important oasis between Kashgar and Khotan - and it was on the direct route south over the Karakorum pass.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 44 - Surveyor Rai Ram Singh with Jasvant Singh starting from Kok-yar - Rai Ram Singh was the professional surveyor assigned to Stein from the Survey of India. His caste dietary rules prevented him from eating with the English or Moslems, hence he had his own cook, Jasvant Singh ( a Rajput noble). Midway through the second expedition Ram Singh became too ill to continue and was replaced by Lal Singh, with Jasvant Singh remaining as his personal assistant

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 45 - Pakhir Hillmen anthropometrically examined at Kok-yar - The village was Stein's resting place while waiting for the season, but he was always busy, editing and prof reading Serindiaand conducting anthropometric examinations - the Pakhirs were a small tribe living high in the Kun-lun whom Stein believed to be an eastern branch of the 'Alpine' ethnic type from the Pamirs to the west.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 46 - Food offerings to the sacred pigeons at shrine of Kum-Rabat Padshahim. This shrine was on the direct caravan route from Kashgar and close to Khotan. The shrine memorialized a legend that pigeons in the middle ages had helped a Moslem commander to defeat the 'heathen' that is local Buddhists. Colin Thubron, famous travel author, searched for this place during his solo trek along the Silk Road, but failed to find it.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 47 - Mosque and avenue of poplars near Borache, Khtoan - a suburb that Stein crossed when entering Khotan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 48 - Entrance to Bazar of Borache, Khotan oasis - one of the numerous local bazars that Stein visited both seeking ancient artifacts and examining the local population

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 49 - T'ang Ta-jen, military Amban of Khotan, with his children and attendants - Stein always devoted diplomatic attention to the local ambans whose support was vital for securing labor and logistic support. However, he felt that the numerous 'dastarkan's - banquets - simply took precious time from his work.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 50 - Badruddin Khan "Ak-sakal' of Indian and Afghan traders at Khotan - the 'Ak-sakal' was the leader, semi-official head man of the foreign trader - merchant - money changer - community in Khotan and therefor along the entire southern side of the Taklamakan. He knew everyone and everything about securing logistics and 'treasure seekers' who would guide Stein to buried ruins in the desert.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 51 - Ahman Ishan (Andijani 'Ak-sakal') and Abdullah Khan (Afghan trader) at Keriya - another pair of influential local leaders

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 52 - "Haji" Akhun Beg, Stein's host at Khotan - "Haji' meant that Akun Beg had completed the pilgrimage all the way to Mecca and back, no small feat. As 'host' he graciously enabled Stein to set up his tent and team in his spacious housing area.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 53 - Testing raft of inflated skins on a tank of Nar-bagh - Stein used this mode of river travel on the Indus with locally supplied rafts of known quality. Here, in Turkestan he expected to have recourse to similar rafts, but took precaution ahead of time to test them. The 'tank's were local water supply.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 54 - Tank and arbour near Ruknuddin Mazar, Yotkan - For interior of this shrine see figure 312. - Yotkan was western suburb of Khotan and the actual location of the long gone medieval capital city. Mazar's were shrines to Moslem saints.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 55 - Mosque with tank near west gate of Khotan town.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 56 - In Topcha gorge, south of Ulughat Pass - The few trees here are Toghraks (wild poplars).

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 57 - Head of Nissa valley seen from Tam-oghil, above Tor - Loess-covered old moraine ridges in foreground. Photo during Stein's first and failed effort to penetrate the Kun-lun south of Khotan. The fine loess high in the mountains was deposited by the powerful dust storms that ravaged the Taklamakan each year.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 58 - Head of Kashkul glacier with its neve-beds, looking towards north-east. Photograph taken from grat above 15,000 feet above sea-level. This was during Stein's effort to penetrate the Kun lun and find the head waters of the Yurung-kash.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 59 - View of the Otrughul Glacier, lookking towards south-east - photo taken from moraine at elevation about 16,000 feet above sea level. This glacier was near the end point of Stein's initial effort to penetrate the Kun-lun and find the headwaters of the Yurung-kash river. He was blocked by impassable gorges and the refusal of local laborers to go further.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 60 View of Otrughul glacier, looking east - Photo taken from moraine at elevation about 16,000 feet - joins previous photo - another view

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 61 - "Bridge" across Kash River above Karanghu-tagh - baggage being hoisted across by wire rope - In order to return to Khotan by a different route Stein had to make this temporary 'bridge' over the Kash River - the photo gives a good idea of the river gorges that Stein negociated. It is difficult to determine what Stein's route was once across the river - perhaps along the river to the left? This is an example of will power and resourcefulness.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 62 - Exiles malefactors from Khotan and Taghlik herdsmen at Khushlash-langar, Karanghu-tagh - These gentlemen were tasked by the Chinese Amban to lead Stein and help carry his baggage. But they rebelled when the going became very difficult in glaciers, claming that there was not passage. Stein believed they knew of routes but refused to admit it for fear that the opening of a new route through the mountains would result in more such required labor from them. When Stein reported the 'mutiny' to the Amban he simply replied that there was nothing he could do since these folks were already being punished to the extent possible.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 63 - Snout of Detrius-covered glacier at head of Busat Valley - Far into the high Kun-lun everything including the glaciers was covered with the fine dust stirred up throughout the Taklamakan by the seasonal wind storms.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 64 - Taghlik family from Karanghu-tagh, at felt tent in Busat Valley - Karanghu-tagh was the last - furtherest south - village along the Yurung-kash river route into the Kun-lun ranges

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 65 - Bridge across Yurung-kash River in gorge near Khushlash-langer - Stein was used to such 'bridges' and to moving along narrow ledges next to raging torrents.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 66 - View up Yurung-kash valley from Kara-kir spur - Stein was very frustrated that he could not reach the headwaters of the Yurung-kash directly - later on he went around the mountains and reached them from the other side. - This is very poor reproduction of the illustration

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 67 - View from Kara-kir spur across Yurung-kash River gorge towards Chomsha valley - note track leading along slopes of spur in center - at bottom a short section of the river bend is visible - Stein took this photo when local hill men refused to help him into Chomsha valley or to Yurung-kash head waters.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 68 - Gorge of Kizil Jilga, below Tarim Kishlak, on route across Tikelik-tagh

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 68a - Expanded view of the gorge showing the men and ponies

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay69 - Gate with votive offerings on path to shrine of Iman Ja'far Sadik - On left Ibrahim, the miller, on right. mendicant with son - The shrine was north of Niya village in the desert - the last cultivated location south of the Niya ruin - Stein assembled laborers here to venture into the desert to Niya ruin and also later to Endere.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 70 - Amban's guests feasting on terrace leading to 'my' (Stein's) pavilion in Nar-bagh - Stein was being welcomed at a 'dastagar' by the Amban. By 'my' Stein means the local accomodations he was offered for his stay at Khotan. Stein didn't like all the official protocol but realized it was essential for him to gain approvals and obtain support. But his Indian team members refused to eat with infidels.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 71 - Ch'e Ta-jen, Amban of Khotan, with local begs - on extreme right is Islam Beg, Beg of Kayash

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 72 - Roze Akhun's band of Khotan 'treasure-seekers' - Roze Akhun is on extreme right - These fellows have their 'ketmans' handy for work

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 73 - Ruined stupa of Rawak seen from dune above south-west wall of quadrangle

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 74 -Eroded remains of temple ruin at Kine-tokmak - Arrows mark original ground level and lowest masonry course south-east and south-west walls

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 75 - Entrance gate to pilgrimage shrine of Iman Ja'far Sadik, Chira.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 76 - Remains of stucco relievos from wall decoration of various Buddhist ruins near Khotan - Stein bought many of these in the local markets.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 77 - Large fragment of frescoed wall from Buddhist temple, Khadalik, with stencilled Buddha figures. The foot-measure in top left corner indicates scale - Remarkable that the technique of stencilling was in use in medieval Central Asia.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 78 - Interior of small ruined dwelling excavated to the north of main temple site, Khadalik. Aziz, the Ladaki servant, seated on bench near ancient fireplace.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay79 - Wooden column with mouldings excavated in room near main shrine, Khadalik - Chiang-ssu-yeh and Ibrahim Beg in background supervising diggers - Roze Akhun on right

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 80 - Stein's seven camels from Keriya, in winter dress, marching in gravel desert. The camels became famous due to reports of their exploits during Stein's several crossings of the desert - so he was able to sell them easily at the conclusion of the expedition.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 81 - My diggers from Niya in jungle near Endere River. Ibrahim, 'the miller', second from left, standing; next to him on right, Mullah, the carpenter; Rustam, third from right, squatting. Stein hired a group of local farmers at Niya for the excavation of the ruin there, and then another team to take across the desert to Endere.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 82 - Khotan pilgrims returning from Iman Ja'far Sadik's shrine - The shrine was south of and near the Niya ruin.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 83 - Row of dead mulberry trees in ancient orchard near ruin N xviii, Niya site - under first tree is Naik Ram Singh with 'Dash' to left a sand cone with dead tamarisk. The mulberry trees gave evidence of the flourishing silk industry around medieval Khotan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 84 - North rooms of ruin N xiii, Niya site, after excavation - In foreground remains of ancient household furniture and implements. The photo shows the construction of wall with timber framework and wattled matting.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 85 - Remains of household furniture and implements (3rd century AD.)excavated in Ruin N.xiii, Niya site - A. is eating tray with ornamented border - B. is decorated double bracket and jar - C. is pitchfork and mouse-trap

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 86 - Room excavated in ruin N.xxvi, Niya site, with ancient carved cupboard in wood

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 87 - Ruin of sand-buried dwelling, N. xx, near northern end of Niya site before excavation - Trunks of dead mulberry trees in foreground.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay88 - Room in ruined dwelling N. xx, Niya site, in course of excavation.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 89 - Ruin of large sand-buried house N xxvi , Niya site, in course of excavation - note foot measure at left against fire-place

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 90 - Ruin of ancient residence, N. xxiv, Niya site, seen from remains of dead arbour on east.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 91 - Door with ornamental wood-carving in sand-buried ruin of dwelling N.xii, Niya site

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 92 - Remains of ornamental wood-carving, mainly from ruins of Niya site. Every where he went Stein carefully collected and catalogued even the smallest remains.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 93 - Central hall and office room in ruined residence N xxiv, Niya site, after excavation, A marks the spot where hidden archive was discovered below floor, on right of it Rustam, the digger.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 94 - Kharoshthi document on rectangular double tablet, from hidden archive in N.xxii - Stein was so excited when a local shephard showed him several documents he had found at a ruin far north of Niya. Stein quickly organized an excavation party, and when they arrived at the location Stein personally set a guard and supervised the excavation of the room. They soon discovered a 'hidden archive' underneath the floor in which Stein found many precious documents. He decided this secret place must contain special documents.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 95 - Clay impressions of intaglio seals on Kharoshthi documents found at Niya site - Stein was very impressed with the examples of Greek style artistic work.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 96 - Kharoshthi documents on double-wedge tablets from ruin N.xiii, Niya site. Stein also provides diagrams to show the method used to make this into a sealed 'envelope' for transmission.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 97 - Kharoshthi records on oblong and label-shaped wooden tablets found at Niya site - These are among the most sensational finds Stein made during his first and second expeditions - this is a sample.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 98 - Room excavated in ancient residence N.xxvi, Niya site, with decorated double bracket in wood

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 99 - Ruined dwelling N xxviii, on eroded clay terrace, Niya site. Fence of ancient garden and more erosion 'witnesses' in foreground. Figure of man in center indicates extension of erosion

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 100 - Ruin of ancient dwelling, N xxxvi, at southern end of Niya site, in course of excavation

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 101 - Trunks of dead trees enclosing ancient tank, Niya site - The group shows sitting on left Rai Ram Singh and Ibrahim Beg, on right Naik Ram Singh and Ibrahim 'the miller', in middle author with "Dash'. Stein means on his left and right. The others, standing, are laborers hired from Niya.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 102 - Interior of ruined village at Bilel-konghan, seen freom circumvallation on north-east

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 103 - Interior of ruined fort of Endere seen from east - In foreground walls of large dwelling, E. iii, excavated in 1901. A markes position of ancient rubbish heap under fort wall, B that of Buddhisttemple in centre. Stein visited Endere during 1st and 2nd expeditions.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 104 - Remains of ancient wall on erosion 'witness', Endere site The line A-B marks the original ground level.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 105 - Ruined tower with remains of wind-eroded dwelling in foreground - Endere site

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 106 - Ruin of ancient fortified post, near high tamarisk-coered sand cone - Endere site

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 107 - "Dastarkhan" offered on desert routh to Charchan, On left is Chiang-ssu-yeh and my caravan-men enjoying the treat brought by Beg from Charchan. Usually a 'dastarkhan' feast was offered immediately on Stein's caravan arriving in a town. In this case with Charchan being such a tiny place the mangistrate decided to meet Stein outside the village.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 108 - Western group of ruined stupa and temples, Miran Site, A, stupa mound - B, Buddhist shrine Mv - C, Buddhist shrine M iii. These were subsequently excavated and revealed many wonders.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay109 - Liao, Ta-lao-ye, Chinese magistrate of Charklik

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 110 - South face of ruined fort, with central bastion, Miran site - This was a Tibetan fort built centuries after the ruined Buddhist stupas Stein found buried near by - It was the most filthy refuse dump he had to excavate.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 111 - Loplik fishermen at reed hit, Abdal -On extreme left standing is young hunter who accompanied Turdi into the desert - The Lopliks were semi-nomadic original inhabitants of the eastern Talkamakan who were more recently settled as fishermen and small time agriculturalists. They were very reluctant to follow Stein into the freezing December desert to Lou-lan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 112 - Ruin of ancient stupa, Lop-nor site, from south-east - In foreground remans of ancient dwelling, LA ix, on wind-eroded terrace covered with dead tamarisk. The ruin was first discovered by Swedish explorer, Sven Hedin, who passed by but who was not an archeologist. Stein read Hedin's book and made work here a main objective of his second expedition (and third as well).

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 113 - View to south east from ruined stupa, Lop-nor site, across wind-eroded ground - Ruined dwelling LA ix in foreground, AB marks line for joining fig 114 - It is difficult to imagine a flourishing Chinese military post with attendant village in the midst of such desolation.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 114 - View to the south from ruined stupa, Lop-nor site, across wind-eroded ground - part of ruin LA i in foreground - adjoins fig 113

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 115 - Ruin of ancient dwelling LA.i, and of stupa, Lop-nor site, seen from south. Excavation at the medieval Chinese fort and station at Lou-lan in the Lop-nor desert was one of Stein's main objectives for the second (and third) expeditions. He was not simply interested in the place for its own sake, but also was determined to prove that it was the important supply base and caravan route station for the entire Chinese occupation of the northern side of the Taklamakan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 116 - Remains of ancient woven fabrics from Lop-nor site - preserved by the dry climate and sand.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 117 - Small antiques, mainly in metal, collected from wind-eroded ground at Lop-nor site.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 118 - Large refuse heap in centre of ancient station, Lo-nor site, in course of excavation. Mullah, of Abdal, on extreme right; Ibrahim Beg supervising diggers. Mullah was an intrepid hunter and explorer of the whole eastern Taklamakan who had shown Sven Hedin this ruin and who Stein then made sure to hire. He was also instrumental in convincing the superstitious Lopliks that they could survive the trip to Lou-lan. Ibrahim Beg was from Khotan and eagerly assisted Stein in many ways. Note this work is taking place in freezing winter weather.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 119 - Ancient Chinese documents on wooden tablets, from ruins of the Niya and Lop-nor sites, and of the Tun-huang Limes. Stein was able to use the documents from different locations to tie together their mutual histories.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 120 - Remains of ancient Buddhist shrine LBii, Lop-nor site, before clearing

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 121 - Ruin of small stupa near Shrine LB. ii, Lop-nor site, rising on "yardang' which wind erosion is undercutting - Stein placed one of his team at the original ground level - Quite a bit of that clay turned to dust ends up high in the Kun-lun mountains.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 122 - Pieces of architectural wood-carving decorated in Gandhara style, from ruined Buddhist shrine, Lop-nor site. Gandhara was the Greco-Indian civilization during the early middle ages in north-west India - Indus area. It was a center of Buddhist devotion long before the Moslems invaded India. Stein was an expert on this topic and delighted to find examples of the artistic style so far east in Chinese Turkestan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 123 - Portion of ruined house LB iv, Lop-nor site, seen from east, before clearing

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 124 - Hall of ruined house LB iv, Lop-nor site, with turned wooden pillars, after excavation

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 125 - Fragments of decorative wood-carving, partly with classical motifs, from ruined house LBiv. Lop-nor site.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 126 - Camels being loaded for start from Lop-nor site - These camels are carrying artifacts back to Abdal and from there to Kashgar.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 127 - Wind-eroded clay terraces (Yardangs) rising among dunes, Lop-nor desert

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 128 - Dawan or ridge of dunes, rising to about fifty feet, Lop-nor desert. Stein crossed this type of terrain throughout the Taklamakan desert area.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 129 - Camels crossing dawan of dunes, Lop-nor desert, New Year, 1907

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 130 - Camels grazing on first reeds after crossing Lop-nor desert

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 131 - Circumvallation of small fort of Merdek-shahar, overgrown with reeds - Stein was told about this tiny ancient fort by local guides so had to go out of his way to see it. It was located near the delta of the Tarim River far away from what caravan traffic there was between Abdal and Charklik.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 132 - Habdal laborers from Charklik

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 133 - Stein's tent at Shah-tokhtaning-koli, by Charchan river, On left Ibrahim Beg of Keriya, on right a Loplik with cyclometer - Note that cyclometer exactly like one used by Alexander the Great and many other ancient geographers or explorers. Note we have here a good view of Stein's personal tent used not only during expeditions but also while living on a hill in Kashmir.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 134 - South-east corner of interior of Miran fort, in course of excavation - This was a surprise for Stein who had to carefully alter his schedules to make room for excavation here, which turned out to be well worth the trouble.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 135 - Camp below walls of ruined fort, Miran - on right of Chiang-ssu-yeh's tent is a Mongol visitor - Stein's photography very frequently resulted in the faces black in shadow.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 136 - Old Tibetan documents, on wood and paper, excavated from ruined quarters of Miran fort

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 137 - Trading caravan passing Miran site en route for Tun-huang - Miran was adjacent to the main east- west caravan route that skirted the southern side of the Lop salt sea. Stein was able to take advantage of this one time by engaging a passing caravan owner to carry many crates of artifacts west to Kashgar.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 138 - Remains of scale armor and miscellaneous objects found in Tibetan fort, Miran - The pieces of lacquered scale armor are particularly interesting. Back in London the experts were able to learn how to assemble them into medieval armor.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 139 - Base of ancient Buddhist shrine M.ii, Miran site, from north-east, after excavation

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 140 - Remains of colossal figures of seated Buddhas in noth-east passage of ruined shrine Mii, Miran site - These statues had been immense before their collapse. Shown here are only the bottoms with Stein's measuring stick. He uncovered these shrines which dated to centuries prior to theTibetan fort.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 141 - Stucco head of colossal Buddha figure, as discovered between statue bases in ruined shrine Mii - Miran site - Another vivid illustration of what the huge size of these statues must have been - note the measuring rod on the top.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 142 - Ruin of domed Buddhist shrine enclosing stupa M. iii, Miran site, seen from east

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 144 - Ruined mound containing remains of Buddhist shrine M. v, Miran site, before excavation, seen from south-east

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 145 - Interior of Rotunda and stupa in ruined Buddhist shrine M. v. Miran Site after excavation. Miran was another of Stein's most famous finds. There he found a Tibetan fortress (see below) and several much earlier Buddhist shrines that had been buried long before the Tibetan invasion. Note in this photo part of the fresco visible on the inner side of the outer wall. Stein managed to extract part for the British Museum, but mostly the frescos were too fragile to move. These were subsequently lost when amateurs attempted removal. He noted especially the European features in the faces of some representations.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay146 - Portion of fresco frieze and dado on south-east wall of rotunda in Buddhist shrine M. v, Miran site - Thie frieze shows Prince Vessantara with his wife and children leaving the palace gate. In the dado below are seen a girl playing a mandoline, a garland-carrying figure, and part of a bearded male bust. - This is part of the fresco seen in the previous photo. There are many Internet sites that describe the life of Prince Vessantara - for instance en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vessantara_jataka - and {short description of image}- and

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 147 - Portion of fresco frieze and dado on south wall of rotunda in Buddhist shrine M. v, Miran site - The frieze represents Prince Vessantara making an offering of the magical white elephant. In the dado the bust of an Indian prince between two garland-carrying Putti. An inch-measure is on the lower right. Stein considered it remarkable that this very widespread story of Prince Vessantara would have reached this far east into Chinese Turkestan. Prince Vessantara was the Buddha to be once he renounced every material thing including his family.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 148 - Portion of frescoed dado, with lower part of frieze, on south wall of rotunda in Buddhist shrine M. v, Miran site - The dado shows on left a girl carrying jug and patera; on right the bust of a young man; between them a wingless amorino carrying garland. In the frieze the lower portions of four draped male figures and quadriga.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 149 - Spring of Lowaza with ice sheet at foot of old lake shore and view north-eastwards across salt-encrusted Lop-nor bed.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 150 - Convoy of antiques starting from Abdal for Kashgar. On left is Karim Akhun, one of the 'veterans'; in the middle Turdi, the Dak-man. Stein periodically dispatched caravans of camels loaded with the current 'finds' to Kashgar for safe keeping while he moved on to the next objective - in this case Tun-huang. Turdi, was a remarkable individual - Dak man means a mail carrier across the deserts and mountains - he managed to find Stein in the most out of the way places. By 'veteran' Stein means Karim Akhun was one of the original associated hired for the first expedition who promptly sought to join the second.
Abdal was the nearest settlement north of Miran and a very small one at that. Note how the precious 'antiques' have been carefully packed in study wooden crates made on the spot from dead trees. Stein had very loyal and trustworthy associates and never lost a single crate during their thousands of miles of transport across desert - the Kunlun montains to Kashmir and then by sea to London.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 151 - Camping-ground of Besh-toghrak, on route to Tun-huang. Stein used this small oasis - spring frequently between Abdal and Tun-huang

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 152 - Eroded clay terrace near western edge of old terminal basin of Su-lo Ho. The small figure of the man standing at the foot of the terrace helps to give an idea of its height - But the man is barely visible in this poor reproduction.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 153 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower T. iii, near western ende of Tun-huang limes. The spor where the first discovery of an early Chinese record on wood was madeis marked by tghe two men in foreground. Stein numbered the towers in the order in which he examined them, so this is the third one. He always serched for refuse deposits and found remarkable results.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 154 - Ruin of ancient Chinese fort T. xiv, marking the position of the "Jade Gate", seen from north-east. Stein had the Chinese records describing the importance of the 'Jade Gate' so named from the passage of precious jade throug hit from Khotan. So he searched and finally determined that this edifice was that fort. It was back from the wall and on the caravan route.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 155 - Shagolin-namjil Range, Nan-shan seen from camp CCXV., across basin of Su-lo headwaters. The Nan-shan comprised a series of parallel high mountain ranges south of the Kansu corridor and which Stein explored thoroughly.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 156 - Ruins of ancient Chinese magazine T.xviii, Tun-huang Limes, seen from south. The figures of men standing at different points of the structure serve to indicate its size. - Only two of these men are easily seen. This was by far the largest structure Stein found along the walls and he puzzled about its use for a while before recognizing that it was a major store house for rations and supplies

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 157 - Barren hill range east of Ch'ien-fo'tung valley, seen from south end of site (that is Caves of the Thousand Buddhas.)

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay158 - Middle group of 'Thousand Buddhas' grottoes (B) and beginning of southern group (A). see dsr.nii.ac.jp/rarebook/05/index.html.en

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 159 - Rows of cave-temples, showing decayed porches, near middle of southern group. "Thousand Buddhas" site - this photo appears in some of Stein's other books.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay160 - Interior of cave-temple Ch. viii, "Thousand Buddhas" site, showing fresco decoration of walls and roof - In color this must be spectacular. But Stein did not have a color camera.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 161 - Stucco image group, representing Buddha between disciples, Bodhisattvas, and Dvarapalas, in cave temple Ch. iii, "Thousand Buddha" site. This photo also appears in other Stein books.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 162 - Ruined watch-tower T. xxv. north of Tun-hunag oasis, seen from south-west - Chiang-ssu-yeh at foot of tower (he was Stein's Chinese secretary seconded from the Indian mission at Kashgar). This is one of the best preserved of the Han Dynasty towers - note the remaining walls of the watch station on top, rarely preserved.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 163 - Fact of ancient border wall, near Tower T. xxxv. Tun-huang Limes. showing construction with alternate layers of stamped clay and fascines. This is the best of Stein's close-up photographic example of wall and tower construction. The fascines were made of whatever local vegitation was available.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 164 - Remains of ancient watch-tower T.xxvii, Tun-huang Limes - The ruin stands on a natural clay terrace fo which the continuation is seen on right - Naik (corporal) Ram Singh in foreground- This tower is typical of those in a 'medium' stage of preservation

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 165 - Remains of ancient border wall, between low dunes, east of tower T xxxv, Tun-huang limes - The Chinese labourer on left stands on surface of low gravel mound. - in other words at the original surface level before wind-driven erosion.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 166 - Ruined homesead, abandoned to desert about sixty years ago, (from 1910) at Kuan-tsou, north of Nan-hu - Stein came upon this and several other issolated houses during his return move north from Nan-hu to the Han Dynasty wall. These places were overrun and destroyed during the Tungun rebellion in mid 1800's.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 167 - Village shrine at Nan-hu, with school room on right - Chiang-ssu-yeh in front of shrine

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 168 - Ruin of farm abandoned during last century, in desert north of Nan-hu - Another of the local homesteads overrun during the Tungun rebellion.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 169 - Ruined watch-tower, T.xii, on ancient Chinese limes, north-west of Tun-huang - another typical example of a tower in 'medium' preservation.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 170 - Ruined watch-tower T.xi, on ancient Chinese limes - north west of Tun-huang - note the measuring rod and the standing man Stein generally included in photos to show scale. - The towers were built solid and then a parapet wall around a small platform was built on top for the guards.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 171 - Guard-room built against north-east corner of ancient watch-tower T. viii, Tun-huang limes, after excavation. On left is seen the narrow gate leading into the quareters of the watch-station, with sockets to hold bars of door; on adjoiningwall surface therough outline sketch of a camel; on extreme right stepsofstairs once leading to roof of quarters and thence to top of tower. - Few of the towers had such a well preserved guard room. But most had extensive refuse dumps from which Stein extracted a great volume of documents and artifacts.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 172 - Ancient pottery and implements extracted from ruined watch-stations on Tun-huang limes - 1 wooden beating-stick - 2 broom stick of reeds - 3 iron hoe - 4 wedge of wood inscribed with two Chinese characters - 5 pottery jar - 6 broken piece of pottery mended with leather though passed through holes.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 173 - 174 - Ancient implements and articles of equipment, excavated mainly from ruined watch-stations of early Chinese border line, Tun-huang - 1 ornamented wooden tent-peg - 2 foot-measure with decimal division into inches - 3 wooden fire-stick - 4 polished wood handle - 5 ivory-topped head of baton - 6 -7 - spatulas - 8 - 17 carved wooden hooks (see page95) - 9 bowl of lacquered wood -10 hemp shoe - 11 wooden tray - 12-20 parts fo wooden locks - 13 wooden boot-last - 14 fragment of calcined reed fascine - 15 wooden socket for attaching seal - 16 bronze arrow-head - 18 block of wood for holding tapers -19 wooden eating-bowl

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 175 - Stretch of ancient border-wall, built of layers of reed fascines and clay, east of tower T xiii, Tun-huang limes.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 176 - Remains of ancient border-wall adjoining salt marsh, to west of tower T. xiv a, Tun-huang limes, seen from south

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 177 - Ruined watch-tower, T. xii a, with remains of adjoining quarters and stairs, Tun-huang limes

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 178 - Remains of ancient watch-tower, T.xx, overlooking lake west of Kharanor - Tun-huang limes.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 179 - Hillock with remains marking position of ancient "jade gate' station, near fort T xiv, Tun-huang limes - The 'jade gate' was the key border customs post through which precious jade passed from Khotan to the imperial court. It was positioned back from the wall itself and on the main caravan route.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 180 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower T.vi a, on western flank of the Tun-huang limes, seen from south - The tower is built on an eroded clay ridge, and on right overlooks a depression with Toghraks and reed beds. Stein determined that the several detached towers to the south-west of the end of the wall were positioned as look out stations covering a gap between the Su-lo Ho delta and the huge sand dunes to the west.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 181 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower T.iv c, on western flank of Tun-huang limes with view to north - On left an eroded clay terrace with deep cut Nullah. Across depression with Toghraks and tamarisks is seen in distance an isolated clay terrace (A) bearing remains of ruined watch-tower, T iv a. - Two more of the series of towers to south west of the end of the Han Dynasty wall.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 182 - Remains of ancient watch-tower and quarters, T. vi b, Tun-huang limes, before excavation, seen from west.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 183 - Rubish - strewn slope below ruined watch-=tower T. vi. b. in course of excavation - The splintered piece of timber held by labourer marks the spot where hundreds of Chinese records on wood, all of 1st century B.C., were discovered close to surface.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 184 - Ground plan diagram of watch station T. vi b, This shows that the tower was solid layers of bricks and there was a small, three-room, quarters for a patrol built against it.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 185 - Temple court at "cresent lake" near Tun-huang

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 186 - Cliffs with main cave-temples of 'Thousand Buddhas' site, seen from west

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 187 - Wang Tao-chih, (Wang Yuan lu) Taoist priest at 'Thousand Buddhas' site, Tun-huang. This wandering Taoist priest took it upon himself to protect and attempt to restore the Buddhist shrines he found at Tun-huang. He discovered the hidden room filled with tens of thousands of manuscripts and finally agreed with Stein's diplomatic negociations to sell a great horde to Stein. As soon as the word was out he was swamped with other requests and demands by French, Japanese and American collectors and by official orders from Peking to deliver the documents, but he carefully with held the items he valued most.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 188 - Cella and porch of Wang Tao-chih's cave-temple, 'Thousand Buddhas' site, Tun-huang. On extreme right the locked door leading to the rock-cut chapel, previously walled up, where the hidden library of MSS. was discovered. In foreground MS. bundles taken out for examination. The images on platform of cella are modern.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 189 - Modern frescoes in loggia of Wang Tao-shih's temple representing adventures of Hsuan-tsang. Wang-Tao-shih standing on left. Stein had studied in detail the report Husan-tsang (Chinese Buddhist monk) had delivered to the T'ang court and carried it with him. His detailed knowledge and apparent delight in the report gained Stein entry into many Chinese amban's affection and support. This was most critical also in his gaining acceptance by Wang Ta-shih who then approved of Stein's idea to take manuscripts to the West for scholarly study and publication.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 190 - Tibetan monk in loggia of Wang Tao-shih's temple 'Thousand Buddhas' site.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 191 - Old Chinese manuscripts and block prints from walled-up temple library of 'Thousand Buddhas' site. - 1 complete Buddhist manuscript roll, T'ang period - 2-3 Manuscripts of religious texts in book form. - 4 Booklet made up of ink-rubbings from inscriptions. - 5 Block-printed sheet with Buddhist picture and prayer. - 6 Roll of block-printed Buddhist text with frontispiece from wood-engraving dated 864 A.D.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 192 - Ancient manuscripts in Sanskrit, Central-Asian Brahmi, Sogdian, Manichaean-Turkisth, Runic Turki, Uigur, Tibetan, from walled up temple library, 'Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - 1 Sanskrit Prajna-paramita text on palm leaves. -2 Roll of Manichaean 'Confession of Sin' in early Turkish. - 3 Book in Runic Turki. - 4-6 Uigur texts in book form. - 5 Pothi in Central-Asian Brahmi script. - 7 Text in cursive Central-Asian Brahmi written on reverse of Chinese MS. roll. - 8 Roll of Sogdian text. - 9 Leaf of Tibetan Buddhist Pothi.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 193 - Gigantic roll of paper, with Sanscrit and 'unknown language' texts in Brahmi script, from Walled-up temple library, 'Thousand Buddhas' - Tun-huang. A shows a roll, which is over 70 feet long, partially opened. B shows the silk painting on top outer side.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 194 - Bundles of old manuscript rolls, mainly Chinese, in original wrappers, from walled-up temple library, 'Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - of course only a small fraction of the load Stein managed to extract, which in turn was a fraction of the total there.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 195 - Painted silk banners, of T'ang period, representing Bodhisattvas, from walled-up temple library, 'Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - we have the color versions of these banners from another of Stein's reports. They were among the items he sent to London, where color photography was possible.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 196 - Modern stucco images in Chinese style, representing Hsuan-tsang as an arhat, with attendants, in cave-temple of the 'Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - in his text Stein disparaged the restoration efforts Wang performed. This photo also appears in Stein's other reports.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 197 - Old silk embroidery on cushion-cover from walled-up temple library, 'Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang

 
{short description of image} Ruins of Desert Cathay 198 - Ruined Buddhist grottoes, near Wang-Tao-shih's cave-temple,'Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - The antechapels and porches of the cellas above have completely disappeared. The stucco images show recent restoration. Below are seen the porches, partially filled with sand, leading to other cellas.  
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 199 - Rows of small Buddhist cave-temples seen from the shrine of a colossal Buddha, in southern group of 'Thousand Buddhas' site, Tun-huang

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 200 - Stucco images of Buddha with disciples and Bodhisattvas, partly restored, in alcove of smaller cave-temple, 'Thousand Buddhas,' Tun-huang, The walls of cella show diaper decoration with rows of small stencilled Buddhas.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 201 - Alcove of Buddhist cave-temple 'Thousand Buddhas', with modern stucco images of Buddya with disciples, Bodhisattvas, and Lokapala - This photo is included in other of Stein's reports.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 202 - Fresco composition on wall of cave-temple, 'Thousand Buddhas,' Tun-huang, schowing scene in Buddhist heaven - This must be spectacular in color, hopefully it is in good condition now for the crowds of tourists.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 203 - Frescos in north-west corner of large cave-temple Ch. viii, 'Thousand Buddhas,' Tun-huang

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 204 - Fresco composition representing Buddhist stories, on west wall of large cave-temple Ch. viii, ' Thousand Buddhas,' Tun-huang. - Another spectacular, busy scene

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay205 - Large fresco composition on south wall of porch in cave-temple Ch. viii, 'Thousand Buddhas,' showing Buddha on car - Tun-huang - This one rather faded.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 206 - Fresco compositions in north-west corner of large cave-temple Ch. xvi, 'Thousand Buddhas.' Tun-huang - On left is representation of 'wind scene'.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 207 - Fresco composition in south-west corner of large cave-temple Ch. xvi, 'Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - In cener Buddha or Bodhisattva raising fan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 208 - Wind-eroded walls at north-east corner of ruined town, An-hsi - This was replaced by a new, small town which is the starting point still today for the main road north-west to Hami and the northern side of the Taklamakan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 209 - Wang Ta-lao-ye, Magistrate of Tun-huang, with his wife and mother

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 210 - Wind-eroded ground at foot of gravel glacis, east of ruined town Ch'iao-tzu - This was located south-east of An-hsi on the route Stein chose to move into the high Nan-shan for summer exploration and surveying.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 211 - Gate pavilon of old temple in Ch'iao-tzu village - In front are carts loaded with our baggage. - Stein made expedient use of whatever means of transport was appropriate and available on the spot - camels, ponies, donkeys, horses, man- power, yaks, carts various river rafts.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 212 - Ruined stupa at old town of Ch'iao-tzu, seen from south

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 213 - Cave-temples of the 'Myriad Buddhas,' on left bank of Shih-pao-cheng stream - Not as much visited at the caves at Tun-huang, this similar Buddhist shrine was located more remotely, south of Ch'iao-tzu, in the narrow canyon as seen here.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 214 - Cave-temples of the 'Myriad Buddhas,' on right bank of Shih-pao-cheng stream. On the extreme right is seen the court in front of the colossal Buddha shrine. On the extreme left thegrotto of tghe oldest of the resident priests.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 215 - Frescos in the antechamber of a cave-temple at the 'Myrid Buddhas' site - The figures in the procession of Bodhisattvas on the right are over life-size.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 216 - Mongol camp on east side of Ta-kung-ch'a valley - here Stein is entering the Nan-shan mountains.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 217 - Hassan Akhun packing camel at Su-chi-ch'uan spring. - Hassan Akhun was the expert camel man whom Stein hired for his first expedition. When word came of the second expedition Akhun rushed to join Stein, an example of the loyalty Stein received from those worked with him.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 218 - View south-west towards snowy main range from Ch'ang-ma village - This is the first range of the Nan-shan mountains.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 219 - Interior of walled village of Ch'ang-ma, looking to north-west. The large temple near the west wall served for our quarters. Stein enjoyed living in his tent, but whenever at attractive building was offered in a town or village he took it. - Note that practically all villages or towns of any size had their defensive walls.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 220 - View from Tu-ta-fan to south-west, showing a portion of the To-lai-shan range - this was the third of the parallel ranges in the Nan-shan - not a very clear photo, but it does show the ruggedness of the terrain.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 221 - Fortified village at Ch'ang'ma oasis, with view to south-east towards the Su-lo Ho. The village was south of the main route between Su-chou and Tun-huang and into the mountains, but it was fortified against possible attack from Tibet rather than from the north.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 222 - Watch tower of modern guard-station at Ta-han-chuang, at foor of Nan-shan. - Constructed in practically the same manner as the Han Dynasty walls 2000 years before.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 223 - Segment of ancient border wall north of Su-chou - The figure in Chinese costume above A is Father Essems. This priest was a missionary living at Su-chou from whom Stein received assistance and local information. (The photo is out of sequence as Stein visited Su-chou later.)

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 224 - The Chia-yu-kuan gate of the 'Great Wall,' seen from south-west. This is the main entry fort of the Ming Wall in the Gansu corridor built over 1500 years after the Han Dunasty wall, and now is a featured tourist attraction. Modern photos show it is practically identical.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 225 - Pavilon over the inner west gate of Chia-yu-kuan, with view across interior of circumvallation. Stein was greated and treated like visiting royalty by the garrison commander. Stein knew his protocol and carefully refrained from too ostentatious examination of the fortress. However we do have this one revealing photograph.

 
{short description of image} Ruins of Desert Cathay 226 - Hao-shan-k'ou gorge with ruined walls intended to close passage - On left, remnant of ancient wall (A) with parapet facingeast; on right, battlemented wall of later origin (B) facing west. Stein puzzled a long time over the possible purposes of these fortifications north-east of the main Ming wall at Chia-yu-kuan.  
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 227 - Temple of Kuan-yin (Chinese), or Avalokitesvara (Indian) goddess, within east gate of Chia-yu-kuan fortress.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay228 - Pavilion and colonnade at entrance of Chiu-ch'uan temple, Su-chou - another of Stein's accomodations.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 229 - Garden and temple court at Chiu-chuan, the 'spring of wine,' Su-chou. The group of trees on left hides the temple, used as 'my' reception hall. One reason Stein chose the best accomodations possible when staying at an important city was because he was expected to engage in the standard protocol of repeated visits and return visits with the local magistrates.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay230 - North wall of Chin-fo-ssu town, with foot-hills of the Richthofen range in background - Another impressive fortification for a small town. The Richthofen, named for the famous German explorer, was the first (northern) of the three ranges of the eastern Nan-shan that Stein mapped.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 231 - Chinese villagers at Chin-fo-ssu watching my tent. Even when he was established in a Chinese villa or temple Stein generally prefered to sleep in his tent - of course that is what he did most of the time when living on a hill top in Kashmir.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 232 - View south from Hou-tzu pass across dry lake basin - deep in the Nan-shan here

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 233 - Camp at Ch'ing-shui-k'a-tzu, on left bank of Ma-so Ho - In addition to his central permanent team, Stein hired reluctant Chinese laborers seen here to carry the supplies as no excavation was contemplated.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 234 - Tungan gold miners from Hsi-ning - The lure of gold is everywhere, these folks eaked out a living panning for meager results.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 235 - View to south-west from ridge above Ta-pen-ko, circ. 14,000 feet high, showing portion of the To-lai-shan. - which was the southern most of the three ridges in the Nan-shan. Stein's hired Chinese laborers refused to to far south into the To-lai-shan fearing to get to close to Tibetans.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 236 - View to S.E. from Chu-lung-kuan pass, showing portion of the To-lai-shan range.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay237 - On crest above Huo-ning-to pass, looking N.W. towards Pei-ta Ho valley

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 238 - View down the Pei-ta Ho valley from left bank of river - The river flows north between these high ridges until it breaks out to flow into the desert.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 239 - Snow-fields at head of valley east of pass across the Alexander III range - this is the central of the three parallel ridges in the eastern Nan-shan - named for Russian Emperor Alexander III.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 240 - Snowy peak seen eastwards from pass across Alexander III range - Ponies resting in foreground; elevation circa. 15,200 feet. The elevation was nothing for Stein but for the hired Chinese laborers it was much, to much.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 241 - View to east from above left bank of Su-lo Ho - The snowy peaks in distance belong to the Alexander III range. Rai Ram Singh at work on the plane-table - The results of the surveying were published in the map set in Serindia and in the large map at the back of this book. Ram Singh became to ill later in the expedition and was replaced by Lal Singh., both experienced professionals of the Survey of India.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 242 - Large dunes on marshy ground in head-waers basin of the Su-lo Ho. Elevation circa 13,400 feet. The glacier crowned peaks in distance belong to Shagolin-Namjil range. In between the high mountain ranges of the Nan-shan the Su-lo Ho flows north-west and then turns sharply west to flow into the Tarim Basin south of the Lop salt sea.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 243 - View to west towards Shagolin-namjil peaks from Su-lo Ho - Pei-ta Ho watershed. Both rivers flow toward the north with the Su-lo Ho being further west - The Pei-ta Ho eventually exits the Nan-shan and joins the Kan-chow at Mao-mei to flow north, forming the Etsin-gol to the Chinese-Mongolian border. (The left border of this photo joins the right border of the following photo.)

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 244 - View from Su-lo Ho - Pei-ta Ho watershed, continued towards ssouth-west. This view joins Fig 243 at line AB, forming part of panoramic view of the Su-lo Ho head-waters basin. Taken from an elevation of circa 14,600 feet. (In other words the right border of this photo joins the left border of the previous photo.)

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 245 - View south from Shen-ling-tzu pass across the Kan-chou river valley towards To-lan-shan mountains. Here the river flows south-east but after it exits the mountains it turns sharply north-west to flow on into the desert near Mongolia.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 246 - Head of Alpine valley at camp CCXXI, north-east of Shen-ling-tzu pass. Turdi (A) and Sahid Bai (B) our Turki pony-men in foreground. Stein's Turki assistants followed him everywhere (along of course with his Indian associates) but the local Chinese were very reluctant to brave either mountains or weather ( not to mention being fearful of Tibetans and Mongols).

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 247 - My Chinese pony-men safely restored to the plains. On extreme right our aged 'Ya-i' pointing with stick to the chief mutineer. And here we have the reluctant locals. They were hired (practically forced by local Chinese officials) only as 'pony-men' to care for the transport. No excavation work was involved. Yet they mutinied several times while in the very high mountains and were only controled by the detachment of Chinese military assigned to Stein.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 248 - First Mongol camp met wit hin Khazan-gol valley - Chiang-ssu-yeh on left; fir trees on slops in background. Chaing-ssu-yeh was Stein's essential and faithful interpreter - secretary assigned from the Indian mission in Kashgar for the second expedition. Stein was totally dissatisfied with the similar secretary assigned for the first expedition and much lamented this gentleman's ill health that prevented his participation in the third expedition.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 249 - Camp on left bank of Khazan-gol, packed for start

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay250 - View to south from first forest-clad ridge above Khazan-gol - The Khazan-gol is just visible in valley. In distance the snowy peaks of the main Richthofen Range. - Compare elevation here with the camp on the river in previous photo. Stein loved crossing very high passes. Here he noted the forests of which there were none further west into the Kun-lun. He ascribed the vegetation to the influence of Pacific weather.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 251 - View south from Feng-ta-fan towards main Richthofen range, across Khazan-gol valley

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 252 - Mongol head-men near grazing grounds of Lao-t'u-kou. These folks were met as Stein was exiting the mountains back to Kan-chou.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay253 - Fortified village of Sha-ching-tzu, with temple gate, on road to Kan-chou.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 254 - Central gate tower and main street in Kan-chou - It is a pity that so much of China's medieval city fortifications, like those in Europe, have been destroyed. Xi'an remains, and parts of Nan-jing as well.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 255 - Memorial gateway, built about A.D. 1825, outside west gate of Kan-chou.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 256 - Ornamental gateway in front of commander-in-chief's Ya-men, Kan-chou

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 257 - Temple near station of Hsing-hsing-hsia, on road from An-hsi to Hami - Barren Pei-shan hills in background - The scene here shifts abruptly from the far south-eastern end of Stein's expedition to the north-eastern side of the Taklamakan as Stein started west. - He avoided the Pei-shan in this expedition but ventured directly across in the 3rd..

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 258 - Gorge above Su-bashi, on road from Turfan to Kara-shahr - Here he is already past Ara-tam seen in next photo.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 259 - Ridge with ruined Buddhist shrines in Wang's orchard at Ara-tam, Hami - seen from ruined temple cellas south-west. - As always Stein was welcomed by the hospitable local Wang. Stein had heard that there was a ruin in the hill behind this local head-man's villa.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 260 - Ruined vaults and chambers near west wall of Chong-hassar, Turfan. A marks approach to ruined Buddhist cella.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay261 - Ruins of small Buddhist stupa and shrine at Kichik-hassar, Turfan. Tila Bai standing on top of dune.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 262 - Ruined shrines and cave-temples on west side of Toyuk gorge, Turfan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 263 - Central main street in ruined town of Yar-khoto, Turfan, seen from north - The high structure in foreground is a temple ruin. On the left the trees of Yar-khoto village, beyond the eastern "Yar', show in the distance. - not apparent in this copy.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 264 - Portion of ruined town of Yar-khoto seen from near its south end.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 265 - My camp at the ruins of "Ming-oi', near Shikchin, Kara-shahr - The photograph shows the western and middle lines of ruined shrines as seen from north. Hoar-frost covers scrub. - Stein's tent is unmistakable.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 266 - Interior of ruined Buddhist cella Mi. xviii, at "Ming-oi' site, Kara-shahr - The richly painted stucco image of a seated Bodhisattva, like the fine image-base by its side, were found up-turned. The shrine was once vaulted - This photo appears in Stein's other reports.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 267 - General view of ruined Buddhist site of "Ming-oi', Kara-shahr, from south. Parts of western and middle lines of southern group of ruins seen in foreground. The shrine Mi, xiii., marked by A was the chief find-place of small stucco relievos as seen in Figs 270-271. Behind it, in distance, cave-temples and ancient watch-tower.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 268 - Ruined Buddhist shrines in centre of "Ming-oi', Kara-shahr, seen from north

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 269 - Relievo images in stucco representing Bodhisattvas, in ruined Buddhist shrine Mi. xi., 'Ming-oi', site, Kara-shahr - The foot measure serves as scale.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 270 - Stucco heads, showing Graeco-Buddhist art influence, from ruined shrines, 'Ming-oi' site, Kara-shahr

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay271 - Stucco heads and busts from relievo decoration of ruined Buddhist shrines, 'Ming-oi' site, Kara-shahr.

 
{short description of image} Ruins of Desert Cathay 272 - Stucco head in high relievo, probably representing a Bodhisattva,f rom ruined shrine Mi, xv, 'Ming-oi' site, Kara-shahr  
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 273 - Miscellaneous wood-carvings and stucco relievo from sites of "Ming-oi', Khora, 'Thousand Buddhas', and Tun-huang limes. Together, these are meant to show the similar artistic influence on both north and south sides of the Taklamakan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 274 - Relievo tile in terracotta and miniature shields in stucco from ruined shrines, "Ming-oi', Kara-shahr.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 275 - Relievos and decorative carvings in wood, from ruined Buddhist shrines, "Ming-oi' site and Khora.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 276 - General view of Buddhist temple ruins, Khora, from north-east - Tahir Beg in foreground

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 277 - Tahir Beg and Ahmad Yuz-bashi, of Korla - local head-men who assisted Stein in rounding up laborers.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 278 - Bakir, player of Rabab, on desert march

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 279 - Dunes in dry river bed near Charchan Darya - The river flowed from west to east as part of the Tarim river system. Beyond it to the south was the great central desert of the Taklamakan which Stein crossed from here.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 280 - Musa Haji between two other hunters from Korla - Seekers for the fabled san-buried 'old town' - Musa claimed to Stein and everyone that some years past he had come upon a ancient town in the desert but could not find it again. Stein took him and the others up on the quest but all failed. Stein considered this myth a common one among credulous locals.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 281 - My caravan marching over high dunes in Taklamakan, south of Tarim river - Hassan Akhun and Turdi with the camels; Naik Ram Singh behind on left. Stein appointed Ram Singh as rear guard (armed) to prevent the panic stricken, impressed locals from attempting to retreat, which would assure their death. There was no other choice but to forge ahead and hope to find the end of the Keriya river. On some occasions they were able to dig a suffient well.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 282 - Caravan on march near dry river bed at end of ancient Keriya river delta. With great skill in navigation and dead reckoning Stein found the end of the river even though it had shifted by many miles from its location as seen by Sven Hedin. It was mid-winter, such a journey through the desert could only be attempted in winter. The river was sighted many miles away as a silver sliver of ice among the sand dunes.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 283 - Halt on march across dunes and dead jungle of dried-up delta of Keriya river. The route and location of each night's camp site are shown on several sheets of the Serindia and Innermostasiamap series.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 284 - Halt amidst dead jungle on left bank of dry river bed in ancient delta of Keriya river. - Jasvant Singh and myself in foreground. Stein is wearing his distinctive had. Jasvant Singh is in shadow. He was Rajput personal cook for R. B. Lal Singh, for them religious (cast) dietary rules prevented them from eating with the others.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 285 - Camels waiting for their first drink after arrival at Keriya river. They could wait for the ponies and men to drink their fill.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 286 - Shahyar labourers slaking their thirst after reaching ice of Keriya river end. These fellows were well paid but nevertheless impressed by their local head-men into service for which they were not merely reluctant but terrified of being lost in the desert. They wanted to turn back repeatedly (which would for sure been their end) so Stein set an armed rear guard of his Indian associates to keep them in line.When they were discharged at Keriya they still had to wend their way back around the western end of the Taklamakan to reach Shahyar.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 287 - My tent at first camp after reaching the Keriya river end. Ibrahim Beg in foreground. There is that characteristic tent again. Ibrahim Beg was a local Turki who rendered much assistance to Stein. Unfortnately Stein's photography frequently puts the subject's face into shadow.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 288 - By the new bed of the dying Keriya river. - On right is Ibrahim Beg and a labourer with cyclometer. The cyclometer is identical to those used by Alexander the Great to measure the distances he traveled across Persia and beyond.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 289 - Ancient quadrangle partially buried under dunes, Kara-dong site - On left Tila Bai standing amidst timber remains of south-west corner. Having successfully reached the Keriya river, Stein continued south for a short distance and then moved 90 degrees left to go directly to Kara-dong, another place his local informers had noticed during their searches for 'treasure'.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 290 - Ancient dwelling near south end of Kara-dong site before excavation.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 291 - The same ancient dwelling of Kara-dong sitein course of excavation. Frequently the work was made more difficult by the wind blowing the sand right back into the excavations.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 292 - Pullat Mullah and Ibrahim of Khotan - 'Treasure-seekers' - two of the locals whose years of intrepid individual exploration of the desert had given them both knowledge of the places they had seen and an unerring feel for direction and distance that brought Stein right to the recommended locations.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 293 - Mendicant pilgrim or 'diwana' at Burhanuddin's desert shrine, Keriya river. - Stein was always interested in recording by photography the varied local populations.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 294 - Buddhist shrine on tamarisk cone at site of Farhad-beg-yailaki, in course of excavation.-several laborers are barely discernible in the shadows.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 295 - Remains of Buddhist shrine at Kara-yantak, near Domoko, in course of excavation.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 296 - My companions and myself at Ulug-mazar, in the desert north of Chira - From the left to right, sitting: Chiang-ssu-yeh (Chinese secretary interpreter) , myself with "Dash" (one of several successive "Dash" s), Rai Bahadur Lal Singh ( experienced senior surveyor from the Survey of India). Standing: Ibrahim Beg (local official), Jasvant Singh (Lal Singh's personal cook), Naik Ram Singh (corporal in Indian army - engineer). This photo also is in Stein's other reports.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 297 - Ruined fort and watch-tower on Mazar-tagh ridge seen from west. Belowk, in background, wide flood-bed of the Khotan river. Stein visited this isolated Tibetan fort several times - other photos and diagrams are in his other reports. It was located on the only prominent ridge above the Khotan river and about half way across the desert - an excellent location for a guard post.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 298 - Digging up ancient documents from refuse layers below ruined fort of Mazar-tagh - Stein considered this and the other Tibetan fort, at Miran, to be the worst, disgusting, refuse dumps but they nevertheless revealed important documents and other relics.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 299 - My camp in the Beg's garden at Ak-su. In foreground Haji Abid, the Beg's son. - the familiar tent again. Stein made a special trip back across the Taklamakan to visit his friend, Pan Ta-jen, who had been promoted from Khotan to Ak-su.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 300 - Crowd in bazar street at Ak-su

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 301 - Pan Ta-jen, Tao t'ai of Ak-su, my old patron and friend - from Khotan during the first expedition.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 302 - Kirghiz with felt tent belonging to Mangush Beg, at Ilachu

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 303 - Kirghiz from grazing-grounds of Uch-turfan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 304 - In canyon of Korum-boguz river north of Kelpin - Mangush Beg, with pony, in foreground - Kelpin was in a narrow valley

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 305 - Farewell to my brave camels from Keriya - Note the camels are shorn for summer - Stein bought the camels when he arrived at Kashgar and sold them prior to undertaking the rigorous return journey through the highest levels of the Kun-lun where camels could not go, so he sold them. They were so famous for having crossed the Taklamakan and endured all the rigors that Stein put them through that the commanded a high price at auction.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 306 - Carpenters at work on packing-cases for antiques, in courtyard of Nar-bagh - That was the name of the British-Indian official residence in Kashgar, where Stein always stayed and organized his affairs. On the 2nd expedition, he packed the antiques for travel over the Karakorum pass by a separate caravan, while he completed his surveying in the Kun-lun. After the first expedition he took his 'finds', a smaller quantity, with him through Russia to England. After the third expedition he again sent even more artifacts over the Karakorum while he crossed Russian territory to reach Iran to examine ruins in south-east Iran - thus circumnavigating Afghanistan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 307 - Turdi, my dak-man from Khotan - The saddle-bag across Turdi's shoulder served to carry small mails. The 'dak-men' carried the mail on ponies or on foot throughout Central Asia from Kashmir to China. This remarkable, intrepid Turki version of a pony express man managed to find Stein regularly when he had no fixed address and was moving through the high mountains in summer or the coldest part of thedeserts in winter. Thus he managed to keep Stein in amazing contact with India, England, Hungary and other places througout the expeditions.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 308 - Chiang-ssu-yeh at work on ancient Chinese records, in Nar-bagh - This photograph shows my devoted secretary just recovered from a short attack of illness. Stein could not have found a better associate - not only secretary and interpreter but also well educated in ancient Chinese orthography and history. Stein missed him greatly during the third expedition.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 309 - Badruddin Khan, Indian ak-sakal at Khotan, with his sons and a trusted servant. As ak-sakal, Badruddin Khan was the chief of the Indian commercial community in Khotan and throughout the oases south of the Taklamakan. He arranged all sorts of logistics and personnel work for Stein.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 310 - Khuda-berdi (Yuz-bashi) and cultivators of Yotkan - Khuda berdi sits on extreme left; the figures stuck in his belt serve for easy reference in anthropometrical list. Yotkan was the western suburb of Khotan and the site of the buried medieval capital. Stein found the locals were busy excavating parts of the old city in hopes of recovering flakes of gold leaf. He never ceased to photograph representative local groups for experts back in England.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 311 - Village mosque at Ak-yar, on road to Uch-turfan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 312 - Mosque at Ruknuddin mazar, Yotkan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 313 - Landing baggage from ferry-boat on right bank of Yurung-kash river. Stein had to cross the river going east as he circled around the front ranges of the Kun-lun in order to get behind them and find the headwaters of the Yuring-kash and Keriya rivers.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 314 - View eastwards from above Kar-yagdi, in Polur gorge - The peak in background, above glacier, rises to 20,080 feet. Here Stein is well into the Kun-lun near Polur.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 315 - Our advance party emerging from Polur gorge near Khan Langar - Rai Bahadur Lal Singh standing in middle "Badakbashi', my pony, being held on the left. The merchants were wise to make Stein pay for the ponies rather than renting them prior to entering the mountains, as many did not survive.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 316 - Track in Polur gorge near Sarik-koram, viewed from south. - Typical of many of the narrow passages Stein found in order to proceed through into the highest plateau.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 317 - Pasa, of Keriya, hunter of wild yaks, and our guide. Actually Stein came across Pasa high in the mountains. After reluctantly showing Stein the way for several days he suddenly disappeared over night.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 318 - Abandoned gold pits in conglomerate cliffs of Zailik gorge.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 319 - Group of Zailik miners who served as carriers. Amazingly, Stein came across these fellows who were barely making a livelihood finding bits of gold in the rocks. At that time Stein's ponies were done with so these fellows earned much more from helping Stein over a high pass then they could from finding gold.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 320 - View up the Yurung-kash river gorge from debouchure of Zailik stream. Stein finally succeeded in his long-held goal of finding the upper reaches of the Yurung-kash. He had been defeated by impassable gorges during the first expedition and initially during the second as well while trying to ascend the Yurung-kash directly south from Khotan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 321 - View south towards snowy range from ridge above Shalgan davan, circa 17,700 feet high - note the plane table in use.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 322 - View down the Yurung-kash river gorge from debouchure of Hasib chap

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 323 - View towards main Kun-lun range, south of Yurung-kash river, from camp below Tar-kol pass. The elevation of this camp was circa 16,000 feet.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 324 - View south-west towards main Kun-lun range,from triangulated peak above Tar-kol pass. The elevation of this peak, used as a survey station, is 18,612 feet.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 325 - Zalik gorge below Sahiz-buyan, viewed from west.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 326 - Donkeys descending rock couloir from spur above head of gorge of Yurung-kash river.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 327 - View down the head gorge of Yurung-kash river, from an elevation of circa 15,000 feet

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 328 - View south towards glaciers of main Kun-lun range from head-waters basin of Yurung-kash. Here Stein is in a wide plateau between the northern and southern ranges of the Kun-lun.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay329 - Slate cliffs rising above right bank of Yurung-kash, near debouchure of Tuge-tash stream.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 330 - Distant view of glaciers feeding the Yurung-kash sources, from pass east of Ulugh-kol.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 331 - Glaciers overlooking the basin of the Keriya river sources from west - Elevation of basin circa 17,200 feet

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 332 - View across south-west end of Lake Lighten - Elevation of lake is circa 16,000 feet above the sea.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 333 - 'Witnesses' in wind-eroded dry lake bed near camp of Sept 16th, 1908. Aziz standing on a witness, Ibrahim Beg riding behind another. Elevation circa 15,300 feet above the sea.

 
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The map at end of Ruins of desert Cathay - shows the entire Chinese Turkestan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 1 - plate I - Panoramic view of the Darkot and Chatiboi Glaciers Taken from the foot of the Rukang spur looking south and south-west

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay - 1 plate II - Panoramic view of end portion of Otrughul Glacier, at head of Nissa Valley, taken from detrius slope facing the western flank of the glacier

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay - 1 - plate III - Panoramic view taken from southern end of Niya site showing remains of ancient dwelling (A) tank, with surrounding arbour (B), and footbridge (C) stretched across dry river-bed, all abandoned during Third Century "A.D.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 1 - plate IV - Two 'angels' frescos at Miran

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 1 - plate V - Fresco showing Buddhist figures - Miran site

 

Ruins of Desert Cathay Plate VI - Scenes from the life of the future Buddha - Banner from "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas" - one of the items Stein managed to send to the British Museum in London- The illustration is also in other of Stein's reports.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay - Plate VII=Pained silk banners showing Bodhisattvas from 'Cave of the Thousand Buddhas' - Tun-huang - The illustration is also in other of Stein's reports.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay Plate VIII - Large Buddhist painting of 864 AD, representing Bodhisattvas from 'Cave of the Thousand Buddhas' - Tun-huang

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay - Plate IX - Ancient embroidery picture showing Buddha between Bodhisattvas - 'Cave of the Thousand Buddhas' - Tun-huang

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay Plate X - Panoramic view taken from crest of watershed above Huo-ning-to Pass, To-lai-shan and Alexander III Ranges of Nan-shan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay Plate XI b - Fresco representing Hariti, the goddess of small-pox. From ruined Buddhist shrine at Farhad-Beg site.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay Plate XI a - Fresco showing a scene from the Life of Buddha. From ruined temple of 'Ming-oi', site, Kara-shahr.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay XII - Panorama showing Kun-lun Ranges around glacier sources of Yurung-kash river.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay XIII - Panoramic view taken from snowy col on watershed of main Kun-lun Range, north of Haju Langar at elevation of about 20,000 above sea level