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MOSCOW KREMLIN

 

For the history of the Kremlin and detailed descriptions of the buildings please go to the Moscow file. we now have new photos from 2005 visit.

 
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Before entering the Kremlin lets get oriented by looking at a plan of the layout. Note the location of the earlier walls of Ivan I and Dmitri Donskoi and that the fortress had a water defense on all sides. But that didn't protect the buildings inside the kremlin during the massive conflagrations that swept the city.

 
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Map of the kremlin in 1530's during reign of Vasilii III and Ivan III

 
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Map of Moscow in 1648. It shows the Kremlin with the Neglinna river and water moat around it. Also vsible is the wall and water filled moat of Kitai Gorod. And then comes the semicircular area of Beligorod with its wall. Finally there is the wall of Zemli-gorod which forms a full circle around Moscow including part of the Zamoskorechie section south of the Moscow river and part of the territory across the Yauza River.

 
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During World War II the Kremlin was of particular interest to the Germans. Here is part of German World War II aerial photograph of the Kremlin. The huge collection of photos of Russia is in the US National Archives

 
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B/W copy of a painting of the Kremlin.

 
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The kremlin in 1825.

 
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View of the kremlin in 1830.

 
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Illustration from Russian book showing some of the destruction the French army inflicted on the Kremlin.

 
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Map of the Kremlin at the beginning of the 17th century showing the location of many towers and the main buildings.

 
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Illustration showing destruction of the bell tower of Ivan III.

 
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View of the kremlin wall from Red Square in the 17th century.

 
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View of the Kremlin from across the river in 1715.

 
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View of the Kremlin from the river with the Vodovezvodnaya tower in center and the Borovitski gate tower on left. The Kremlin palaces are in the background.

 
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View of the kremlin from up river in 1825.

 
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View of the Kremlin from the bank of the Moskva river downstream and outside the Kitai Gorod wall, opposite to previous photo.

 
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View of the Kremlin from directly across the river.

 
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Kremlin from across the Moscow River, tall, round, corner Beklemishevskaya Tower, named for a boyar family, is in the foreground, the square Spaskii tower with clock is in back, and St Basil's is on the right. See the history of Moscow linked above for descriptions of the history of all the Kremlin towers.

 
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A view of the Moscow River with walls of the Kremlin on right and the huge bulk of the restored Cathedral of our Savior in the center distance. This is taken from upper floor of the Rossia hotel.

 
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View of the Moscow River and wall of the Kremlin with palace inside on the right. To its left is the roof of the Armory museum. Next left is the top of the Borovitski tower. In the corner is the water works tower. In the far distance is the tall building of the Lenin University.

 
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View of the Kremlin with the Bell tower and wall tower of Sts. Constantine and Helena on left, the Alarm tower next to the right, then the tiny Tsar's Tower and then the Spaski Tower with the dome of the Senate between it and St. Basil's cathedral. This is taken from upper floor of the Rossia hotel.

 
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Kremlin cathedral square from across the Moscow River showing river wall and Secrets Tower; Cathedral of Annunciation on right, Cathedral of Assumption in center, Church of The Twelve Apostles to its right and rear, Cathedral of Archangel Michael on right and Bell tower of Ivan III to right rear of it.

 
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View of the Kremlin and Red Square at night.

 
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A table containing data on the towers.

 
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A table containing selected data on the dimensions of the walls between each pair of towers in order clockwise from the Spaski tower.

 
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Diagram of a typical tower with nomenclature for the various parts. Next we have drawings of all the towers going clockwise around the walls starting with the Spaski tower.

 
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Front view of the facade of the Spaski (Savior) gate tower from outside the Kremlin

 
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Section view of interior of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the first floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the second floor of the Savior Tower.

 
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Plan view of the third floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the fourth floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the fifth floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the sixth floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the seventh floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the eighth floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the ninth floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Plan view of the tenth floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Detail drawing showing decorations on the sixth floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Decorations on the facade of the sixth floor of the Savior Tower

 
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Drawing of the clock and decoration on the eighth floor of the Spaski (Savior)\Tower

 
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This is a drawing of the Tsar's Tower - it is not really a fortress tower but was built as a convenient place from which Ivan IV could look down on Red Square.

 
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View of the front of the Nabatnoi (Alarm) Tower

 
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Section view of the Nabatnoi Tower from the side, showing the underground passage.

 
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Side view of exterior of Constantine Tower

 
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Section view of interior of Constantine Tower

 
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Plan view of two floors in the Constantine Tower.

 
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Plan view of two floors of the Constantine Tower

 
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Drawing of the facade of the Beklemishevski Tower viewed from across the former moat - that would be from near the Rossia Hotel now.

 
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Cross section cut away of interior of the Beklemishevski Tower. Note that the lower part of the tower is hollow but has no openings. The first floor with openings at up at the level of the top of the Kremlin walls.

 
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Plan drawing of the first floor of the Beklemishevski Tower - Note that the tower stands on the corner and is outside the walls so gunners can cover approaches on both sides.

 
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Plan drawings - on the left of the second floor of the Beklemishevski Tower and on the right of the third floor

 
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Plan drawings of the fourth, fifth, and sixth floors of the Beklemishevski Tower.

 
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This picture shows the Beklemishevsksi Tower and the parapet of the wall from the western side.

 
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This picture shows the Beklemishevski Tower and parapet from the northern side.,

 
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Front view of Petrovski Tower

 
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Section view of interior of Petrovski Tower

 
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View of the Second Nameless Tower from directly outside the Kremlin.

 
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Cut away sectional view of the Second Nameless Tower, showing the underground area.

 
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Diagram of the First Nameless Tower viewed from the outside the Kremlin along the river.

 
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A cross section diagram of the 1st Nameless tower

 
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Front view of the Secret (Tainitskoi ) Tower from outside the Kremlin

 
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View of the western face of the Secret Tower

 
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Above left is section cut cross wise through the outer work of the Secret Tower Below on right is section cut the other way through the whole tower.

 
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Plan view of the first floor on left and second floor on right of the Secret Tower.The second floor shows the defenses on the roof of the outwork.

 
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A diagram of the front view of the Blagov'shchenskoi tower.

 
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Section view of the Blagov'shchenskoi tower

 
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Front view of the Vodovzvodnoi (water) tower

 
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Section view of the water tower.,

 
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View of facade of the Borovitskoi Tower

 
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View diagram of the Oruzheinoi (Armory) Tower

 
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A cross section cutaway view of the Oruzheinoi (Armory) Tower

 
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Front view of the Commandant's Tower

 
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Section view showing interior of the Commandant's Tower

 
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A front view of the Trinity Tower.

 
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A section view through the Trinity Tower

 
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A diagram view of front of the Middle Arsenal tower.

 
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A cross section view through the Middle Arsenal tower.

 
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View of Corner Arsenal tower from outside Kremlin

 
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Section view of interior of Corner Arsenal Tower

 
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Front view of the Nikolski Tower and gate.

 
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Section view of interior of Nikolski Tower.

 
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Front facade of the Senate Tower

 
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Section view of the interior of the Senate Tower

 
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Kremlin - the Spaski (Savior) tower with clock and next to it the Tsar's observation tower from which Ivan IV could observe public gathering in Red Square.

 
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Spaski, Saviour Tower, (1491) by the architect Peter Antonio Solari.

 
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Another view of the Spaski Tower.

 
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Savior Tower, another view.

 
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The Spaski tower of the Kremlin. There was an icon of our Savior in the white rectangle and all who passed were required to doff their hats and cross themselves.

 
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The St. Nicholas tower of the Kremlin. Before the moat was filled in there was a bridge from this tower. The Yellow building inside the Kremlin is the Arsenal.

 
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The Arsenal tower at one corner of the Kremlin wall. The arsenal is behind it.

 
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Section of Kremlin wall facing St Basil's.

 
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The corner Arsenal tower in center and star on the Nikolai tower on the left behind the historical museum, the center Arsenal tower is on right and the Aleksandrovski garden is right in front of the Kremlin wall.

 
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View of the Terem palace inside the Kremlin from outside near the Alexander gardens.

 
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Kremlin wall above the Alexander gardens where the memorial to the Unknown soldier is. The round tower is the Corner Arsenal tower and the square one is the Middle Arsenal tower. The Yellow building is the Arsenal.

 
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Russian honor guard and band preparing for ceremony at the tomb of unknown soldier beside the Kremlin wall.

 
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The memorial tomb of the Russian unknown soldier with honor guard beside the Kremlin wall.

 
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Memorial to Unknown soldiers in Aleksandrovski Garden beside Kremlin wall, built in 1966.

 
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View of the Grotto in the Middle Arsenal Tower of the Kremlin wall in the Aleksandrovski Garden. The park was created in 1820-23 by the architect, Osip Bove between the Corner Arsenal and Borovitski towers along the outside of the Kremlin wall. It is about 10 hectares in area. The Neglinna river was put into an underground conduit in 1816-20 and the earthen bastions built by order of Peter I in 1707-08 to defend against the expected invasion of King Charles XII were leveled. There had been three; Upper, from Revolution square to the Trinity tower, Middle, from thre to the Borovitski tower, and Lower, from there to the Moscow river. The architect conceived of this park as a romantic place complete with pseudo-ruin and a grotto, shown here.

 
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Fountains in the Alexander gardens beside the Kremlin wall. In medieval times the Neglinniya river flowed past the Kremlin here and formed one side of the moat. It is now underground.

 
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Kremlin cathedral square from across the Moscow River showing river wall and Secrets Tower; Cathedral of Annunciation on right, Cathedral of Assumption in center, Church of The Twelve Apostles to its right and rear, Cathedral of Archangel Michael on right and Bell tower of Ivan III to right rear of it.

 
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Kremlin wall along Moscow River, Grand Kremlin palace on right and Armory museum on left.

 
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Kremlin cathedrals from across the Moscow River.

 
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A view of the Moscow River with walls of the Kremlin on right and the huge bulk of the restored Cathedral of our Savior in the center distance. This is taken from upper floor of the Rossia hotel.

 
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View of the Kremlin wall along the river with the bell tower and Cathedral of St Michael on the left and top of the Spaski tower on the right behind the wall towers.

 
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Kremlin wall along river, St Basil and Spaski tower in background.

 
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Remaining part of wall of the Kutafya Tower, the outer barbican over bridge outside the Trinity Gate Tower, view toward the Trinity Tower. The bridge was one of the first, dating from 1516 and originally spanned the Neglinnaya river that formed the fortress moat on this side.

 
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Kutafya Tower, the outer barbican tower across the bridge outside the Trinity Gate. View from the Trinity Tower toward Manezhnaya Street. The bridge goes over the Aleksandrovski Gardens built over the submerged Neglinnaya River

 
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Inside the Kutafaya tower view to the Trinity Tower.

 
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Kutafiya and Trinity towers with entrance into Kremlin

 
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Trinity Gate tower, built in 1495, the tourist entrance to Kremlin. This is the tallest of the towers at 80 meters.

 
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Trinity Gate tower from within the Kutafya Tower

 
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Borovitskaya Gate Tower, Napoleon ordered the tower blown up but his troops didn't accomplish the mission.

 
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Another view of the Borovitskaya tower with part of the Armory museum next to it.

 
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The Beklemishevskaya Tower on the corner of the Kremlin

 
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The section of the Kremlin wall opposite St Basil's Cathedral. The alarm tower is in the center with the Kinstantin-Yeleninski tower to the left.

 
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View from the Rossia hotel directly toward the Kremlin - The bell tower of Ivan the Great is on the right. Directly in front of it is the Sts. Constantine and Helena Tower (named after the Byzantine Emperor and his mother). The restored Cathedral of Our Savior is toward the left, well beyond the far side of the Kremlin. And left of it in forground is the Moscow River Tower also called Beklemishevskaya Tower after a boyar family.

 
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Kremlin palaces and cathedrals behind the wall - Palace of Congresses - tall tower is the Ivan III bell tower. At the right is roof of the Terem palace

 
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View of the Terem palace inside the Kremlin from outside near the Alexander gardens.

 
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Borovitski tower on right - Armory museum is yellow building on left side behind the wall.

 
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Water tower at the corner of the Kremlin walls by river. This tower had waterworks to supply the kremlin.

 
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Kremlin corner tower on corner by river and hill up to Red square.

 
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Kremlin cathedrals and Grand palace from far across the Moscow river.

 
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View of Kremlin cathedrals and Great palace from across the river and under the Stone Bridge. - The Annunciation tower is in the Kremlin wall in front.

 
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Cathedral square in the Kremlin.

 
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This old illustration shows a procession entering the Cathedral of the Assumption. The Palace of Facets in in center background and the Cathedral of the Annunciation on the left side. The Terem palace is behind the Church behind the Golden Lattice to the right rear of the Palace of Facets.

 
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Cathedral of the Annunciation - behind it part of the Grand Kremlin palace and to the right a part of the Palace of Facets.

 
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View of tops of domes of Cathedral of the Annunciation, (Blagoveshchenski Sobor).

 
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Another view of domes of the Cathedral of the Annunciation.

 
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George Gordon caught the late afternoon sun just right to highlight the domes of the Annunciation Cathedral.

 
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Detail of domes of Cathedral of the Annunciation.

 
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Iconostatis inside Cathedral of Annunciation, some of the icons were created by Theophanes the Greek and others by Andrei Rubylov.

 
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Cathedral of Annunciation in Kremlin - detail of dorway between porch and church proper.

 
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Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin - view through main doorway from porch into church proper. Iconostasis is in the background.

 
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Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin - view of part of Iconostasis and one wall and column

 
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Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin - view up to ceiling and dome.

 
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Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin - view of lower section of Iconostasis with holy door.

 
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Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin - view of a side wall.

 
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Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin - view of door between porch and church proper.

 
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Details of west portal door of Annunciation Cathedral in Kremlin (Krasnovski - 60)

 
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The Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin. It was built between 1484 and 1489 to replace a 14th century church. It contains icons created by Theophanes the Greek and Andrei Rublev. (Svyatni - 16) The fence is no longer there.

 
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Floor plan of the Annunciation Cathedral in the Kremlin (Krasnovski - 54)

 
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Uspenskii sobor (Cathedral of the Dormintion of the Blessed Virgin) in the Kremlin. The original cathedral was the first stone church in Moscow, built by Daniil in 1326. The Metropolitan, Peter, moved his seat here from Vladimir. The present cathedral was rebuilt in 1479 by the Italian architect, Aristotle Fioravanti. The interior paintings include those by Dionissius.This was the cathedral for the official ceremonies for crowning the Tsars and Emperors and the Patriarchs. Svyatini page 14. See Krasovski 42, 46, 47, 49, 51 for views of the interior and details of the doorways.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin - this is the cathedral for corronations. View of exterior

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin - detail of fresco over main entrance.

 
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The Cathedral of the Assumption from the back side with part of the Patriarch's palace visible on the right.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - side view of upper section including domes.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption, Dormition of the Virgin, (Uspenski Sobor) 1475-79, by Aristotle Fioravanti, side view.

 
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View inside the Uspenski cathedral.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - detail of 17th century frescos over the ceremonial entrance south portal.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption, (Uspenski Sobor) the main state church in which the Grand Princes, Tsars and Emperors were crowned - Main entrance door.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption, front view.

 
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Inside the Uspenski Sobor, a view of Ivan's throne and part of the frescos.

 
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Cathedral of the Asumption in the Kremlin - view of icon of Mother of God.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin - detail of one wall.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin - detail of wall and column.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin - detail of Iconostasis and column.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption in the kremlin - detail showing tsar's throne and wall.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin - detail of holy door in the Iconostasis.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin - detail showing tgabernacle.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumnption in the Kremlin - detail showing upper section of Iconostasis, ceiling and inside of dome.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior fresco on one wall.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior showing part of the iconostasis and one wall. The walls were first covereed with gilt to have the appearance of a manuscript and then frescoed by artists in 1642-4. Several chandeliers are visible.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - part of the iconostasis.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - part of the iconostasis and the Patriarch's throne.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - tabernacle with the tomb of the Patriarch Hermogenes, who died during the Polish invasion and occupation of the Kremlin in 1612.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - view up into the central dome.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - view of ceiling.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - view of ceiling

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - The Holy Door in the iconostasis.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - patriarch's seat and column.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - icon of the Mother of God.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - part of the iconostasis.

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - part of the iconostasis and the upper part of the Monomakh Throne

 
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Cathedral of the Assumption - interior - part of the iconostasis and the upper part of the Monomach Throne - This was Ivan IV's throne during services.- the decorations show the life of Vladimir Monomakh - designed to show the descent of the Muscovite tsars from the famous Kyivian ruler. The Harvest Chandelier is made with silver re-captured from the French after they took it from Moscow in 1812.

 
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One door of south facade of the Uspenski cathedral. (Krasnovski - 49)

 
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The main ceremonial entrance doorway in west front of the Uspenski Cathedral. (Krasnovski - 51)

 
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Diagram of the decorations of the interior of the Uspenski Cathedral. Note the Tsar's throne. (Krasnovski - 46)

 
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Floor plan of the Uspenski Cathedral in the Kremlin. Krasovskii page 42

 
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Church Spasa no Boru (Savior in the forest) from page 15 of Krasovskii.The church was in an inner courtyard of the Kremlin palace.

 
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View of the Church of our Savior behind the Golden lattice - part of the tsar's private terem palace - A golden dome of the Grand Kremlin palace is further on the right.

 
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On the left the Upper Savior's Church, sometimes called "Behind the Golden Lattice or Rail" was part of the Terem Palace. To the right is the small white Church of the Deposition of the Robe

 
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Tserkov Rizpolozheniya (Church of the Deposition of the Robe) in the Kremlin - with some domes of the Church of the Savior behind the Golden Latice of the Terem palace to the left rear. Moskva Pamyatniki page 41 The Church was built by Pskov masons in 1484-86.

 
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Close up of the cupolas and domes of the Church - "Beyond the Golden Lattice" and the Church of the Deposition of the Robe.

 
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The 11 domes of the Church of our Savior beyond the Golden Lattice, a part of the Terem Palace is in the center. To the right part of the Church of the Deposition of the Robe is visible and next to it a corner of the Cathedral of the Assumption. On the left is the corner of the Palace of Facets. The Terem Palace was built in 1635-7.

 
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Verkhospasskii Sobor (Spas za Zolotogo reshetkoi ili tesrkov Spasa Nerukotvornogo Obraza) (Upper Cathedral of our Savior, or Church beyond the golden lattice) It is next to the Palace of Facets in this view. It was built in 1635-6 by Mikhail Feodorovich. It was the tsar's family private chapel. Svyatini page 17.

 
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Upper Savior's Church "Beyond the Golden Lattice" in the Terem palace. The domes were decorated by Osip Startsev.

 
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The Granovitaya Palata (Palace of Facets) on left and Cathedral of Assumption, The cathedral was built 1475-79. The Palace of Facets was built 1473-91 by Marco Ruffo and Pietro Antonio and is the oldest public building in Moscow. The ground floor has administrative offices and the upper floor is a large, sumptious reception room of 500 square meters. The Church of the 12 Apostles is to the right rear.

 
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Palace of Facets with Church of Deposition of the Robe to right slightly behind the Cathedral of the Assumption

 
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Close up of the Palace of Facets showing the detail of wall and window treatments.

 
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Here are some views of the interior of the Palace of Facets

 
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Here is more history of the architecture of the Palace of Facets.

 
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The patriarch's palace with the Church of the Twelve Apostles on upper floor. This extensive building was constructed by Patriarch Nikon and completed in 1656. The chief architects were Semyenov and Aleksei Korolkov.

 
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The Church of the 12 Apostles in the Kremlin was the Patriarchal church of the Russian Orthodox Church before the revolution. It was on the upper floor of the Patriarch's chambers. It dated from the middle of the 17th century. The Patriarch's palace was just behind it. The Church was thrown out of the Kremlin by the Communists. The Patriarch moved to the Church of the Epiphany (Bogoyavlenski Cathedral). Then the Church headquarters was moved to the Danilov Monastery. Now it is being established in the newly rebuilt Cathedral of Christ the Savior.(Svyatini page 23)

 
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The Church of the 12 Apostles - the Patriarch's church.

 
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Cathedral of Archangel Michael and corner of base of Bell tower of Ivan III. The Cathedral is the resting place of all the Russian rulers from 1320's to 1690's except Boris Gudunov, who is burried at the Trinity Monastery, plus Peter II, who died in Moscow in 1730 of smallpox and was therefore deemed too dangerous to transport.

 
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Cathedral of Archangel Michael with Tsar Bell next to the Bell Tower of Ivan III on right.

 
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Cathedral of Archangel Michael from the other side with the Bell tower behind it.

 
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Cathedral of the Archangel Michael in the Kremlin. It was built between 1505 and 1508 by the architect, Alvisio Novi to replace a previous stone Archangel's Church from 1333. It is the burial place of the Grand Princes and Tsars up to Peter. (Svyatini page 15)

 
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Cathedral of the Archangel Michael - interior - some of the tombs of the grand princes of Muscovy including Alexander Nevski and Dmitrii Donskoi.

 
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Cathedral of the Archangel Michael - interior - iconostasis with holy door.

 
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Cathedral of the Archangel Michael - interior - holy door in the iconostasis

 
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Cathedral of the Archangel Michael - interior - view up into the dome.

 
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The Grand Palace in the Kremlin

 
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Grand Kremlin Palace and Cathedral of Annunciation. The palace was built in 1838-49 by architects supervised by Konstantin Thon at the location of a previous palace built by Rastrelli.

 
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Grand Kremlin Palace and Cathedral of Annunciation.

 
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Church Spasa no Boru (Savior in the forest) from page 15 of Krasovskii.The church was in an inner courtyard of the Kremlin palace.

 
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Bell Tower of Ivan III and church of St. John Climacus "under the bells".

 
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Bell Tower of Ivan III.

 
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Bell tower of Ivan the Great in the kremlin with the Tsar bell in front. (Svyatini page 18)

 
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Bell Tower of Ivan III.

 
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Bell Tower of Ivan III, the shorter of the several component towers.

 
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The Bell tower of Ivan the Great in Kremlin.

 
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The diagram of the Bell tower of Ivan the Great shows the location of the several main bells. (Krasovski 228)

 
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The bell tower of Ivan the Great

 
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The Senate building (now Council of Ministers) on left and Supreme Soviet building on right.

 
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Kremlin Arsenal building with captured trophy cannon display.

 
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The monastery known as the "Miracle" Chudov was physically erased by the Bolsheviks in the nineteen twenties after having served such historical figures as the monk Dmitrii Otrep'ev as a place for scholarly endeavors and others for nearly six centuries.

 
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The Chudov monastery was one of the most historic complexes in the Kremlin. The communists tore it down to build a government office building. (Krasovski 338)

 
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Cathedral church St Michael in the Chudov Monastery ( see Chudov) In 1501 the church with cupolas was built. The adjoining refectory was built in 1679. (Svyatini - 20)

 
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Sobornii Khram Chuda Arkhistratiga Mikhaila v chest chuda Ark. Mikhaila v Zhanyakh (Cathedral of the Miracle of the Archangel Michael the Archistrategos) in the Kremlin Chudov Monastery. The stone church of 1501-03 replaced a wooden one dating from 1365. The church was destroyed in 1929 but some of the interior frescos and the iconostasis were saved for museums. (Svyatini page 21)

 
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Blagoveshcheniya Presvyatoi Bogoroditsi - (Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mother of God) It was built in 1731 in the lower part of the Kremlin garden but was destroyed in 1928.(Svyatini page 24)

 
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Konstantina i Yeleni - (Church of Sts Konstantin and Elena that was in the lower part of the Kremlin gardens near the tower of the same name. It was built in 1651 by Ilya Miloslavski and rebuilt in 1692 by Natalia Kirillovna Narishkina. It was destroyed in 1928.- (Svyatini page 25)

 
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George Gordon took this striking photo of the Tsar bell clearly showing the huge section that broke off before it was ever hung.

 
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George Gordon took this stunning photo of the Tsar cannon.

 
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Tsar Cannon. This was cast in 1586 by Andrei Chokhov. It weighs 40 tons and is 17 feet long.

 
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Tsar Cannon; the huge muzzle loader was located in Kitay Gorod and was to fire stone cannonballs to protect the eastern approach to the Kremlin. There is no record of the weapon ever being fired in a military action.

 
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The Resurection gate which was in the Kitai gorod wall near the Kremlin. This was the gate through which the Tsars entered Red Square and then the Kremlin. It was destroyed by Stalin so his parades could pass through her into Red Square. It was rebuilt in 1990's. On the left is a wall of the State History Museum.

 
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Close up of the icon in the wall of the Resurection gate. just outside the Kremlin at entrance to Red Square.

 

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