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ON CENTRAL ASIAN TRACKS - PHOTOS

 
 

Sir Aurel Stein

 
 

This book is Stein's summary memoir for his three expeditions, thus it does include many photos published in one or more of the expedition reports or memoirs - but it also has other photos. And the print quality of this book, some years after the others, resulted in much better reproduction of the photos. I have not copied all the illustrations. For the text please see centralasiantracks.htm

 
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On Central Asian Tracks Title page

 
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On Central Asian TracksThe map at the back of the book - It shows all three of Stein's expedition routes. - We also made detailed photos of sections of the map.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks Frontispiece - Ancient Buddihist painting on sik, recovered from the "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang, It shows the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara (Guanyin), as seen in a dream, guiding a pious soul to his heaven - Avalokitesvara is the Lord who looks down with compassion who vowed to delay his own entrance into Nirvana until he had lead all beings there.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 1 - Muz-tagh-ata peak seen from southern end of Little Kara-kol lake - Kirghiz felt tent (yurt) in foreground - Stein detoured during his first expedition to climb this mountain and photographed it also during his other expeditions. Similar photos are in his other reports.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks2 - Eroded ranges of outer K'un'lun, seen from above Yagan-dawan

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 3 - Head of Kashkul glacier with its neve-beds, looking towards north-east. Photograph taken from grat about 15,000 feet above sea-level.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 4 - View to south from forest-clad ridge above Khazan-gol valley. In distance snowy peaks of main Richthofen Range.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 5 - Entrance to bazar of Borache, Khotan oasis

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 6 - Panoramic view in southern portion of Niya site showing remains of ruined dwelling after excavation (A), ancient tank with surrounding arbour (B), footbridge stretched across dry reiver-bed(C), and dead orchards beyond (D). The panorama was taken from the tamarisk-covered top of a sandy ridge. The view extends from the S.E. (left) to W. (right)

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 7 - My caravan marching over high dunes in Taklamakan desert, south of Tarim river - This dangerous trek Stein undertook during his second expedition from north to south in expectation of finding the end of the Keriya River in the middle of the desert.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 8 - My camels crossing salt-encrusted bed of dried-up Lop Sea - this dangerous trek Stein took during the third expedition in expectation of finding the Chinese supply route from Tun-huang to Lou-lan, which he did find. The hard salt cakes injured the camels' feet so badly that they had to be re-soled with bull hide frequently.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 9 - Kharoshthi document on rectangular double-gtablet, from hidden archive - from Niya ruin - these Kharoshthi documents were among Stein's greatest finds on his first and second expeditions. Note the top tablet shows the indention for the seals.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks10 - Baltit, chief place of Hunza, with mir's castle and glacier-clad peaks above Ultar valley in distance. - Here Stein backtracks from Turkestan to northwest India (Pakistan). Baltit is north of and close to Mount Rakapushi.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 11 - My companions of the second expedition and myself in the desert north of Chira - Left to right, siting: Chiang Ssu-yeh (Chinese secretary - interpreter)- myself with "Dash II', Rai Bahadur Lal Singh, (expert senior surveyor of the Survey of India who replaced Ram Singh), Standing: Ibrahim Beg (important local leader who assisted Stein greatly), Jasvant Singh (Rajput cook and assistant for Lal Singh), Naik Ram Singh (corporal in Indian army engineers whose carpentry expertise enabled Stein to build crates for artifacts and who went blind from diabetes during the expedition.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 12 - View from Malakand fort, looking north into the Swat Valley - Open ground below, on left, marks the position of Crater Camp, tfhe scene of much hard fighting during the tribal attack in 1897 - Here Stein back tracks again - this photo is the first one in Ruins of Desert Cathay as it marks the beginning point of his expedition as he passed into the tribal areas of north-west India.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 13 - View of Lowarai pass from approach on south - The arrow indicates position of the pass and snow-filled gorge leading to it. Again, Stein is back in India (Pakistan). The Lowarai pass is one of he many Stein chose to cross during his somewhat zig-zag route to visit as many of the semi-independent tribal valleys as possible.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 14 - Panoramic view of the Darkot and Chatibol Glaciers taken from the foot of the Rukang spur, looking south and south-west - On the left is seen the Darkot Glacier over which the ascent to the Darkot pass(A) leads. The summit of the pass is hidden by the spur on extreme left. In the middle the Chatibol Glacier with its highest portion known as Kalandar-ghum. On the right of the Chatibol Glacier hig hspurs (C) descending from Kayo-sum Peak at 22,603 feet. The pass is in the far north-west part of Pakistan north of Yasin and north-east of Mastuj. It is the direct route from the Pamirs across the Wakhan into India used by Chinese armies, hence Stein's insistance on reaching it himself.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 15 - Oxus source glaciers seen from mouth of Wakhjir valley - One of Stein's objectives was to identify the sources of the Oxus the great river of the central Asia of Alexander the Great's time. This is the three-way water shed between rivers flowing east into Uzbekistan, south into Pakistan, and east into Chinese Turkestan.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 16 - Afghan escort with baggage preparing to cross affluent of Oxus. Colonel Shirin-dil Khan on extreme right. - The only book in which this photo appears. Stein was extremely greatful for the special permission from the Afghan Emir to enter and cross the Wakhan corridor. (The only time his repeated requests to visit Afghanistan was honored until much later in the 1940's on which occasion he then died and was buried in Kabul.) But for this expedition he managed to visit the locations of medieval Chinese army expeditions. And Colonel Shirin-dil Khan supplied ponies, yaks and laborers to move Stein's luggage across the snow-covered high pass into Sarikol.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 17 - Chinese fort of Tash-kurghan, seen from near left bank of river - The town was the capital of Sarikol region high in the Pamirs. Stein visited during all three expeditions and made other photos and a sketch diagram of the fortification.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 18 - Ruined wall and bastion of Kiz-kurghan, seen from south-west - This small outpost guarded a main pass north out of Sarikol. Stein always went out of his way to climb up to see fortifications, especially if they had been mentioned by medieval Chinese pilgrims.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 19 - P'an Ta-jen, Tao-t'ai of Aksu, my old patron and friend. This photo taken during the second expedition, when Stein made a special trip across the Taklamakan to visit P'an Ta-jen who had been promoted to Aksu - During the first expedition Stein met him as Amban of Khotan where he provided very significant assistance to Stein in obtaining guides, laborers, animals and much logistic support. By the third expedition P'an Ta-jen had been promoted again and was at Urumchi. They shared knowledge and love of the medieval Chinese Buddhist pilgrim memoirs of travel between Xi-an and India.

 
{short description of image} On Central Asian Tracks 20 - Chiang Ssu-yeh, my Chinese secretary on the Second Expedition - Stein had three different secretaries for the 3 expeditions but Chiang was the only individual Stein considered to be excellent - He was not only secretary and interpreter but also diplomat and translator of ancient Chinese texts.  
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On Central Asian Tracks 21 - Exiled malefactors from Khotan and Taghlik herdsmen, Karanghu-tragh - The village was near the furtherest part of the Yurung-kash River that Stein managed to reach by traveling south from Khotan. He was blocked by impassable gorges and the refusal of these locals to continue south over the high passes. He complained to P'an Ta-jen on his return to Khotan but the Amban replied that these individuals were already being punished and there was not much more he could do.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 22 - Pakhpo Hillmen anthropometrically examined at Kok-yar -Stein exerted extra effort to get these reluctant hill people to come out of their mountains to be photographed. He was determined to find out if the same ethnic group (he called Alpine) who lived in the Pamirs (today's Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) also had migrated in ancient times so far east.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 23 - Panoramic view of end portion of Otrughul Glacier, at head of Nissa valley, taken from detrius slope facing the western flank of the glacier - The foreground in centreand on left shows the glacier flank completely covered with debris masses of moraines. Taken at elevation of 14,800 feet. This glacier is about as far south as Stein managed to reach on the Yurung-kash before being blocked.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 24 - Panoramic view taken from snowy col on watershed of main K'un-lun range, north of the uppermost Kara-kash valley, at an elevation of about 20,000 feet above sea level.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 25 - Head of Nissa valley seen from Tam-oghil grazing ground - Loess - covered old moraine ridges in foreground - The glaciers high in the K'un-lun were covered with the fine dust borne up from the Taklamakan by the annual dust storms.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks26 - Fragments of terra-cotta figurines and decorated pottery from Yotkan - Yotkan was the medieval capital later replaced by Khotan. Residents discovered the remains burried under many feet of soil and began digging for gold flakes - in the process they retrieved hundreds of this sort of fragments and sold them to tourists and merchants for sale abroad.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 27 - Frescoed walls of passage enclosing Buddhist shrine, Dandan-oilik - Note the use of stencils. This photo appeared in other Stein reports. Dandan-oilik was one of the first ruins in the desert north of Khotan to which Turdi led Stein.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 28 - Cella of Buddhist shrine, Dandan-oilik, with pedestal for stucco image. This photo also is in another of Stein's reports

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 29 - Mural painting of legendary scene and stucco image of 'guardian of the north' in Buddhist shrine, Dandan-oilik -

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 30 - Painted panel representing legendary king of sacred rats, excavated at Dandan-oilik - The legend told of the aid the rats gave to the Moslem invaders against the indigenous idolaters.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 31 - Painted panel representing legend of Chinese 'silk princess', excavated at Dandan-oilik - The legend told of a Chinese princess who came as bride to the Khotan king and who brought in her head dress the secred of silk - the silk worm. Note the lady pointing to the head dress. With this and the establishment of mulberry cultivation silk making came to Central Asia.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 32 - Painted panel representing Persian Bodhisattva (Rustam) - Stein found the same illustration in a medieval Persian ruin in Sistan - southeast Persia - during this third expedition. Rustam was a Persian hero.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 33a - Leaf of Buddhist canonical text in Khotanese language: 33b - Fragment of document in cursive Brahmi script, Dandan-oilik: 34 - Chinese records dated A.D. 781-2, Dandan-oilik - Samples of the enormous quantity of documents in many different languages written on various media that Stein found throughout his excavations.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 35 - Portion of ancient residence, Niya site, before excavation - This was the most sensational of the excavations Stein accomplished during his first expedition and to which he returned during the later expeditions. It was the location of a treasure trove of rare documents that had never been seen in Europe. The photo appeared in other reports.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 36 - Ancient refuse heap within ruined dwelling, Niya site, in course of excavation - Stein dug into every refuse heap he could find, no matter how smelly - as they revealed the thousands of documents thrown out by their original owners.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 37 - Ruined house, Niya site, first find-place of inscribed tablets, after excavation - Stein was led to Niya by a young local man who had happened to have extremely intriguing documents to show Stein. Stein took extra care to be the first to examine the indicated location and to secure the site.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 38 - Kharoshthi documents on double-wedge tablets from ruined house, Niya site. Examples of the documents mentioned with previous photo. Both the language and the method of constructing the letter and 'envelope' caused a sensation and years of scholarly study.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 39 - Kharoshthi document on rectanglar double-tablet, from hidden archive, Niya site. - The archive was under the floor in the dwelling noted in previous photo. Note the use of a seal in this and previous example - Stein was much taken with the Greek-Bactrian art style of the seals. The way these documents were so carefully secured indicated they were important legal or diplomatic records.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 41 - Ancient wooden chair from ruined residence, Niya site. The photo appears in another report.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 42 - Kharoshthi documents on leather, from rubbish-heal within ruined dwelling, Niya site - more examples of the breadth of Stein's discovery of medieval documents

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 43 - Carved wooden double-brackets from ruined dwellings, Niya site - These examples show the remarkable skill and artistic style of the inhabitants of this remote desert oasis.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 45 - Ruin of sand-buried dwelling, Niya site, before excavation - Trunks of dead mulberry trees in foreground - Trees grown for the silk industry. The desert explorers were attracted to such sites by the remains of the building posts that had survived centuries of wind erosion.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 46 - Room in ruined dwelling, Niya site, in course of excavation - note the jar being uncovered.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 48 - Central hall and office room in ruined residence, Niya site, after excavation - A marks spot where hidden archive was discovered below floor; on right of it Rustam, the digger - this is the location from which the example documents shown in previous photos were retrieved by assiduous searcher.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 49 - Remains of ancient vineyard with posts carrying trellis, Niya site - Hard to imagine grapes growing in middle of a desert. Stein studied intensively current irrigation methods and what evidence he could find of ancient methods in attempting to determine the causes of the abandonment of Niya and other sites.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 50 - Interior of ruined Buddhist temple cella, Endere, after excavation - Stein was guided directly across the desert from Niya to Endere. Note how similar this cella is to those found at Dandan or Niya.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 51 - Base of ancient Buddhist shrine, Miran site, from north-east, after excavation. - Miran was one of the most exciting locations for Stein - a Tibetan fort and several much earlier Buddhist shrines with remarkable decorations.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 52 - South-east corner of interior of ruined Tibetan fort, Miran, in course of excavation

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 53 - Hall of ruined house of western site, Lou-lan, with turned wooden pillars, after excavation. Lou-lan was a main objective of Stein's second and third expeditions. In this book he slips from one to the other.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 54a - Fresco of winged figure from dado of passage in ruined Buddhist shrine, excavated at Miran site.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 54b - Fresco of winged figure from dado of passage in ruined Buddhist shrine, excavated at Miran site.

 
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On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks 54 - Fresco of winged figures from dado of passage in ruined Buddhist shrine, excavated at Miran site.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 55 - Portion of fresco composition showing scene from Buddhist legend. From frieze of ruined Buddhist shrine, excavated at Miran site.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 56 - Portion of frescoed dado, with lower part of frieze, on south wall of rotunda in Buddhist shrine, Miran site. The dado shows on left a girl carrying jug and patera; on right the bust of a young man; between them a wingless amorino carrying garland. In frieze the lower portions of four draped male figures and quadriga. Stein noted the strong European features of the figures.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 58 - View to the south-east from ruined stupa, Lou-lan site, across wind-eroded ground - Ruined dwelling in foreground

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 59 - Ruin of ancient dwelling and of stupa, Lou-lan site, seen from south - Figure of man below marks the depth of wind-eroded ground below original level.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 63 - Panoramic view of interior of ruined fort L.K., Lop desert, taken from north corner

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 66 - Head of dead man, found in grave on top of mesa, Lop desert - Head had been covered by canvas shroud; its edge tied into small bag holding Ephedra twigs. - Stein found the graves on a mesa north-east of Lou-lan on the route the Chinese used for caravans between Lou-lan and Tun-huang. But the corpse was not Chinese nor Central Asian, but European. He left the remains in place, many years later many have been moved to a museum in Urumchi

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 67 - Body of dead man found in grave on top of mesa of Lop desert - Canvas shroud lifted from head. The small basket seen above head was found outside shroud in corresponding position.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 68 - Heaped - up blocks of salt on surface of dried-up Lop sea bed. The rough salt surface so damaged the camel's feet that they had to be re-soled with bull hide frequently. This photo made during Stein's dangerous trek from Lou-lan across the salt sea toward Tun-huang as he sought and found the ancient Chinese caravan route.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 69 - Spring of Lowaza with ice-sheet at foot of old lake shore, on route along southern edge of salt-encrusted Lop-nor bed.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 70 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower, T.iii, near western end of Tun-huang Limes. The spot where the first discovery of an early Chinese record on wood was made is marked by the two men in the foreground - Stein included many more photos of Han Dynasty towers in his official reports. For this general summary book he includes this one due to the significance of the recovered Chinese record.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 71 - Line of Limes wall near watch-tower Txiii - this one far to the east from previous photo - but is shows the construction method of the wall quite well. - repeated layers of stamped clay and brushwood.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 72 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower, T.ivc, on western flank of Tun-huang Limes, with view to north - On left an eroded clay errace with deep-cut Nullah, Across depression with Toghraks and tamarisks is seen in distance an isolated clay terrace (A), bearing remains of ruined watch-tower, T iva. Stein recognized that these detached towers west and south-west of the end of the Han wall were placed as warning posts to cover the gap between the Su-lo Ho basin and the high sand dunes to the south-west. They are found on the special maps.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 73 - Ruin of ancient Chinese fort, marking the position of the ' Jade Gate', seen from north-east - Stein was very interested in finding the location of the 'Jade Gate' noted in ancient Chinese annals. It was the frontier customs post set back from the Han wall. The name came from the most important import - jade - that came from the Khotan area and is still much prized in China. Photos of this building appear in his other reports.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks74 - Ruined watch-tower, T.xiia, with remains of adjoining quarters and stairs, Tun-huang Limes - One of the better preserved of the Han Dynasty towers. The photo well illustrates the construction of alternate layers of stamped clay and fascines.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 77 - Southernmost Nan-shan range, seen from across basin of Su-lo-Ho headwaters. In this photo Stein skips ahead, far to the south-east, into his exploration of the Nan-shan ranges to locate the headwaters of the Su-lo Ho, Kan-chou and other rivers. See maps.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 78 - Ruins of ancient Chinese magazine, T.xviii, Tun-huang Limes, seen from south - In this illustration Stein jumps back in time and space to the area around Tun-huang. The figures of men standing at different points of the structure serve to indicate its size. Indeed, the men are so tiny that they are hardly visible. This immense structure baffled Stein for a while as to its function. But he eventually found sufficient relics to conclude that it was a huge grain storage warehouse plus central distribution point for other material and equipment needed along the Han wall. Photos appear in other reports.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 79 - Rows of small Buddhist cave-temples, seen from the shrine of a colossal Buddha, in southern group of 'Thousand Buddhas' site, Tun-huang. - Note that the porches and anti-chambers of most cave shrines have eroded. The upper levels were no longer accessible during Stein's visit, but the entire site has been restored for tourists today.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 80 - Ruined Buddhist grottoes, near Wang- Tao-shih's cave-temple, 'Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - The ante-chapels and porches of the cellas above have completely disappeared. The stucco images show recent restoration (1907) - Below are seen tghe porches, parftially filleld with sand, leading to other cellas.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 81 - Interior of temple cella, 'Caves of the thousand Buddhas', showing platform with stucco images and paintings on west wall and ceiling. - many more illustrations are in Stein's other reports.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 82 - Tempera painting showing procession of over-life-size Bodhisattvas, on wall of temple porch, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas'.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 83 - Mural paintings representing Jataka scenes and divine assemblages in corner of large temple cella, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas".

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 84 - Ruined watch-tower, T.ix, on Chinese Limes, N.W. of Tun-huang. Note that this one is constructed of layers of clay bricks without fascines.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 85 - Wang Tao-shih, Taoist priest at the 'Caves of the Thousand Buddhas' - this gentleman is the individual from whom Stein purchased a large collection of ancient manuscripts during the second and third expeditions - but there were hundreds more available for other visitors. The photo is in several of Stein's reports.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 86 - Cella and porch of Wang Tao-shih's temple, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - On extreme right the locked door leading to the rock-cut chapel, previously walled up, where the hidden library of MSS. was discovered. In foreground MS. bundles taken out for examination. The images on platform of cella are modern.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 87-88 - Ancient Buddhist banners of painted silk gauze, representing Bodhisattvas. From the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - These illustrations are in several of Stein's reports.

 
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On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks 87 - Ancient Buddhist banner of painted silk gauze, representing Bodhisattva. From the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - The illustration is in several of Stein's reports including Ruins of Desert Cathay.

 
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On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks 88 - Ancient Buddhist banner of painted silk gauze, representing Bodhisattva. From the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - The illustration is in several of Stein's reports including Ruins of Desert Cathay.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 89 - Ancient embroidery picture on silk, showing the Buddha between disciples and Bodhisattvas, with the donors in adoration below. From the walled-up chapel. "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks 89 - Ancient embroidery picture on silk, showing the Buddha between disciples and Bodhisattvas, with the donors in adoration below. From the walled-up chapel. "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - The illustration is also in Ruins of Desert Cathay.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 90 - Specimens of ancient embroidery and tapestries, from the "Caves of Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 93-94 - Ancient Buddhist banners of silk gauze, showing legendary scenes from the life of the Buddha. Recovered from the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas",

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 93 - Ancient Buddhist banner of silk gauze, showing legendary scenes from the life of the Buddha. Recovered from the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas",

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 94 - Ancient Buddhist banner of silk gauze, showing legendary scenes from the life of the Buddha. Recovered from the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas",

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 95-96 - Ancient Buddhist banners of painted silk gauze, showing scenes from the life-story of the Buddha. Recovered from the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks 95 - - Ancient Buddhist banner of painted silk gauze, showing scenes from the life-story of the Buddha. Recovered from the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks 96 - Ancient Buddhist banner of painted silk gauze, showing scenes from the life-story of the Buddha. Recovered from the walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 97 - Ancient Buddhist banner of silk gauze, showing the Bodhisattva Manjusri. From the "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang. He is the Bodhisattva of Transcendent Wisdom the oldest and most significant in Mayayana Buddhism - One of the main four along with Kshitigarbha, Samantabhadra and Avalokitesvara.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 97 - Ancient Buddhist banner of silk gauze, showing the Bodhisattva Manjusri. From the "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang. He is the Bodhisattva, personification of Transcendent Wisdom (or Central Glory or Sweet Splendor) the oldest and most significant in Mahayana Buddhism - One of the main four along with Kshitigarbha, Samantabhadra and Avalokitesvara. It is difficult to see the detail in this poor rendition, but Manjusri is frequently shown seated on a green lion, which may be the case here. For a full discussion of Manjusri and Bodhisattvas in general please go to http://www. urbandharma.org/ibmc/ibmc1/jusri.html

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 98 - Ancient Buddhist painting on silk, showing the Bodhisattva Kshitigarbha. From the "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas",Tun-huang. Originally a monk then one of the four principal Bodhisattvas "Earth Treasury" with a vow to instruct all beings and to empty all hells=He is a guardian of children

 
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On Central Asian Tracks98 - Ancient Buddhist painting on silk, showing the Bodhisattva Kshitigarbha. From the "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas",Tun-huang. Originally a monk then one of the four principal Bodhisattvas "Earth Treasury" with a vow to instruct all beings and to empty all hells=He is a guardian of children

 
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On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks 99 - Silk banners of Lokapalas Vasravana and Virudhaka at Tun-huang - Lokapalas in Buddhist theology are the guardians of directions, Warrior kings dressed in armor - one of the two caegories of Dharmapala the other being protectors of wisdom. The Lokapalas are Vaisiravana - He who hears all - north, with pike or halbard and often a snake (or umbrella and mongoose); Dhrtarastra - He who upholds the realm - east with bow and arrow or pipa; Virupaksa - He who sees all - west with sword or pearl; and Virudhaka - He who causes all to grow - south with sword or club - Unfortunately from this photo of a photo we cannot determine all the details.

 
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On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks 99 - Silk banners of Lokapalas Vasravana and Virudhaka at Tun-huang - Lokapalas in Buddhist theology are the guardians of directions, Warrior kings dressed in armor - one of the two caegories of Dharmapala the other being protectors of wisdom. The Lokapalas are Vaisiravana - He who hears all - north, with pike or halbard and often a snake (or umbrella and mongoose); Dhrtarastra - He who upholds the realm - east with bow and arrow or pipa; Virupaksa - He who sees all - west with sword or pearl; and Virudhaka - He who causes all to grow - south with sword or club - Unfortunately from this photo of a photo we cannot determine all the details.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 100 - Ancient Buddhist painting on silk, showing the lokapala Vaisravana, Regent of the North, moving with divine host across the ocean. Recovered from the walled-up chapel. "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - The illustration is also in Serindia.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 100 - Ancient Buddhist painting on silk, showing Vaisravana, Regent of the North, moving with divine host across the ocean. Recovered from the walled-up chapel. "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - He is the chief of the four heavenly kings (the lokapala) who guard the four cardinal directions. He is the diety who hears everything. Frequently he is depicted with a yellow face and carrying an unbrella.The Hindu name is Kubera, he is the son of Vishrava. This illustration is also in Serindia.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 101 - Ancient silk painting, representing Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva (Kuan-yin), Thousand-armed, with attendant divinities. From walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 105 - Ancient silk painting, representing Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva (Kuan-yin), Thousand-armed, with attendant divinities. From walled-up chapel, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 112 - Cave-temples of Wan-fu-hsia, The "Myriad Buddhas", on right bank of Shih-pao-cheng stream - Stein visited this much less famous and more out of the way series of cave-temples in the mountains south of An-his on his way into the Nan-shan for summer explorations.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 113 - Frescoes in ante-chapel of a cave-temple at Wan-fu-hsia, The "Myriad Buddhas" - The figures in the procession of Bodhisattvas on the right are over life-size.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks114 - Ruined stupa built above N.W. corner of circumvallation, Khara-khoto - Here Stein jumps ahead to his visit during the third expedition to this remote medieval city near the Mongolian border. Many photos are in his report - Innermostasia. The remarkable ruin still exists.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 115 - Stucco images of Buddha and Bodhisattva in cave-shrine, Ma-ti-ssu.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 116 - Court of temple outside Barkul, with view towards Barkul-tagh - Here Stein has jumped toward the end of the third expedition and is north of the Tienshan mountains

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 117 - Ruins of Buddhist shrines on western side of Toyuk Gorge

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 118 - Chinese temple outside Nan-kou-ch'eng

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 119 - Ruined Buddhist shrine at Sirkip, Turfan - other photos of the impressive building are in Stein's other reports.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 122 - Central main street in ruined town of Yar-khoto, Turfan, seen from north - The high structure in foreground is a temple ruin. On left the trees of Yar-khoto village, beyond the eastrern "Yar', show in the distance. - Stein criss-crossed the Turfan depression and surveyed it as well as conducted extensive excavations.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 123 - Ruin of watch-tower on ancient Chinese route from Ying-p'an to Korla - This is on the northern side of the Taklamakan - the main caravan route for the Chinese during Han and Tang times - the illustration shows the construction method is similar to that for the Han wall towers.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 128 - Sel-tagh or Muz-tagh range seen from Tars-agar pass - Photo taken during Stein's travel through the Pamirs and Russian Turkestan to Persia.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 129 - View up Bostan-arche valley towards Chakraghil peaks on Meridional range - Afrazgul Khan in foreground - This is in the Pamirs - While R. B. Ram Singh took the artifacts back to India over the Karakorum pass, Stein took only Afrazgul Khan with him for the trip across Russian Central Asia and Persia back to India around Afghanistan.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 130 - Kirghiz anthropometrically examined at Kara-chim - Although Stein could not excavate nor survey while in Russian territory, he persisted in obtaining anthropometric measurements and photos of the local tribal groups he met en route.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 131 - Roshani village headmen at Saunab - Roshan is located on the northern side of the Oxus where it bends sharply from flowing north to west - the border between Afghanistan to the south and Tajikistan to the north - it is north of Shughan which adjoins it to the south. Stein traveled across the Pamirs to reach the Oxus further east at the Wakhan corridor and then cut through both Shughan and Roshan over very high passes in order to see the inhabitants as well as the terrain.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks132 - Gorge on Bartang River, above Saunab, blocked by earthquake - Newly formed tarn in foreground; former river bed buried under rock debris. The results of the earthquake forced Stein to take more difficult alternate routes through the Pamirs.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 133 - Shedau lake formed by barrage, thrown down by Sarez earthquake

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 134 - View to S.E. across eastern end of Lake Victoria, Great Pamir

 
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On Central Asian Tracks135 - Barrage thrown across Bartgang valley by earthquake, with western end of newly formed Sarez lake - Clouds of dust raised by rock movement are seen on higher slopes.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 136 - Ovis Poli shot near Lake Victoria, Great Pamir, it was shot by Afrazgul Khan - in those days European 'sportsmen' paid significant money to go on expeditions to shoot Ovis Poli and other mountain animals.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 137 - Kokan Beg, headman of Kirghiz about Great Kara-kol - very impressive gentleman

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 138 - Hindukush peaks above Ishmarg, seen across Ab-i-panja - the mountains are in Afghanistan while Stein was in Tajikistan and prohibited from crossing the Oxus.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 139 - Ravelin with tower at north end of citadel, Zamr-i-atish-parast - Stein found many fortified places throughout Tajikistan and estimated some dated from Islamic period and some from well before. One wishes there was a scholarly survey of all these fortifications.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 140 - View from Shitam Pass to west (left) and north-west (right) - There were easier routes but Stein insisted on taking much more difficult paths over high passes.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 141 - View from moraine below Sitargh pass to south-west (left) and west (right)

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 142 - Rampart and towers on north-west face of Qala-i-qa'qa - on Tajik side of the Oxus - another fortress of indeterminate age.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 143 - Descent on skin raft through Bartang River gorges, Roshan - Stein never hesitated for such means of travel - note his similar river expeditions on the Indus. Roshan is located on the right bank of the Oxus where it bends 90% from north to west - it is adjacent to and north of Sughman, both now in theTajik republic. The Bartang is a tributary of the Oxus.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 144 - Market village of Faizabad, Hissar

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 145 - Group of Roshani family, Kala-i-wamar - note these Moslem women are not veiled.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 146 - Old wood-carving at entrance of Ming-bashi's house, Kala-i-wamar

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 147 - Glacier seen eastwards on descent from Girdan-i-kaftar pass - another of the high passes Stein insisted on crossing although there were easier routes in the Pamirs.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks The map at the back of the book - we made color photos of sections of the map as well. This map shows the routes of Stein's entire three expeditions. The black/white version makes the place names stand out well. From Kashgar and Maral-bashi on the west edge of the Taklamakan on the Yarkand river the main towns to the south and east are yharkand, Karghalik, Khotan, Dandan-uliq, Khadlik, Keriya, Niya, Endere, Charchan, Charkhlik, Miran - then Abdal and Loulan on the east side - from there to the east are Tun-huang, An-hsi, Malo-mei, Su-chou, and Kan-chou - to the far north-east is Khara-Khoto. Stein's two routes from south-east to north-west from An-hsi and Mao-mei are seen toward Hami and Barkul. North of the Tien-shan he visited Guchen, then crossed the mountains to the south to Kara-khoja, Turfan, Kara-shahr, Kucha and Aksu. The shaded lines across the desert show his routes. South of Khotan one can see his route to Keriya, then south into the Kun-lun and west to a point south of Karghalik and over the Karakorum pass.

 

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