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To understand the antecedents of the Great Northern War one must go back a considerable way in Swedish- Muscovite relations, and also factor in the relations both had with Poland over some centuries. In 1700 which power was the "status-quo" power and which desirous of upsetting the current stability? It is quite clear that Russia - Peter - was the actor bent on major dislocation, indeed revolution, to the current status quo.
The struggle for the south-eastern Baltic coast between Sweden or Denmark on the one hand and various Russian states went back to the time of Alexander Nevski (1240) and even before. During the following 450 years the fortunes of the sides waxed and waned, with Sweden or Denmark or the Teutonic - Livonian Knights generally holding the upper hand along most of the coast line. Ivan III was successful in extending Russian territory, but his gains were lost by Ivan IV. Boris Gudonov, in turn, regained some areas, but these were lost again during the "time of troubles". During all this period the struggle for the coast was intertwined with the struggle for the region between Orsha and Smolensk and even with the question of control over Ukraine. Reluctantly, but to save wear and tear on everyone, I will skip over all this, and start with the 17th century. Some day we will take up the activities of Charles X and Alexei Mikhailovich.
I can't do nearly as well to sumarize the recent past as of 1700 than to quote Michael Florinsky, in his "Russia: A History and an Interpretation". He is writing about the efforts of Peter's father, Tsar Alexei Mikahilovich.

"War with Poland was the immediate result of the incorporation of Ukraine in the Muscovite state. On this occasion the Russian troops, supported by the Cossacks, did uncommonly well. In 1654-56 they not only took Smolensk but also occupied a large part of Lithuania, including the cities of Vilna, Kovno, and Grodno. Russian victories were faciltiated by the invasion of Poland from the north by Charles X of Sweden, who captured Warsaw and Cracow and proclaimed himself king of Poland. The days of Jan Casimir's rule appeared to be numbered, but the independence of Poland was saved by the conflicing ambitions of her two enemies: Tsar Alexis coveted the Polish Crown, while King Charles wanted Lithuania, which was occupied by the Russian troops. Moscow suspended hostilities against Poland, turned against Sweden in a futile attempt to establish itself on the shores of the Baltic sea. An inconclusive Russo-Swedish war was brought to an end in December 1658, by an armistice which led to the Peace of Cardis (1661) by which Russia abandoned the territories held by here armies. ..."

Now lets turn to see what the great Russian historian, V. O. Kliuchevsky, has to say about the Russian foreign policy during this period. Actually he has many pages, but to summarize here is the conclusion. Writing about the policy of Tsars Alexei Mikhailovich, Fedor Alexeivich and Sophia Alexievna he says.
"Here are the most important points of the program: 1. peace and even alliance with Poland, (2) struggle against Sweden for the eastern shores of the Baltic and against Turkey and the Crimea for south Russia: (3) final reorganization of the military forces as a regular army; (4) replacement of the old complicated system of direct taxation by two taxes - poll tax and land tax: (5) development of the export trade and of home industries; (6) introduction of municipal self- government with the object of improving the productivity and welfare of the commercial and industrial class; (7) emancipation of the serfs with their land; (8) establishing schools for general and religious education, and technical schools adapted to the requirements of the state.
He continues, "It will be easily seen that these suggestions taken together are identical with Peter's program of reform, and they were ready before he began his work.... They not only created the spiritual environment in which Peter grew up, but also drew up for him a plan of action - a plan that in some respects went further than the reforms he introduced."
In this context I can contend that Peter began preparations for war against Sweden when he was 8 or 9 years old, certainly before he became Tsar. He inherited this fundamental cornerstone of his program from his father and grandfather. Peter's famous "embassy" to the West was for no other purpose than to assist in his preparation for war with Sweden. But lets be more specific.
Turning back to Michael Florinsky we find the following remark, "The Azov campaigns, however, were a mere prologue to the military struggle with Sweden which lasted from 1700 to 1721. It seems likely that the idea of the Swedish campaign originated in Peter's mind in Vienna in 1698, when it became clear that Emperor Leopold and other European rulers had no desire to participate in the anti-Turkish crusade sponsored by the tsar. The plans took a more definite shape in the course of an interview between Peter and King Augustus II (The Strong - also called "the father of his country for obvious reasons - my remark) at Rawa, where the tsar for a while broke his return journey to Moscow. Augustus, elector of Saxony, tall, handsome, athletic, and one of the most unscrupulous scoundrels ever to ascend the ill fated throne of Poland, at once captured the imagination of the tsar and they became intimate friends." He continues, "A secret coalition against Sweden was formed in the autumn of 1699 by Russia, Poland, and Denmark, the latter country nursing a grudge against Holstein-Gottorp, whose Duke Frederick enjoyed the support of his brother-in-law and friend, Charles XII of Sweden."
See Ian Grey's biography of Peter as well for a discussion of the secret planning. Alex de Jong also as adamant in stating that it was Peter's idea to start the GNW and by treachery and surprise attack. His official excuse was in revenge for the poor treatment he received from the governor of Riga during his western tour!!
Florinsky in discussing the course of the war uses some of the same language Kenneth Gauck does to describe the view of Charles that emerged during its course. " a reputed military genius inspired his small, but well trained, and well equipped and well disciplined army to perform military deeds that threatened for a time the established order in Europe."
But this cannot have been in anyone's mind prior to the war, in fact most likely the opposite. Charles XI only died in 1697 leaving the throne to his 15 year old son. According to Hatton, the common opinion of the time was that Charles had, "inherited the passionate and uxorious nature of his father and would wear out his health and strength on the marriage bed." Without the minutes of the meeting of 1698 I can only speculate, but is certainly appears to be "no coincidence" as they say that the presence of an inexperienced youth on the Swedish throne raised such irrestible expectations that Peter, Augustus, et. al. decided the time to strike would never be better. As it turned out they were badly mistaken, but that subsequent events proved that they had acted prematurely, before their full preparations were complete, does not relieve them of the responsibility of striking the first blow. In the case of Peter, one might sympathize with the ruler whose life-long ambition drummed into him as part of his inheritance suddenly appears ripe for picking with little risk and by the use of allied forces. We must remember that it was a central feature of Muscovite strategy at least since the time of Ivan I to find ways to have allies and even enemies do the heavy fighting for them. If his own army proved to be a disappointment, it must be said that he was justifiably even more disappointed in the performance or the Danes and Saxons.

Some bibliography:

I prepared an extensive bibliography of sources on the entire span of Russian military history in 1970. Here are a few extracts from that related to the GNW plus some more recent titles.
Aberg, Alf and Gote Goransson, _Karoliner_, Forlags AB Wiken, 1989. A heavly illustrated book on the Swedish army of the period. One need not read Swedish to appreciate the marvelous color illustrations and detailed diagrams showing uniforms, equipment, tactics, logistics and the like. The campaigns are only sketched. Of interest is the description of the fate of the army as prisoners of war after Poltava.

Agrenich, A. A. _Ot Kamny do sovremennogo snaryada (From Rocks to contemporary Shells), Moscow: Military Publishing House, 1954. A history of missile firing weapons from ancient times. The section of the Great Northern War and Peter I is excellent. It provides correct Russian terminology for ammunition types known in the West.
Alston, Patrick, Education and the State in Tsarist Russia. Stanford Univ Press, 1969. This contains a brief account of the era of Peter I. The author remarks that "The battle-tested Army became the primary agency of social stability and individual advancement" under Peter I. A point still worth noting today.

Anderson, Matthew, S. _Britain's Discovery of Russia, 1553-1815. London, MacMillian and Co, 1958. Much British interest centered on the Russian army and navy. The image of Russia during the Northern War is covered.

Andreev, A. I. ed. Petr Velikii (Peter the Great), Moscow, Academy of Science, USSR, 1947. This is a useful collection of articles. The one by P. P. Epifanov, "The Military Regulations of Peter the Great" has been languishing in my cabinet awaiting translation for 20 some years.

Bain, Nisbet, _The First Romanovs_, London, 1905. A general, popular style account that includes considerable information on the Great Northern War. But there are numerous discrepancies, especially in dates.

Beskrovnii, L. G., _Poltava: k 250- letiyu poltavskogo srazheniya - sbornik statyei_. Moscow, Izdatyel'stvo akademii nauk SSSR, 1959. This is an interesting set of articles on widely separated but detailed aspects of the campaign and Russian society at the time. As is to be expected with a thoroughly Marxist-Leninist approach much attention is focused on economics and class issues. Probably the must useful articles are on the Russian artillery, the strategy and tactics during this period, Peter's Military council, the Military Chancelory (Prikaz) and its role in supervising recruiting, and industrial production to supply uniforms, arms, and ammunition for the army. The introduction is a bibliographic study.

Beskrovnii, L. G. "Production of Armaments and Ammunition in Russian Factories in the First Half of the 18th Century," in Istoricheskiye Zapiski, XXXVI, 1951. The article contains more information than the title indicates. In order to provide contrast to the previous period a complete picture of arms production in the 17th century is also provided. Maps and tables provide much detail. Beskrovnii includes the metalurgy industry as well with maps showing the main centers of production i nthe central Urals and elsewhere.

Beskrovnii, L. G. "Review of book 'The People's War in the Ukraine against the Swedish Invaders in 1708-9', by V. Shutoi, Kiev, 1951, in Voprosi Istorii, V 1952. The reviewer finds little wrong with this book on the peasant war against Charles XII. He notes that the war was not only one against a foreign invader but also a class war against Mazeppa and the wealthy cossack leadership. Then Beskrovnii makes a very interesting observation. He notes that the author characterized the war as "progressive" from Russia's point of view, but failed to declare it was also "just". Beskrovnii says this is a mistake because ALL PROGRESSIVE WARS ARE BY NATURE JUST." Good Marxism-Leninism there.

Beskrovnii, L. G. _Russkaya Armiya i flot v XVIII Veke (The Russian Army and Navy in the 18th Century)_. Moscow, Military Publishing House, MOD, 1958. The authoritative Soviet period work on the subject by the dean of Soviet military historians. I wrote 25 years ago that the book ought to be translated into English, and I still think so. The introduction is an outstanding bibliographical essay on works on this topic from the 18th century on.

Beskrovnii, L. G. _Stranitsi Voyenogo Proshlogo (Pages of the Military Past), Moscow, nauka Publishing, 1968. This is a collection of essays on Russia from the 13th century to WWI. There are several on the Great Northern War. I have to note, however, that Professor Klokman manages to jump right over the Pruth Campaign. Also, the Swedes are accused of every crime imaginable, but no mention is made of the atrocities perpetrated by the Tatar -Kalmuk troops purposely used for this purpose by Peter I.

Beskrovnii, L. G. "The Victory at Poltava", Voprosi Istorii, XII, Dec, 1959, pp, 41-57. A brief article turned out for the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the battle. It is quite propagandistic, but has useful footnotes. More on the subsequent significance of the battle than on its course. One finds here unusual details such as the presence of 3,500 Kalmuk warriors in the 40,000 man Russian force. His figures on Swedish strength don't even match with the tabular data on dead, captured and escaped.

Beskrovnii, L. G. "Military Schools in Russia in the First Half of the 18th Century", Istoricheskii Zapiski, XLII, 1953. Contains considerable information on officer training. Beskrovnii wants to play down the role of foreign officers and complains that pre- revolutionary historians gave them too much credit. Yet he has to indicate that Peter continued to call for foreign officers as late ad 1702. Also, he cleverly focuses on "influence of foreigners" rather than "foreign influence" thus ignoring the role of Russians sent abroad and of westerners born in Russia.

Beskrovnii, L. G. "Russkaya Voyennaya Kniga" (Russian Military Books", in _Krasnaya Zvezda_, 26 Feb 1964. Only Peter's Ustav Voinski is mentioned for that period.
Beskrovnii, L. G., _Atlas Kart i Skhyem po russkoi voyennoi istorii_, Voyennoye izdatel'stvo narodnogo komissarita vooruzhyennikh sil, Moscow, 1946. A fine, color set of maps, tables and diagrams including nine related to the Great Northern War.

Bobrovskii, P. O. _Perekhod Rossii k Regularnoi Armii, (Transition of Russia to the Regular Army), St. Petersburg, V. S. Balashev. 1885. This is the standard prerevolutionary work on the subject. It complements that of Chernov. He paints a dismal picture of the Russian army in the last half of hte 17th century as it struggled to adopt the new techniques from the west but also refused to abandon the old. He gives an excellent explaination of the creation of hte Russian army by Peter I. According to Bobrovskii, the first attempt in 1999-1700 was based on the German model. When this army was practically destroyed at Narva and its officers captured, Peter tried again on the French model. General Ogilive and many new officers from Saxony were prominent. But most foreigners had left by 1708 due to the insults from Menshikov and generally poor treatment. Finally, for the 1709 campaign, Peter adopted the Swedish model for his units.

Bogoyavleshkii, S. K. "Vooruzhenie Russkikh Voisk v XVI - XVII Veka", (The Armament of the Russian Forces in the 16th and 17th Centuries"), _Istoricheski Zapiskii_, #71. This is an especially remarkable article because the author contradicts the vast majority of Soviet writers and flatly states that the Russians copied the weapons of their enemies, but not before they had been defeated in battles by enemies using these weapons. It is well illustrated.

Brieckner, A. G. "The Life of Patrick Gordon and His Diary," Zhurnal Ministerstvo Narodnogo Proveshcheniye , Dec. 1877 and March 1878. In citing passages from Patrick Gordon's diary and in describing its contents the author whets our desire to obtain the diary itself. (A desire partially accompished now!) Gordon spent enormous sums on purchase of the latest books on military affairs including Vauban on fortifications. Many of his books were passed on to Peter I.

Bruce, Peter Henry, _Memoirs of Peter Henry Bruce, esq., A Military Officer in the Services of Prussia, Russia and Great Britain, containing an Account of His Travels in German, Russia and Tatary.._ London, T. Payne and Sons, 1782. this is an eyewitness account written in the homey, popular style of the day by a soldier of fortune who entered the Prussian service in his teens, fought under Marlborough in France and Holland, served as artillery and engineer officer and as aide de camp in the Russian Army under Peter I, and then fortified the Bahama Islands for his Britannic Majesty. While in Russia, he went on the Pruth and Persian campaigns, surveyed the Caspian Sea, fortified the Baltic seaports and served in the army on campaigns in Denmark, Germany and Sweden. His accounts contain much interesting information on campaigns, court life, and personalities. I have a Xerox of the original but it has now been put complete on the Internet. An unknown gem.

Buxholveden, Sophie Baroness, _A Cavalier in Muiscovy_, London, MacMillan and Co, 1932. So far this is still the only biography of General Patrick Gordon, a Scottish adventurer who rose to the position of Quarter-master General and division commander in the Russian Army of Peter I. He had a long and distinguished career under Alexis, Feodor, Sophie and Peter. He was present on two campaigns to Crimea, both sieges of Azov, and was the leading general responsible for both Peter's initial victories over Sophia and for suppression of the Streltsi rebellion of 1698. His diary, upon which this biography is based, would be a very valuable source ofmaterial on the Russian Army of the 17th century and Western influences in it. The diary has never been published in full in English, although a German edition exists.

Chebotarev, B. V. and Kazakova, L. M. "Azov, A Strong City," Voprosi Istorii, VIII, Aug 1967, pp. 210-212. This is a short but useful article which gives the basic military history of this port and trading post that played an important role in the Russo- Turkish struggle for the Black Sea. It contains the basic facts on the many sieges and other battles in the region.

Chernov, A. V. _Vooruzheniye Sili Russkogo Gosudastrva v XV-XVII Veke, (The Armed Forces of the Russian State in the 15th, 16th, and 17th Centuries). Moscow, 1954. The book is a detailed account of the important changes that took place in the Russian armed forces during this period. It is a major source of information, but is badly marred by the author's insistence that Russia's armed forces developed without any external influence and were at all times superior in quality and techniques to all others. It is an extremely xenophobic and tendentious work, filled with Russian chauvinism, not to mention Marxist preconception. Nevertheless, it is an important and basic guide to the period.

Chernov, A. V. "Tsentral'nii Gosudastrvennii Arkhiv Drevnikh Aktov, kak istochnik po voyennoi istorii russkogo Gosudastrva do XVIII Veka", (The Central State Archive of Ancient Acts, as a source for the Military History of the Russian state prior to the 18th Century", Trudi Istoriko-Arkhivnogo Instituta, IV, June 1948. All the military historical materials relateing to hte period prior to Peter I's reorganization of the government are collected in this archive. The author is an expert on the military hisotyr of Russia in the 15th - 17th Centuries. In this article he gives an extremely well done picture of the complex nature of these archives, which should be of great benefit to researchers. In the course of his explanation of what types of documentary materials are available, the author actually gives an excellent, concise description of the armed forces themselves and of the administrative organs which controlled them. These archives were subject to many disasterous losses such as the fire of 1626, yet from this description, it appears that much more was preserved than one might expect.

Condray, Pat, _Swedish and Russian Armies of the Great Northern War_, Second Edition, Alexandria, VA. editions Brokaw, 1990. In this small pamphlet Pat Condray has compiled the basic information available from Zweiguitzow, Aberg, Arteus, and others. It is meant for individuals anxious to create credible wargame armies.
Condray, Pat, _Danes, Bavarians and Prussians_, Alexandria, Va. editions Brokaw, 1986. Of the three armies included in this pamphlet, the Danes figured in the Great Northern War, however briefly. The author has compiled information from a variety of references and individuals for use by war gamers.

Denisov, M. M. _Russkoe Oruzhenie, XI-XIX Vekov, (Russian Weapons: A Short Account of Russian Military Armaments in the 11th to 19th Centuries), Moscow, 1953. This is the best book available on the subject. It is extremely well illustrated, a very important point when trying to differentiate between various types of swords or different types of muskets, etc. The author gives detailed descriptions of the weapons, and explains their uses. He also describes their manufacture. Most importantly, he also indicates which type of unit was armed with which weapons and gives the dates when each new weapon was introduced and old weapons phased out. The book contains the usual assertions, (which can easily be discounted) of Russian superiority and foreign, especially Western, inferiority.

Donnelly, Alton, _The Russian Conquest of Bashkiria, 1552-1740_, New Haven, Yale Univ Press, 1968. This is a thorough, well written study of Russian expansion into and across the Urals and of the resistance offered by the Bashkirs and other local inhabitants. The author has used an extensive bibliogrpahy of primary sources. The study shows two characteristic Russian techniques in operation: obtain as much military support as possible from elements of the conquered people themselves, and denounce anyone who resists Russian expansion as a traitor to the best interests of his own people and as a troublemaker for everyone. The author discusses the military techniques involved in the campaigns to subdue the Bashkirs. Of particular interest is the discussion of the massive fortified lines and zones constructed by the Russians to surround and seal off the areas being conquered.

Dotsyenko. V. D. _Russkii Morskoi Mundir 1696-1917_ (Russian Naval Uniforms), St. Petersburg, Logos Publishing, 1994. The introduction in this fine book points out that heretofore no general study existed even in Russia of the development of Russian naval uniforms during the entire period covered here. This excellent text certainly fills the gap, both with its comprehensive discussion and the many fine, full-color illustrations.

Duffy, Christopher, _Russia's Military Way to the West_, London, Routledge &Keegan Paul, 1981.

Ozhincharadze, V. Z. "Bor'ba s Inostrannim Shpionazhem v Rossii v XVII Veke", (The Struggle with Foreign Espionage in Russia in the 17th Century", _Istoricheski Zapiskii_, XXXIX, 1952, pp. 229-258. This is a very interesting article for the Russian attitudes it reveals. The author contends that Russia was subjected to an espionage campaign conducted above all by the foreign diplomats accredited to Moscow. The diplomats used secret agents to gather information. The foreigners living in Russia were used in this way and even some Russians were subverted and used as spies. Gregory Kotoshikin, to whom present day historians are grateful for his having written an account of Russia in the 1660's is singled out as an example of the traitors who fled the country and gave valuable information to Russia's enemies. Besides reconnaissance, the author gives examples of Polish attempts at "disinformation", underground activity, and sabotage. The Russian government, however, knew about all this activity and countered it effectively. The author describes some of these measures, especially the fortification of frontier posts and the Kremlin. The government also took measures to prevent foreign efforts at starting uprisings among the people. The author gives many interesting details about specific espionage incidents and the biographies of individual agents.

Englund, Peter, _The Battle of Poltava: The Birth of the Russian Empire_, London, Victor Gollancz, 1992. This is an extraordinary book on several levels.See our review.
Epifanov, P. P. _Sbornik Dokumentov-Voyennie Ustavi Petra Velikogo_, (The Military Regulations of Peter the Great), Moscow, 1946. This small booklet contains reprints of five of the basic military regulations or orders pertaining thereto, issued by Peter I from 1700 to 1714. The author's introductory article is unusually (for its era) free from ideological arguments that Russian military science was entirely self-developed. He does not hesitate to show that Peter sought military experience from foreign sources. This approach enhances his evaluation of the purely Russian elements in Peter's military regulations. It is unfortunate that the author - editor did not republish the other military documents pertaining to this subject, especially the report by A. Weide given to Peter on Weide's return from study of and service in foreign armies in the 1690's.

Esper, Thomas, "Military Self-sufficiency and Weapons Technology in Muscovite Russia", Slavic Review, XXVIII, No 2, June 1969. This is an extremely well-written and thoroughly documented study of the changing and increasing requirements for firearms and the measures taken to obtain or make them in Russia from the first appearances of firearms in the late 1300's to the end of the Northern War in the 1720's. The author shows the causes of these increased requirements, discusses the general militarzy problems facing Russia in the period, and details the combination of foreign and domestic resources which were employed to secure the needed arms. His conclusion that despite a general level of economic backwardness, Russia was able to achieve a satisfactory level of arms production, should be of current interest today.

Falls, Cyril, ed, _Great Military Battles_, New York, MacMillan Co, 1954. This contains an article by John Adair on Poltava. The book is beautifully illustrated. The section on Poltava is recounted from the losing, Swedish, point of view, contrary to the general practice, is itself indicateve of the unavailability of Russian sources for Western writers. He gives much detail on the Swedish Army and quotes from eyewitness reports. He repeats an opinion ofWestern writers that Peter discouraged the Turks from entering the war by sailing hisfleet out into theBlack Sea. The soviet historian, A. P. Blagok. hasshown that this is not the case. Peter avoided all chances of proviking the Turks by such war-like demonstrations and instead kept them neutral by the opposite technique of being extraordinarily peaceful until after Poltava.

Florinsky, Michael, _Russia, A History and an Interpretation_, New York, MacMillan Co, 1947. It is still the best terxtbook on pre-revolutionary Russia. It does not contain much on military details but it certainly places them into the political, economic and social context.

Fuller, J. F. C. _A Military History of the Western World_, This standard survey contains an account of Poltava. When comparing Fuller's description with Soviet sources it is hard to believe they are discussing the same battle.

Golobutskii, V. A. _Zaporozhskoye Kazachestvo_, (The Zaporozhie Cossacks), Kiev, State Publishing House for Political Literature, 1957. The book covers the entire history of the Cossacks from the Marxist point of view. There is a section on the Northern War. It is interesting to note how positively he views every uprising against the Tsar's government, such as the Bulavin revolt in 1708 and how quickly the same oponents of Peter I are viewed negatively when the Swedes come onto the scene. The effective use of Kalmyks by Peter to suppress rebels is also noted.

Gordon, Alexander, _The History of Peter the Great_, Aberdeen, Scotland, F. Douglass and W, Murray, 1755. Here is another fine, eye-witness account that is generally overlooked. The author arrived in Russia in 1693 and soon made lieutenant colonel in the Russian Army. He was given command of a regiment after three years service. He fought the Tatars in the campaign of 1696. At Narva, he was captured. He was exchanged and upon return to Russia was promoted to brigadier general. He blocked Charles XII crossing of the Desniya River in 1706, but was in command of a detachment operating in Poland during the battle at Poltava. He married the daughter of General Patrick Gordon. This history of Peter the Great was one of the best accounts of the Tsar to appear in the 18th century. It deserves to be reprinted. He gives interesting personal observations and comments, such as the remark that the Russians hated foreigners, especially the Scots. Seems that he is frequently confused with Patrick Gordon by writers today.

Gordon, Patrick, _Passages from the Diary of General Patrick Gordon of Auchlenchries_, Aberdeen, The Spaulding Club, 1859, reprinted in London by Frank Cass in 1968. This is an extremely valuable account of the service in the armies of Poland, Sweden, and especially Russia, in the 17th century by one of the most famous teachers of Peter I. This book contains selections from an extensive diary preserved in the Russian archives. Unfortunately, the Scottish editors in the 1850's were more interested in Gordon's remarks about life in Scotland than in his detailed account of military life in Muscovy, so the later are merely summarized. The original diary is a terrific source on Muscovite military affairs during the reigns of Alexis, Feodor, and Sophia. The original diary was published in Russian and German translations under the following titles:
_Tagebuch des Generals Patrick Gordon, ed and trans from English original by Prince M. A. Obolensky and M. C. Poselt, Vol I parts 1-2 Vol II Part 3, Moscow 1849-1851.
Denevnik Generala Patricka Gordona, in Chteniya Imperatorskom Obshchestve istorii i Drevnostei, Book IV, 1891, Book I 1892. Unfortunately only certain parts are published in this edition. Vol IV for 1891 has the years 1635 to 1661 and Book I of 1892 contains the years 1661 to 1683, except for the parts of the diary which were never found. It also contains a biographical note on each of the Gordons who served in Russia in the 17th and 18th Centuries. General Gordon created a problem for those wishing to publish and those wishing to use his diary. He recorded in it every event in such extreme detail that it is impossible to publish the whole work, the editor, therefore, faced a problem in selecting what to print, and the user is left wondering what was left out.
With all the reprinting that is being done today of rare and out- of-print books, it is hoped here that someone will reprint the entire diary. I obtained a Xerox of the Russian edition from St. Petersburg, but that won't help the general reader.

Grey, Ian, _Peter the Great_, New York, Lippincott, 1962. This was the standard biography until Robert Massie's wonderful work. Grey included a good bibliography andextensive notes. It appears that he relied most on Bogoslovski, Solov'ev and Ustryalov for the general course of eventsbut he also uses a great many other sources for details. The accounts of the campaigns, especially the Poltava and Pruth Campaigns, are among the most judicious I have found. He gives Peter much more credit as a leader and organizer than does Professor Florinsky. But he does not omit the faults as Soviet writers do. He especially emphasizes the treacherous way Peter and his allies secretly prepared and attcked Sweden, hoping to take advantage of the boy-king, Charles XII. Mazepa likewise is treated objectively as is the whole issue of the Ukrainian and Cossack participation in the war. His remarks on Peter's use of foreign assistance includes three main points worth mentioning: the assistance was desperately needed and Peter did not hesitate to seek it, many of the individuals who arrived from the West were rejects from their own countries and incompetent, and Peter had no intention to remain dependent on foreign assistance any longer than necessary.

Hatton, R. M. _Charles XII of Sweden_, Weybright and Talley, New York, 1968. The importance of this biography has been mentioned. The author has made extensive use of Swedish sources, but very little of Russian ones. The accounts of the campaigns could have been more complete with some views from the Russian side. The Northern War is seen as an unprovoked, sneak attack on Sweden by three opportunists hoping to use the international situation to cover their seizure of Swedish lands. There are interesting descriptions of Charles' early military training and of the Swedish national army organization.

Jackson, W. G. _Seven Roads to Moscow_, London, eyre and Spottiswood, 1957. This is included for the sake of completeness. The author tries to cover too much territory, (pun intended) (Russia is a big place) in a small volume by relating the various invasions to the geographic routes. Much analysis and opinion based on scanty sources.
Jones, David R. editor and major contributor, _The Military-naval Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union_ Gulf Breeze, Academic International Press, 1978 and following. As far as I know only four volumes of the projected encyclopedia were published. But these contain absolutely first-rate entries, some of which relate to the GNW. Jones' entry on "Advanced Detachments" is exceptional.

Jonge, Alex de, _Fire and Water: A Life of Peter the Great_, New York, Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1979. This is a shorter, lively biography that emphasizes the military aspects of Peter's reign. He stresses the deceitful nature of Peter's dealings with the Swedes on the eve of the war.
_Khrestomatiya, po Istgorii SSSR (reader in the History of the USSR), Vol II. 1682-1856_. Moscow, State Pedagogical Press, 1949. This reader has a number of interesting documents pertaining to military affairs. Especially so are the popular poems and soldier's songs from various wars. There are excerpts from Peter's military regulations and Suvorov's Science of Victory.

Kliuchevski, Vasilii, _A History of Russia_ Five Volumes, New York, Russell and Russell, 1960.
Kliuchevski, Vasilii, _Peter the Great_, trans by Liliana Archibaad, New York, Random House, 1962.

Kliuchevski, Vasilii, _Course in Russian History - 17th Century_, trans Natalie Duddington, Chicago, Quadrangle, 1968. Still the best source for a general view of Russian history from the Russian perspective, the works of the great mid-19th century historian, Professor Kliuchevski, contain a ballanced appraisal of many issues since clouded by most post revolutionary controversy. He includes both judicious general apparaisals of the Russian military forces and details ofcampaigns, personalities, techniques, etc.
Kochyenovskii, Oleg, _Narva: Gradostroityel'noye razvitiyi i arkhityektura_, Tallin, Valgus, 1991. A heavly illustrated history of the city from its founding as a Danish castle fortification around 1255. The section on Narva in 1680-1710 provides many plans and illustrations of the fortifications. During our visit in July 1992 the Swedish officers in the party marveled, saying that it is still a better example of the fortification genius of Erick Dal'berg than anything remaining in Sweden.

Koltsov, E. E. "Razvitie Artilleriiskogo Vooruzheniya i Rossia po Vtoroi Polovina XVII Veke", (The Development of Artillery armament in Russia in the Second Half of the 17th Century), Istoricheski Zapiskii, LXXI, 1962. This is a scholarly study using archival materials to give a very clear yet detailed picture of the development of Russian artillery in the 1600's. The articleis filled with data, dates and specific information on production and use of each type of artillery piece. Of special interest is the re-arming of the Russian regimental artillery by 1699 with three-pounder cannon of 76mm caliber, which greatly improved the regimental artillery. The author indicates that the role of Peter I in improving Russian artillery was great already before the Northern War. On the basis of early experiments and new models tested in theAxov campaigns, the Russian ordnance factories were already producing new artillery in the 1697-99 period. In 1700 they produced 100 three-pounder cannon and 100 mortars.

Konstam, Angus, _Poltava 1709_, in the Campaign Series as number 34, London, Osprey Publishing, 1994. The author's confusion of Alexander for Patrick Gordon at the very beginning of this study does not encourage the reader. However, I did not note any other similar errors. The book is in the usual Osprey standard format, which constricts authors somewhat, but at least ensures an even handed treatment of both sides. There are detailed orders of battle for both armies, however, I noted that the Kalymuks were missing from the Tsar's forces. The many illustrations are taken from near contemporary prints, the great Viskovatov work on Russian uniforms, and specially commissioned paintings by David Rickman. There are several of the excellent colored maps of the main phases of the battle. The bibliography is limited. Mostly these are general works mentioned in this listing, except for Peter Englund's wonderful book.

Konstam, Angus, _Peter the Great's Army_, in the Men-at-Arms series, two volumes, London, Osprey Publishing, 1993. This is a fine effort, confined only by the standard Osprey format. However, the author inexplicably mentions Patrick Gordon correctly on page 9 only to revert to the first name, Alexander, on page 15. Alexander Gordon was a colonel, no relation of Patrick's, who arrived much later and was not among the foreign advisors to Tsar Alexis Michaelovich. (see entry in this list under that name) The author provides no sources or references, but it is clear he has used Russian ones. Most of the uniform illustrations are from Viskovatov, with the exception of David Rickman's colorful paintings. While limited by the 47 page length of each volume (Infantry and Cavalry), this is certainly sufficient for most purposes.

Mishlayevskii, A. Z. General Major, _Severnaya Voina (Northern War) Year 1708_ St. Petersburg, Byeryezhlivost Publishing, 1901. This was published by the Military Education committee of the General Staff. The basic text runs to 186 pages, then there are over 80 pages of documents including extracts and letters by Sheremetyev and Repnin. And there are many tables, diagrams, and maps. Practically all English language books on the Great Northern War skip past the 1708 campaign quickly to get to Poltava. This book provides a much needed source of excellent material on which to base a detailed account of this important campaign, that lead up to Charles's decision to shift his advance to the south.

Perry, John, _The State of Russia under the Present Tsar_, London, Perry was one of the English officers who served Peter. His eye-witness account provides much insight.

Schorr, Dan, _The Saxon-Polish Army During the Great Northern War_, Alexandria VA. Editions Brokaw, 1987. The author is a meticulous researcher in this period, who has uncovered much original source material. Information in this pamphlet is drawn from Austrian, Danish, and Swedish General Staff documents. Dan also has a web site devoted to this period.

Schorr, Dan, _Swedish Colors and Standars of the Great Northern War_, Alexandria VA. Editions Brokaw, 1987. The author has done pioneering work in English on the Scandinavian armies of the early 18th century. This pamphlet contains line drawing illustrations of many Swedish battle flags. The source citations include Bertil Wennerholm's and Leif Tornquist's articles in the _Meddelande_ of the Swedish Armemuseum.

Tikhonov, Yu. A. "Azovskoye sedeniye (Azov Meeting)", _Voprosii istorii, #8, April 1970, pp. 99-110. This interesting article describes Peter's campaigns to Azov on the eve of the Great Northern War. There is a fine plan of the city and siege works.

Zhyelyenikh, V. I. and A. F. Khryenov, _Voyenno-inzhyenyernoye iskusstvo i inzhyenyerniye voiska russkoi armii_ (Military engineering art and engineer troops in the Russian Army), Moscow, Military Publishing House, 1958. This is a series of individual essays on specific aspects of the general title. The articles by D. I. Shor, and N. T. Derzhitikii are most relevant to the Great Northern War. The organizational structure of engineer troops is discussed. There are several diagrams of field fortifications and siege works from this period.

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