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SERINDIA - PHOTOS - SIR AUREL STEIN

 
 

This is a complete listing of the photos included in volumes I, II, and III of Serindia - but not the many plates showing art work - The photos are numbered as displayed in the book -generally in the sequence following the narration of Stein's expedition, but sometimes out of sequence due to convenience in formatting on the pages. I initially photographed the illustrations of fortifications, to accompany Stein's discussion of the newly discovered Han Dynasty wall north of Tun-huang, but the more I became immersed in his work the more I thought it worthwhile to compile a more complete reference to his huge undertaking. But some illustrations did not photograph well. Some photos appear in more than one of Stein's reports or memoirs.

 
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Serindia 1 - View north-east from Fort Malakand across the Swat Valley - Crater Camp site in foreground with road leading towards Chakdara - the scene of a major battle that Stein witnessed a few years before - Swat Valley in news recently as well

 
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Serindia 2 - View of Lowarai pass from Gujar post, above Dir - on Stein's second expedition route to China

 
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Serindia 3 - Ruined temple, Gumbat, Talash valley - looks like a watch tower, but we will take Stein's word for it.

 
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Serindia 4 - Ruin of Karwan-ralasi near Bozai-gumbaz, Little Pamir

 
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Serindia 5 - Rock-carving of stupa with inscription, Pakhtoridini, Chitral - Stein was on lookout for evidence of Buddhist visits.

 
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Serindia 6 - Boulder with representation of stupa and inscription near Charrun, Mastuj - Mastuj is in far northwest Pakistan close to the Wakhan corridor.

 
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Serindia 7 - Chitralis and Mastujis, anthropomorphically examined - I much doubt if these local tribesmen had any idea of what Stein was doing.

 
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Serindia 8 - Bashgol Kafirs, anthropometrically examined at Chitral- These people were lower class laborers

 
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Serindia 9 - Bashgol Kafirs, anthropometrically examined at Chitral Agency

 
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Serindia 10 - Bashgol Kafirs, before Bazar-masjid, Chitral

 
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Serindia 11 - View of Talash valley, from Kuz-sarai, towards Bajaur

 
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Serindia 12 - Fort of Gahirat with view down Chitral valley

 
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Serindia 13 - Mastuj fort, with view down Yarkhun valley

 
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Serindia 14 - View from Shuyist across Yarkhun river towards Shayos glacier

 
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Serindia 15 - Veranda of Obaidullah Khan's house, Miragram, Mastuj

 
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Serindia 16 - Stateroom in Obaidullah Khan's house, Miragram - Stein was an honored guest to be admitted into the official reception room

 
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Serindia 17 - Defile of 'Darband', with view down towards Jhopu - to left is valley leading to Tui Pass. - note the watch tower on slope, far left

 
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Serindia 18 - Chinese fort of Tash-kurghan, seen from south-east - the photo is far out of sequence as Tash-kurghan is in Sarikol - across the mountains from NW India.

 
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Serindia 19 - View from top of Darkot pass to north-west across Darkot Glacier towards Oxus-Indus watershed - The Darkot pass is north of Yasin and on the border between India and Afghanistan - Wakan corridor. Stein was determined to visit the pass since it was the entrance point of the Chinese army in 8th century.

 
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Serindia 20 - View of Darkot Glacier from foot of Rukang spur, looking south.

 
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Serindia 21 - Badakhshi immigrants in Chitral - Chitral is south-west of Mastuj and Yasin - it is both a narrow border region and its capital city. The border with Afghanistan is along the mountain tops a short distance west. These Badakhshi are from Badakshan, Afghanistan, just the other side of the mountain, but they don't pay attention to borders.

 
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Serindia 22 - Sarikolis and Kirghiz at Payik post, Taghdumbash - Now we are across the last mountains and the India border into Chinese Sarikol.

 
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Serindia 23 - Pakhpu hillmen, anthropometrically examined at Kok-yar - again far out of sequence - Kok-yar is in mountains south of Yarkand but Stein was trying to link these isolated tribesmen with the Altai mountain type ethnic groups much further west. They were very reluctant to have anything to do with Stein or the Chinese.

 
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Serindia24 -Sarikolis, anthropometrically examined at Tash-kurgan - back west in Sarikol - the capital was Tash-kurgan near the then Russian and Afghan borders.

 
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Serindia 25 - View from Kansir fort across the Oxus valley towards the mountains above Sarhad - This is in the Afghan - Wakhan corridor - Stein climbed the ridge to inspect this fort ruin which he believed dated from the Chinese invasion of northern India - the photo is too dark to see Sarhad village where the Afghan Army escort was located.

 
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Serindia 26 - View across Chichiklik Maidan to south-west - Chichiklik pass is north of Tash-kurgan and near Muztagh-ata mountain and the then Russian border.

 
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Serindia 27 - Spur of Kiz-kurghan, above Taghdumbash River, seen from south - This is in Sarikol north of Tash-kurgan where the river is flowing north before making its sharp turn to the east and out of the mountains. Stein was looking for another watch tower.

 
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Serindia 28 - Ruined wall and bastion of Kiz-kurghan, seen from south-west - and from well up onto a precipice Stein climbed to inspect this ancient fort.

 
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Serindia 29 - In Tangi-tar gorge below Tar-bashi - one of the many gorges Stein negotiated

 
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Serindia 30 - Rock-cut cellas at Och-merwan - near Kashgar

 
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Serindia 31 - Conglomerate cliffs below Kohmari Mazar - near Kashgar

 
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Serindia32 - Grotto cut on rock fact above Kara-kash river opposite Faizabad - this is north of Kashgar - Stein was informed about it so used some spare time to visit.

 
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Serindia 33 - Ruined stupa at site of Khakanning-shahri, north of Kashgar - another place that local informants led Stein to visit. But he could not make positive identification of its provenance

 
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Serindia 34 - Ruins of ancient fort, Khakanning-shahri, above right bank of Artush river - north of Kashgar and next to the stupa - very poor photo

 
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Serindia 35 - Ravine of Domoko-yar, seen from eastern end of dam - north of Khotan - Stein was very interested in irrigation projects both for contemporary reasons as as indications of what medieval inhabitants could do.

 
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Serindia 36 - Ruined stupa at Rawak, seen from dune above south-west wall of quadrangle - this was one of Stein's first and most famous excavations during his first expedition and he returned during the second as well - it is far into the desert north of Khotan - today it is guarded as a state archeological preserve

 
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Serindia 37 - Remains of ruined mound, Naghara-khana, near Yokan, seen from south - Yotkan is within the Khotan oasis just to the west - it was the medieval capital.

 
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Serindia 38 - Wind-eroded remains of ruined temple at Kine-tokmak -

 
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Serindia 39 - General view of Khadalik site before excavation, from south - Khadalik was between Kashgar and Khotan on the main caravan road - very poor photo

 
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Serindia 40 - Remains of ruined quarters, Kha.xi, Khadalik, before excavation - poor photo

 
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Serindia 41 - Fragment of stucco wall with stenciled Buddha figures from passage of temple Kha. i, Khadalik=poor photo but shows interesting fact that early medieval Buddhists could make stencils for mass production of images

 
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Serindia 42 - Ruined shrine Kha,ix, Khadalik, after excavation seen from south

 
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Serindia 43 - Wind-eroded 'tati', South west of Kighillik, Khadalik - poor photo - 'tati' local term for an area in open desert (usually clay) on which were spread ancient remains - fragments of ceramics and sometimes bones.

 
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Serindia 44 - Mazar of Iman Ja'far Sadiq, seen freom south-east - this 'mazar' meaning shrine to the named 'saint' was located north of Keryia and was last inhabited oasis in desert south of the Niya ruin that was Stein's first sensational discovery. Here he recruited laborers for excavations.

 
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Serindia 45 - Remains of ruined dwelling Kha,iv,v, Khadalik, seen from north-west, after excavation

 
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Serindia 46 - Interior of room Kha, iv, Khadalik, showing fire-place and sitting platform

 
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Serindia 47 - South rooms of ruined dwelling N. xiii, Niya site, after excavation - Room i in foreground with remains of ancient household furniture and implements

 
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Serindia 48 - Ruined dwelling N. xx, Niya site, seen from east, in course of excavation - Kitchen room i seen in foreground, with large jar

 
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Serindia 49 - Remains of hall of ruin N. xiv, Niya site, seen from south west - poor photo

 
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Serindia 50 - Eastern portion of ruined dwelling N, xix, Niya site, before excavation, seen from south

 
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Serindia 51 - Dead mulberry trees in ancient orchard, south east of ruin N, xviii, Niya site

 
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Serindia 52 - Remains of household furniture and implements excavated in ruins N. xiii, xv, Niya site

 
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Serindia 53 - Ruined dwelling N. xx, Niya site, seen from south before excavation

 
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Serindia 54 - Rooms iii, iv of ruin N xx, Niya site, seen from east after excavation

 
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Serindia 55 - Remains of ancient tank to south of ruin N. xxii, Niya site.

 
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Serindia 56 - Ornamented wooden door frame from ruined house N. xii, Niya site

 
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Serindia 57 - Ancient cupboard excavated in room viii of ruined house N xxiv - Niya

 
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Serindia 58 - Room viii of ruined residence N xxiv, in course of excavation - The measuring rod marks a batch of Kharosthi tablets emerging from sand

 
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Serindia 59 - Ruin of ancient residence, N xxiv, Niya site, after partial excavation, seen from remains of dead arbour on east

 
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Serindia 60 - Western rooms of ancient house, N xxvi, Niya site, in course of excavation - On left in foreground guest room ix, with fire place; on right anteroom vii giving access to family quarters

 
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Serindia 61 - Central hall, vii, and office room, viii, in ruin N xxiv, Niya site, after excavation - A marks the spot where the hidden archive was discovered below the floor.

 
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Serindia 62 - Central hall, vii, of ruined residence N xxiv, seen from south-east - On right in foreground is panelled window opening from the hall into passage vi.

 
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Serindia 63 - Hall iii of ruined house N xxvi, Niya site, after excavation, with decorated double bracket in wood, raised on pillar

 
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Serindia 64 - Hall iii of ruin N xxvi, Niya site, after excavation, with double window opening into passage iv

 
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Serindia 65 - Ruined stupa, Niya site, seen from south-east - Man standing at fenced enclosure

 
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Serindia 66 - View from south-west towards ruin N xxviii, Niya site - Sand buried fence of arbor in foreground - very poor photo

 
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Serindia 67 - Remains of ancient cattle-shed, N xxxiii, Niya site - Row of dead poplars on right - poor photo

 
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Serindia 68 - Ruined dwelling N, xxxvi, Niya site, in course of clearning, seen from south

 
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Serindia 69 - Wooden pillar excavated in ruin N xxxviii, Niya site

 
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Serindia 70 - Wooden pillars excavated in structure Eiii- T'ang fort, Endere site

 
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Serindia 71 - Fire-place and bench in room vi of ruined dwelling, N xxvi, Niya site

 
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Serindia72 - Interior of underground room E viii, T'ang fort, Endere site

 
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Serindia 73 - Panoramic view of interior of fortified village at Bilel-konghan, from circumvallation on north-east

 
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Serindia 74 - Panoramic view of ruin L.B iv, Lou-lan, seen from east

 
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Serindia 75 - Panoramic view taken from sandy ridge west of ruined dwelling N xli, Niya site, showing remains of N xli after excavation (A) of ancient tank with surrounding arbor (B) and footbridge stretched across dry river bed (C) - and dead orchard beyond (D)

 
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Serindia 76 - Ruined dwellings within circumvallation of Bilel-konghan, near gate, partially cleared

 
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Serindia 77 - South segment of circumvallation of T'ang fort, Endere site, with gate seen from outside

 
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Serindia 78 - Interior of ruined T'ang fort, Endere site, seen from north-east - In foreground walls of large structure Eiii, before excavation.

 
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Serindia 79 - Ruined tower, Evii, with remains of wind-eroded dwelling in foregrond, Endere site

 
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Serindia80 - Erosion 'witness' with masonry remains on top, Endere site.

 
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Serindia 81 - Remains of rampart at North west corner of ancient walled enclosure, Endere site

 
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Serindia 82 - Ancient fortified post at south end of Endere site, seen from south

 
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Serindia 83 - Fragment of east rampart of ancient walled enclosure, Endere site

 
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Serindia 84 - Gate in south-east segment of fortified village enclosure, Bilel-konghan, seen from outside

 
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Serindia 85 - Ancient orchard at Vash-shahri site

 
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Serindia 86 - Tamarisk-cone with old Muhammadan graves at Yalghuz-dong, Charchan river

 
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Serindia 87 - Large earthenware jars and basket excavated in quarters of Tibetan fort, Miran

 
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Serindia 88 - Small ruined mound to north-east of L. A. station, Lou-lan site

 
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Serindia 89 - Remains of Merdek-tim seen from south of circumvallation - Man standing on top of clay rampart - Stein went the longer way around from Lou-lan back to Charkhlik to find this tiny fort near the Tarim river

 
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Serindia 90 - Lopliks and immigrants anthropometrically examined at Charkhlik - The Lopliks were indigenous fisherman - the 'immigrants were mostly Han Chinese being sent into the Tarim basin - Stein managed to hire 50 or so reluctant Lopliks as laborers in mid winter to go to the unknown site in the desert - Lou-lan

 
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Serindia 91 - Lopliks anthropometrically examined at Abdal - Tokhta Akhun and Mullah are third and fourth from left in front row - These two intrepid desert hunters from Abdal were instrumental in convincing the Lopliks to brave the unknown desert in winter - Abdal is a tiny village on the Tarim river on the south western edge of the Lop salt sea.

 
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Serindia 92 - View to east from ruined stupa, Lou-lan site, across wind eroded ground - Ruined dwelling L.A. ix in foreground. Decayed stupa mount on extreme right. AB marks line joining with Fig. 93.

 
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Serindia 93 - View to south-east from ruined stupa, Lou-lan site, across wind-eroded ground - Part of ruin L.A i in foreground - AB marks line joining with Fig. 92

 
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Serindia 94 - Ruin of ancient dwelling L.A. i and of stupa, Lou-lan site, seen from south-east - Figure of man, standing at foot of 'witness' bearing ruin L.A. i, marks depression caused by wind-erosion - The stupa is location from where the previous two photos were taken. In those due to angle the height of dwelling L.A. i is not evident.

 
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Serindia 95 - Ruin and remains of ancient dwelling L.A. ix, seen from south - dead tamarisk growth at foot and on slope of wind-eroded ridge bearing L. A. ix - in background the same stupa

 
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Serindia 96 - Ruined stupa, L. A. x, Lou-lan station, seen from south - Man on left stands at foot of base, man on right on top of base.

 
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Serindia 97 - Stupa ruin three miles to n.w. of Lou-lan station, seen from south - This is a different stupa from that seen in previous photos

 
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Serindia 98 - Decayed stupa mount L.A.xi, to east of Lou-lan station, seen from south east - Lower figure of man marks original ground level at foot of Stupa - yet a third stupa.

 
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Serindia 99 - Remains of wood-carvings from ruins L.A iii, Lou-lan station

 
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Serindia 100 - Refuse heaps of L.A. vi,ii, Lou-lan station, in course of excavation

 
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Serindia 101 - South-west wing of ruin L.A. ii, seen from south-east - at Lou-lan

 
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Serindia 102 - Remains of ruin L.A. iii, Lou-lan station, seen from north-east

 
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Serindia103 - Remains of ruins L.B. ii, iii, Lou-lan site, seen from east before clearing

 
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Serindia 104 - Decorated wood-carvings from ruin of Buddhist shrine L. B. ii, Lou-lan site - In foreground on right is fallen timber frame from wall

 
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Serindia 105 - Ruin of small stupa between shrine L.B. ii and camp 125, Lou-lan site - Mullah, standing at foot of Stupa, marks original ground level. Foreground shows undercutting of Yardang ridge by wind-erosion.

 
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Serindia 106 - View across hall iv of ruined dwelling L.B. iv, Lou-lan site towards remains of ruin L.B. v , before excavation

 
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Serindia 107 - Northern portion of ruined dwelling L.B. iv, seen from south-east after excavation - Room v with pillar in foreground

 
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Serindia 108 - Rooms vii, viii of ruin L.B. iv, seen from south in course of clearing

 
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Serindia109 - View across room iv of ruin L.B. iv, Lou-lan site, towards north-west after excavation

 
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Serindia 110 - Room iv of ruin L.B. iv, Lou-lan site, looking towards west, after excavation

 
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Serindia 111 - Ruins of shrines and stupas, M. iii-vi, Miran site, seen from west

 
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Serindia 112 - Remains of ruin L.B. v, Lou-lan site, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 113 - South face of Tibetan fort, Miran site, with central bastion

 
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Serindia 114 - Interior of Tibetan fort, Miran site, in course of excavation, looking towards north-east corner

 
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Serindia 115 - Rooms viii, ix along east wall of Tibetan fort, Miran site, after excavation - This was one of the worst excavations Stein accomplished - it was dead cold winter with fierce wind storms - the contents of the rooms was so filthy the smell was overpowering.

 
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Serindia 116 - Rooms xii, xv, in south-east corner of Tibetan fort Miran site, in course of excavation

 
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Serindia 117 - Central bastion and east face of Tibetan fort, Miran site, seen from interior - A-B marks line of adjoining figure 118

 
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Serindia 118 - East face of Tibetan fort, Miran site, seen from central area - A-B line marks line of joining with Fig. 117 - In foreground grain pits, in course of excavation

 
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Serindia 119 - Ruined shrine M iii, Miran Site, afer excavation, seen from east - note the shrines as humps in the overall photo - Stein found remarkable art work at these shrines -he determined they were centuries older than the Tibetan fort and had been long abandoned before the Tibetan occupation. Note the plane table to the left rear

 
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Serindia 120 - North-east face of ruined shrine M.ii, Miran site, after excavation, seen from east

 
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Serindia 121 - Stucco heads of colossal Buddhas ii, v. Excavated in north east passage of ruined shrine M.ii, Miran site - these remarkable heads had fallen when the original bodies collapsed and were then buried.

 
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Serindia 122 - Stucco head of colossal Buddha iii, as found in north-east passage of ruined shrine M ii, Miran site -Stein could do nothing with these huge artifacts but photograph them and re bury them.

 
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Serindia 123 - Remains of colossal stucco images of seated Buddhas i - iv - excavated in north-east passage of ruined shrine M ii, Miran site.

 
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Serindia 124 - Remains of colossal stucco images of seated Buddhas iv-vi, Excavated in north-east passage of ruined shrine M ii, Miran site.

 
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Serindia 125 - Stupa and circular passage in ruined shrine M iii, Miran site, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 126 - Remains of ruined domed structure M x, Miran site, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 127 - Fresco fragments from fallen frieze of ruined shrine M iii, as unearthed in north-east quadrant of passage - Stein with great difficulty managed to detach some sections of fresco and pack them for successful delivery to the British Museum where color photos were possible. Other frescos he had to rebury - later effort to detach more was halted when his Indian army engineer went blind. Then on his third expedition Stein found that later explorers had ruined many.

 
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Serindia 128 - Ruined shrine M.v, Miran site, seen from south-east before excavation - from the size one can see what a huge effort was required to clear these ruins in mid winter as sand continued to flow back into the ditches.

 
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Serindia 129 - Stupa and circular passage of ruined shrine M v, Miran site, after excavation, seen from west - in this photo one can see part of the frescos on the outer wall of the passageway - Stein was able only to clear part of these passages and photograph the ruined frescos.

 
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Serindia 130 - Ruined stupa, M. vii, Miran site, seen from south - the hole is from the efforts of treasure seekers centuries in the past.

 
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Serindia 131 - Ruined stupa M. vi, Miran site, seen from south-west - Men packing frescos in foreground under supervision from Rai Singh - the wood was gathered from dead trees near the Tarim river.

 
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Serindia 132 - Ruin of domed structure M x, Miran site, seen from south, after clearing

 
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Serindia 133 - Portion of painted dado on inner wall of south passage of shrine M.v. Miran site - Stein managed to detach some sections but had to leave much behind. He was struck by the European faces. - The full fresco had these 'angels' below and a narrated story above.

 
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Serindia 134 - Portion of painted frieze and dado on south-east wall of rotunda passage in shrine M v. Miran site

 
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Serindia 135 - Portion of pained frieze and dado on south-east wall of rotunda passage in shrine M v. Miran site - this continues the story from the previous photo

 
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Serindia 136 - Portion of painted frieze and dado on south wall of Rotunda passage in shrine M.v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 137 - Portion of painted frieze and dado on south wall of rotunda passage in shrine M. v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 138 - Portion of painted frieze and dado on south wall of rotunda passage in shrine M v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 139- Portion of painted frieze and dado on south wall of rotunda passage in shrine M v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 140 - Portion of painted frieze and dado on south wall of rotunda passage in shrine M v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 141 - Fragment of painted frieze on north-east wall of rotunda passage in shrine M. v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 142 - Inscription above prince riding, in painted frieze on south-east wall of rotunda passage in shrine M v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 143 - Portion of painted frieze and dado on north wall of rotunda passage in shrine M.v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 144 - Inscription on elephant's leg in painted frieze on south wall of rotunda passage in shrine M. v, Miran site

 
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Serindia 145 - View from salt springs of Lowaza westwards along shore of salt-encrusted Lop Lake basin

 
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Serindia 146 - Isolated clay terraces in depression west of T.xxiii, Tun-huang limes

 
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Serindia 147 - Convoy with antiques starting from Abdal for Kashgar - When he had finished at Miran and Lou-lan, before heading into the Nan-shan mountains, Stein dispatched the frescos and many other artifacts back to the Indian official residence at Kashgar.

 
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Serindia 148 - Eroded clay terrace (mesa_) near western edge of ancient terminal basin of Su-lo Ho, north west of camp 153 - For estimate of height see small figure of man sandingat foot of terrace - very poor photo in which the man is hardly visible.

 
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Serindia 149 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower T iii, Tnn-huang limes, seen from east - Two men standing in foreground at spot where first discovery of an early Chinese record on wood was made.

 
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Serindia 150 - Ruined watch-tower T xxvi, Tun-huang limes, with refuse heap, seen from south west - Stein searched for refuse and found amazing amount of material including documents nearly 2000 years old.

 
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Serindia 151 - Ruins of temple destroyed by Tungans, at Shih-pan-tung, north of Tun-huang - The Tungans staged a major rebellion in mid 19th century and held much of the Tarim basin for years until the Chinese defeated their leader

 
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Serindia 152 - Ruined watch-tower T xxv, north of Tun-huang, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 153 - Remains of ancient watch tower T xxvii, Tun-huang limes, seen from south-east

 
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Serindia 154 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower T xxix, Tun-huang limes, with later enclosure seen from west

 
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Serindia 155 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower T xxvii, Tun-huang limes with refuse heaps in foreground

 
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Serindia 156 - Remains of watch-tower T xxviii, Tun-huang limes, with ancient refuse in course of excavation

 
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Serindia 157 - Face of ancient border wall, east of watch -tower T xxxv, Tun-huang limes, showing construction with alternate layers of stamped clay and fascines

 
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Serindia 158 - Remains of ancient border wall, between low dunes, east of watch-tower T xxxv, Tun-huang limes - Surface of low gravel mound is marked by Chinese laborer standing on left

 
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Serindia 159 - View of ramparts, partially buried in dunes, of ruined town, Nan-hu, looking from interior towards north-east corner

 
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Serindia 160 - Remains of inner rampart, near north-west corner of ruined town, Nan-hu, seen from interior

 
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Serindia 161 - Remnant of ancient border wall near watch-tower Txxvii, Tun-huang limes - poor photo

 
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Serindia 162 - Last ruined farm of Kuan-tsou, north of Nan-hu - Stein stopped only briefly at the Han wall when he found it on his way to Tun-huang - Then after viewing the 'cave of the 1000 Buddhas' and realizing he would need quite a while to obtain some of the contents, he went to nearby Nan-hu and then back north to look for the western end of the Han wall - on the way he found this and the other ruined farms deserted after the Tungan rebellion.

 
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Serindia 163 - Abandoned homestead of Kuan-tsou, north fo Nan-hu - Another of the farms attacked by the Tungan rebels

 
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Serindia 164 - Remains of farm and fenced arbour, abandoned to desert at Kuan-tsou, north of Nan-hu - Another relatively recent ruin

 
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Serindia 165 - Grave tumulus with annular rim, at ancient burial-ground, N.E. of Nan-hu

 
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Serindia 166 - Mound containing remains of ancient watch-tower T viii, Tun-huang limes, seen from south-west before excavation

 
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Serindia 167 - Modern watch-tower, with adjoining quarters, on road south-west of Tun-huang

 
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Serindia 168 - Interior of room i, adjoining watch-tower T viii, Tn-huang limes, after excavation - Door opening from ii on left, remains of steps of stairs on right

 
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Serindia 169 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower T via, Tn-huang limes, seen from east - On right sandy depression with Toghraks and reed beds

 
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Serindia 170 - Ruin of ancient watch-tower T ivc, Tun-huang limes, with view towards north-west - On left an eroded clay terrace with deep-cut Nullah. Across depression with Toghraks and tamarisks is seen in distance an isolated clay terrace bearing remains of ruined watch-tower T iva - These are on the extreme left end of the Han wall.

 
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Serindia 171 - Remains of ancient watch-tower T vib and quarters, Tun-huang limes, before excavation, seen from south-east

 
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Serindia 172 - Rubbish-strewn slope below ancient watch-tower T vib, in course of excavation - The splintered piece of timber held by laborer marks the spot where the main heap of Chinese records on wood was discovered close to the surface.

 
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Serindia 173 - Ancient watch-tower T ix, Tun-huang limes, seen from north-west

 
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Serindia 174 - Ruined watch-tower T x, Tun-huang limes, seen from south-east

 
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Serindia 175 - Remains of ancient watch-tower T xiia, with border wall, Tun-huang limes seen from north

 
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Serindia 176 - Line of ancient border wall, stretrching east of watch-tower T xiii, Tun-huang limes

 
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Serindia 177 - Ruined watch-tower T xiia, Tun-huang limes, seen from north-west

 
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Serindia 178 - Ancient watch-tower Txi, Tun-huang limes, with adjoining enclosure, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 179 - Hillock with remains marking position of ancient Yu-men station near fort T xiv, Tun-huang limes ,seen from south-west, before clearing - Man standing on extreme left marks mouth of passage leading to covered shaft - Stein devoted a lot of attention to finding the "Jade Gate' and the command post for the Han wall.

 
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Serindia 180 - Ancient watch-tower Txiii, with quarters, Tun-huang limes, seen from south-east, after excavation

 
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Serindia 181 - Ancient watch-tower T xii, Tun-huang limes, seen from north-west

 
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Serindia 182 - North-west corner of enclosure of ancient magazine T xviii, Tun-huang limes, wth refuse heap in course of clearing

 
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Serindia 183 - Ancient fort T xiv, at "Jade Gate' of Tun-huang limes, seen from north-east

 
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Serindia 184 - Ancient fort T xiv, at "Jade gate" of Tun-huang limes, with gate through west wall

 
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Serindia 185 - Ruined town of So-yang-ch'eng, seen from north-east, with inner east wall in foreground and ower of north-west corner bastion in distance on right.

 
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Serindia 186 - Ruins of ancient magazine T xviii, on Tun-huang limes seen from south - On extreme left, watch tower at south-west corner of inner enclosure. The figures of men standing at different points of the structure serve to indicate its size. - These folks are very hard to distinguish, one of them is toward right side in front of the hole in the high wall

 
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Serindia 187 - Clay terraces and marshy depression to west of ancient watch-tower T xiva, Tun-huang limes

 
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Serindia 188 - View from ancient watch-tower T xiva, Tun-huang limes, towards north-west

 
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Serindia 189 - Remains of ancient border wall to south-west of watch-tower T xiva - Tun-huang limes - poor photo

 
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Serindia 190 - Ancient watch-tower Txx, Tun-huang limes, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 191 - Panoramic view of the "caves of the thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang, seen from across stream to east

 
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Serindia 192 - Panoramic view of ruined site, Ara-tam, with country seat and orchards of Wang of Hami, seen from south-east - This photo is far out of sequence but published here for convenience of format. Hami is on northern side of the Taklamakan and Stein visited it months later

 
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Serindia 193 - Northern end of main group and middle group of caves of the 'Thousand Buddhas' , Tun-huang, seen from north-east

 
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Serindia 194 - Barren hill range east of Ch'ien-fo-tung valley seen from south end of main group of cave temples (Caves of Thousand Buddhas)

 
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Serindia 195 - Cave shrines above CH iii, "caves of the thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - from photo it is clear that the porches and external parts of the cave entrances have been eroded.

 
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Serindia 196 - Cave shrines near Ch viii, 'Caves of the Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - The antechaples and porches of the cellas above have completely disappeared. The stucco images show recent restoration. Below are seen the porches, partially filled with sand, leading to other cellas. Stein wrote that it was very difficult to make photos showing the dark interiors of the caves.

 
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Serindia 197 - Rows of cave shrines, some showing decayed porches, near CH ix, Ch'ien-fo-tung, Tun-huang - note a few remaining wooden supports for walk ways at the top row

 
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Serindia 198 - Wang Tao-shih, Taoist priest at the 'caves of the thousand Buddhas' - the hard working self-appointed guardian of the art, not even a Buddhist himself, supplied Stein with thousands of manuscripts and paintings in exchange for 'contribution' that he carefully used for restoration work. Now the site is a World Heritage location and the town, Dunhuang, even has an airport for tourists.

 
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Serindia 199 - Rows of small cave shrines adjoining Cave Chxii, northward, Ch'ien-fo-tung, Tun-huang (Chinese name for cave of the thosand Buddhas) On extreme left, portion of middle porch, giving light to cave of colossal seated Buddha.

 
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Serindia 200 - Cella and porch of cave temple Ch i, partially restored, Ch'ien-fo-tung, Tun-huang. On extreme right is the locked door leading to the rock-cut chapel, previously walled up, where the hidden deposit of MSS, etc. was discovered. - some of the manuscripts are piled here for Stein to examine - that he obtained the oportunity is a credit to his diplomatic skill, and that he was enabled to take away thousands of these is amazing.

 
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Serindia 201 - Stucco image of colossal seated Buddha, with painted halo and vesica in relievo and tempera paintings on rock carved screen behind, in Cella of Cave Ch ii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 202 - Panel painted in tempera, showing Sukhavati scene above and Jataka scene below, on south wall of cave Ch ii, Ch'ien-fo-tung.

 
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Serindia 203 - Fresco paintings on south wall and south-west corner panel of cave cella Ch iia, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 204 - Portion of fresco painting on south wall of cave cella Ch iia, Ch'ien-fo'tung

 
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Serindia 205 - Fresco painting on north wall of cave cella, Ch iia, Ch'ien-fo-tung - unfortunately in the B/w photo the central image does not appear well, this must have been a spectacular fresco in color

 
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Serindia 206 - Panel painted in tempera, showing western paradise scene, on south wall of cave Ch ii, Ch'ien-fo-tung - another spectacular painting in color

 
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Serindia 207 - Alcove with stucco images, partly restored, in cave Ch iiia, Ch'ien-fo-tung - Stein commented that the restoration work detracted from the figures, perhaps by now better work has been accomplished for modern tourists.

 
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Serindia 208 - Stucco images, partly restored, of Buddha with attendant disciples and Bodhisattvas, in cave iv, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 209 - Central painted panel showing western paradise scene on north wall of cave Ch,iiia, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 210 - Central painted panel, representing Amitabha's paradise, on north wall of cave iv, Ch'ien-fo-tung - The side scenes represent Ajatasatru's story and Queen Vaidehi's meditations.

 
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Serindia 211 - Raised recess with remains of stucco images, on west side of cave Ch v, Ch'ient-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 212 - Alcove with stucco images, partially restored, and tempera paintings, on west side of cave Ch vi, Ch'ien- fo-tung

 
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Serindia213 - Interior of cella in cave Ch vii, Ch'ien-fo-tung, showing platform with stucco images and paintings on west wall and ceiling

 
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Serindia 214 - Tempera paintings showing procession of over-life-size Bodhisattvas on north wall of porch in cave vii, Ch'ien- fo-tung

 
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Serindia 215 - Tempera painting on south wall of porch of cave viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung, showing Buddha on car, moving through the air escorted by planeary divinities, etc.

 
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Serindia 216 - Lower portion of painted panel ii and dado showing procession of donatrices and attending ladies on east wall of cella in cave Ch viii, Ch'ient-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 217 - Painted panel xv and dado showing Khotan princess with family and attendants, also Chinese dedicatory inscription, on east cella wall, cave Ch viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 218 - Centre of cella in cave Ch, viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung, showing paintings on screen behind stupa, on west wall and ceiling.

 
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Serindia 219 - Panels painted in tempera, ix, x, north-west corner of cella in cave Ch viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 220 - Panel painted in tempera, v, showing western paradise, on south wall of cella, cave Ch viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 221 - Wall painting in tempera, viii, with legendary scenes on west wall of cella in cave viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 222 - Wall painting in tempera, ix, with legendary scenes on west wall of cella in cave viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 223 - Panel painted in tempera, xiii, showing divine assemblages, on north wall of cella in cave Ch viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 224 - Panel painted in tempera, xi, and portion of panel x, showing scenes of western paradise, on north wall of cella in cave Ch viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 225 - Wall painting in tempera, showing Bodhisattvas, on south wall of porch in cave ix, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 226 - Painting in tempera showing part of Buddha's car with attendant host of planetary divinities, on south wall of porch in cave viii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 227 - Stucco images of late date representing Hsuan-tsang as Arhat with attendants in cella of cave xiv, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia228 - Renovated stucco images in alcove of cella in cave x, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 229 - Stucco image of seated Buddha in alcove, and tempera paintings on west wall and ceiling of cave Ch xii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 230 - Tempera paintings in north-west corner of cella in cave Ch xii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 231 - Central panel of tempera painting representing western paradise, on north wall of cave Ch vi, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 232 - Paintings in tempera, representing scenes of western paradise above, and movements of troops below, on south wall of cella in cave Ch xii, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 233 - Left-hand portion of painting in tempera, with legendary scenes, on west wall of cella in cave Ch, xvi, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 234 - Paintings in tempera on walls of north-west corner of cella in cave Ch xvi, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia235 - Painted panel in tempera, showing western paradise, on north wall of cella in cave Ch xvi, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia 236 - Right-hand portion of painting in tempera, with legendary scenes on west wall of cella in cave Ch xvi, Ch'ien-fo-tung

 
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Serindia237 - Remains of ruined temple and stupas, east of So-yang-ch'eng, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 238 - Ruin of main stupa, east of So-yang-ch'eng, seen from south

 
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Serindia 239 - Wind-eroded east wall, near north-east corner, of deserted town south of An-hsi. Stein noted that the east walls of the towns and forts he found were the worst for wear due to the prevaling east wind driving sand against them.

 
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Serindia 240 - Portion of inner east wall of ruined town of So-yang-ch'eng, breached by wind erosion, seen from east. Stein shows here the erosion from wind of the east wall.

 
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Serindia 241 - Grottoes of Hsiao-ch'ien Fo-tung, above Ta-shih, seen from north-west - poor photo

 
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Serindia 242 - Cave temples on left river bank, Wan-fo-hsia, seen from north

 
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Serindia243 - Canon with cave temples of Wan-fo-hsia, seen from north-west

 
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Serindia 244 - Cave temples on right bank of river, Wan-fo-hsia, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 245 - Tempera paintings showing legendary scenes, on south-east wall of cella in cave ii, Wan-fo-hsia

 
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Serindia246 - Tempera paintings on north-west and north-east walls, antechapel of cave xviii, Wan-fo-hsia.

 
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Serindia 247 - Tempera paintings on north-west and north-east walls of antechapel of cave xvii, Wan-fo-hsia.

 
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Serindia 248 - Tempera paintings and stucco Buddha image, partially restored, facing entrance of cella in cave xviii, Wan-fo-hsia

 
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Serindia 249 - Gate fortress of Chia-yu-kuan seen from south-west - Stein immediately recognized that this is a Ming Dynasty fortress in the Great Wall and was the custom's post for entrance and exit from China to the west. He was welcomed by the Chinese garrison commander. It is now restored for tourists. Aurel Stein's photo from a distance of the 'gate fortress Chia-yu-kuan. He immediately saw this is not part of the Han fortifications. It is now called Jinyuguan and restored to be an important tourist attraction. Thus it is on current maps of China and photos of it are in many new books on the Great Wall. Stein recognized that its main purpose was not military defense but rather frontier control of people going out as well as in.

 
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Serindia 250 - Line of medieval 'great wall' south of Chia-yu-kuan, with view towards foothills of Nan-shan - Stein concluded that the wall here was not designed as a defensive barrier against invaders but as a customs barrier against Chinese who might want to travel west. - poor photo in which the wall is barely visible

 
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Serindia 251 - Watch-tower and post of Ta-han-chuang at foot of outer Nan-shan hills, south west of Chia-yu-kuan - This tower is also on the Ming Dynasty wall that closes the narrow corridor in Gansu west of Su-chou

 
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Serindia 252 - Ruined circumvallation at south-west end of Hei-shui-kuo site, Kan-chou seen from north west. - Nan-shan mountains in background

 
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Serindia 253 - Hao-shan-kou define, with view to north-east towards Huang-tsao-ying village - Stein long pondered the purpose of this wall in its location and decided it was a Ming effort to block passage from the north into Gansu.

 
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Serindia 254 - Mediaeval 'great wall' north of Su-chou, near Hsin-ch-eng-tsu. Stein immediately recognized the great difference between the early Han Dynasty wall and towers that he had traced eastward from Tun huang and the Ming Dynasty "Great Wall".

 
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Serindia 255 - Clay ridge bearing ruined shrines, of A.iii, Ara-tam site, seen from west

 
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Serindia 256 - Ruined temples A, i, ii, Ara-tam site, seen from south-east

 
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Serindia 257 - Interior of cave cella A iii, iii, Ara-tam site

 
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Serindia 258 - North wall of cave cella A, iii,iii, Ara-tam site

 
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Serindia 259 - Portion of tempera painting, showing altar below seated Buddha, on N.W. wall of antechapel in cave xviii, Wan-fo-hsia

 
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Serindia 260 - North-east corner of cave cella A iii, ii, Ara-tam site

 
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Serindia 261 - Buddhist temple I, north of Lapchuk, Hami

 
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Serindia 262 - Walls of ruined town, Lapchuk, with tower at north-east corner, seen from interior

 
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Serindia 263 - Group of villagers anthropometrically examined at Ara-tam, Hami

 
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Serindia 264 - Group of villagers anthropometrically examined at Yar-khoto, Turfan

 
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Serindia 265 - Ruins of vaulted dwellings along north-west wall and in west corner of Chong-hassar, Turfan, seen from north-east

 
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Serindia 266 - Ruins of Buddhist shrine and of dwellings along south-west wall of Chong-hassar, seen from north

 
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Serindia 267 - Fort and keep of Chong-hassar, seen from north-east across outer walled enclosure

 
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Serindia 268 - Ruined keep of Chong-hassar, seen from west

 
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Serindia 269 - Ruined shrines I-III, Kichik-hassar, seen from south

 
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Serindia 270 - Ruined stupa and shrine I, Kichik-hassar, seen from east

 
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Serindia 271 - Caves and shrines at lower end of Toyuk gorge, seen from east

 
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Serindia 272 - Ruin of terraced Buddhist shrine at Kara-khoja, Turfan, seen from south-east

 
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Serindia 273 - Panoramic view of Yar-khoto, Turfan, looking from centre of ruined town to north-west and north - Large Buddhist temple ruins in distance

 
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Serindia 274 - South-eastern portion of "Ming-oi' site, Shorchuk, with ruined shrines of central group of N.W. portion (on left) seen from west

 
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Serindia 275 - Main street of Yar-khoto, with ruined shrine(a) facing it, and eastern portion of ruined town seen from north-west - Trees of Yar-khoto village in distance on left.

 
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Serindia 276 - Central portion of ruined town of Yar-khoto, with shrine facing main street (a), seen from south-east

 
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Serindia 277 - Ruins of 'khan's palace', within ruined town of Kara-khoja, Turfan, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 278 - Central temple ruin and part of enclosing court of large Buddhist vihara, Yar-khoto, seen from south

 
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Serindia 279 - Central group of stupas at northernmost Buddhist sanctuary, Yar-khoto

 
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Serindia 280 - Funeral monument, Mi, xxii, at "Ming-oi' site, Shorchuk, with cinerary urns outside enclosing wall.

 
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Serindia 281 - Panoramic view of 'Ming-oi' site, Shorchuk, taken from south near temple Mi,xxvi, Ruined shrines of groups I and II in foreground, with temple x-xii on right and site of cave temples (C) in distance behind. A-B at right edge marks line of joining with next photo.

 
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Serindia 282 - Panoramic view as in previous photo continued to north end of groups I and II in foreground with shrines of central group in north-west portion on left - A-B at left edge marks joining line with previous photo

 
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Serindia 283 - Ruined shrines of groups II and III in south-east portion of "Ming-oi" site, Shorchuk, seen from west

 
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Serindia 284 - Central group of ruined shrines Mi, x-xiii, in north-west portion of 'Ming-oi" site, Shorchuk, seen from west

 
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Serindia 285 - Ruined shrines in north-west portion of "Ming-oi" site, Shorchuk, with end of Group II - seen from south - Ancient watch-tower above cave temples marked by A

 
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Serindia 286 - Main group of cave temples, with 'Ming-oi' site, Shorchuk, in distance, seen from west

 
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Serindia 287 - Ruined stupa and shrines at north end of "Ming-oi' site, Shorchuk, seen from north-west

 
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Serindia288 - Group of funeral monuments at south-east end of 'Ming-oi' site, Shorchuk, seen from south

 
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Serindia 289 - North corner of antechapel and adjoining end of cella in ruined shrine Mi,xviii, "Ming-oi" site, Shorchuk

 
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Serindia290 - Stucco relievo statues and circular image base found outside cella of ruined shrine Mi, xviii, "Ming-oi" site, Shorchuk

 
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Serindia 291 - Temple ruin Mi, x-xii, in north-west portion of "Ming-oi" site, Shorchuk, seen from south-east

 
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Serindia 292 - Ruined stupa, at Su-bashi site, north of Kucha town

 
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Serindia 293- Stucco reliefs found exposed at entrance to cave temple A, north-west of "Ming-oi" site, Shorchuk

 
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Serindia 294 - Stucco relievo sculptures in north-east corner of passage mi, xii of ruined temple "Ming-oi" site, Shorchuk

 
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Serindia 295 - Group of stucco relievo sculptures in north-west corner of passage mi, xii, of ruined temple, "Ming-oi" site.

 
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Serindia 296 - Stucco relievo and tempera painting remains on N.E, wall of ruined shrine F. xii, Farhad-beg-Yailaki

 
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Serindia 297 - Ruined shrines at Khora- site, seen from south-east

 
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Serindia 298 - Entrance to cave temple A, north of "Ming-oi" site. Shorchuk

 
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Serindia299 - Ruined shrines of groups III and IV, Khora, site, seen from south

 
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Serindia 300 - Ruined Buddhist shrines, Khora, seen from east. Ruins of Groups I, II in foreground

 
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Serindia301 - Ruined enclosure of Muhammadan cemetery at Gumbaz, near Inchike river

 
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Serindia 302 - Ruined quadrangle of Kara-dong site, seen from near south-west corner

 
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Serindia 303 - Ruined dwelling Ka I, Kara-dong site, seen from north-east before excavation - This gives good idea of how Stein found these ruined villages in the desert - there were usually the remains of house wall posts above the sand.

 
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Serindia 304 - Ruined dwelling Ka, I, Kara-dong site, seen from west during excavation - The original floor was frequently many feet down under sand drifts

 
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Serindia 305 - Ruined dwelling Ka, III, buried in tamarisk-cone, Kara-dong site - The Tamarisk when still alive would send roots deep to the water table and then continue to grow up as drifting sand accumulated around it trunk - the process could continue for a century or more as both the Tamarisk and sand grew higher until the water table might disappear and the tree then die.

 
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Serindia 306 - Ruined mosque in deserted village of 'old Domoko'

 
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Serindia 307 - Ancient jars, wooden lock, and screen excavated from ruined dwelling Ka I, Kara-dong site

 
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Serindia308 - Ruined homestead overrun by drift sand and Tamarisk scrub, 'old Domoko'

 
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Serindia 309 - Remains of ruined temple cella and porch F III, iii, Farhad-beg-yailaki site, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia310 - Sand-filled rooms at north corner of ruined building F. ii, Sarhad-beg-yailaki site, seen from south-west

 
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Serindia 311 - Ruined stupa base, F vio, Farhad-beg-yailaki, seen from east

 
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Serindia 312 - Remains of stucco relievo and wall paintings to S.W. of entrance of ruined shrine F xii, Farhad-beg-yailaki

 
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Serindia 313 - Remains of stucco relievo and wall painting on N.W. wall of ruined shrine F xii, Farhad-beg-yailaki site

 
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Serindia 314 - Remains of tempera paintings at south corner of ruined shrine, F. xii, Farhad-beg-yailaki

 
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Serindia315 - Remains of ruined Buddhist shrine F.xii, embedded in Tamarisk-covered sand cone, Farhad-beg-yailaki

 
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Serindia 316 - New cultivation on ground reclaimed from scrubby desert between Domoko and Gulakhma - Stein returned to Domoko several times to observe changes in irrigation and reclamation - he was interested in contemporary changes and also is how such changes might serve as references for understanding similar medieval change.

 
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Serindia 317 - Excavation proceeding at south-west wing of ruined monastic quarters, F.II, Farhad-beg-yailaki

 
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Serindia 318 - Tamarisk-cone within new cultivation between Domoko and Gulakhma

 
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Serindia 319 - Remains of ruined Buddhist shrine, amidst Tamarisk-covered hillocks, Kara-yantak, in course of excavation

 
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Serindia 320 - Group of my party taken at Ulugh-mazar - From left to right: Ibrahim Beg (significant local minor official who provided much assistance); Chiang-Ssu-yeh (the Chinese interpreter, secretary and extremely valuable assistant from the consulate at Kashgar); Stein with the second of his dogs; Jasvant Singh (personal cook for Lal Singh); Rai Bahadur Lal Singh (indispensable professional military surveyor from the Survey of India who accomplished much of the survey - Rai and Bahadur are high honorifics bestowed for his years of accomplishments); Naik Ram Singh (Naik is corporal, he was accomplished engineer from the Indian army)

 
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Serindia 321 - Excavation proceeding at sand-buried shrine, Ta I, near Mayaklik, north of Khotan

 
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Serindia 322 - Site of ruined Buddhist shrine Ta, near Mayaklik, seen from south before excavation - the shrine is under sand on the horizon.

 
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Serindia 323 - Stucco head of colossal Buddha statue, excavated in ruined Ta i, near Mayaklik - with Stein's measuring stick agaist it to show size.

 
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Serindia 324 - Remains of stucco Buddha image with painted base, in ruined shrine Ta i, near Mayaklik

 
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Serindia 325 - Tempera painting on south-east wall of passage of ruined shrine Ta i, near Mayaklik

 
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Serindia 326 - Remains of stucco images and tempera paintings on S.E. passage wall of ruined shrine Ta i, near Mayaklik

 
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Serindia 327 - Tempera painting on wall of ruined shrine Ta, ii, Mayaklik, showing seated Buddha between vesicas of colossal figures

 
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Serindia 328 - Painting in tempera of Four-armed divinity, on inner passage wall of ruined shrine Ta i, near Mayaklik

 
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Serindia 329 - Ruined fort and watch-tower on Mazar-tagh ridge seen from north-west - Bed of Khotan River and jungle belt on its right bank in distance below. This Tibetan fort is on the only high bluff next to the Khotan river, about half way through the Taklamakan. Its location indicates the extent of the Tibetan expansion into the Tarim basin.

 
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Serindia 330 - Interior of ruined fort of Mazar-tagh, with remains of keep in centre and north bastion on right

 
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Serindia 331 - North bastion of ruined fort, Mazar-tagh, seen from outer court v.

 
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Serindia 332 - Remains of ancient watch-tower on Arach hill, north-east of Maral-bashi - Stein visited Maral-bashi, east of Kashgar several times while passing through, most notably after he was defeated by sand dunes while attempting a direct crossing from Maral-bashi to Mazar-tagh.

 
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Serindia 333 - Group of Kirghiz, anthropometrically examined at Uch-turfan

 
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Serindia 334 - Refuse layers with ancient records, on N.E. slope below Mazar-tagh fort, in course of excavation - Stein always zeroed in on refuse dumps as they revealed an amazing amount of preserved ancient documents - but the Tibetan dumps here and at Miran were the worst for decayed matter.

 
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Serindia 335 - Mazar-tagh hill with ruined fort seen from north-east. Clay banks of Khotan River bed in foreground - the photo taken on the river ice itself.

 
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Serindia336 - Kaka-jade peaks seen from near Moinak-kak - Kara-teke range

 
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Serindia 337 - Chinese citadel crowning rocky spur above Uch-Turfan. Seen from east

 
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Serindia 338 - Ruined watch-tower of Chong-tim site, in desert south of Kelpin

 
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Serindia 339 - Ruins of Tumshuk-tagh-shahri, seen from north-east

 
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Serindia 340 - Wall closing access to ruined town above Hasha, seen from south west, with refuse heaps of outwork

 
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Serindia 341 - Stone image worshipped at Kirghiz shrine of Chal-koide, below Idak pass in Kara-teke range - part of the T'ien-shan - Stein noted frequently the local shrines where Mohammedan tribesmen worship at places which long existed prior to the Mohammedan invasion and conversion of the locals. They simply took over Buddhist or shamanist shrines without realizing it.

 
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Serindia 342 - Villagers of Kelpin, anthropometrically examined - Kelpin was in a relatively isolated narrow valley on the south side of the T'ien-shan range

 
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Serindia 343 - Snowy peaks of main K'un-lun range to S.S. W and S.W of Nura - Village lands of Nura on loess beds in foreground

 
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Serindia 344 - Muhammadan tombs near shrine at south foot of Okur-mazar-tagh, Tumshuk

 
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SerindiaPlan 1 - Plan showing disposition of room with construction of skylight ceiling, in Hakim Obaidullah's house, Miragram - Ground plan of ruined temple at Gumbaz, Talash - Stein stopped here in northwest India frontier on his way to China.

 
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Serindia Plan 2 - Rock- engraved Stupa designs of Paktoridini, Chitral, and Charrum, Mastuj - Stein was always on the look out for evidence of ancient Buddhist visitors and local worship prior to the Moslem invasion - he found these enroute - see photo - Serindia 5 {short description of image}

 
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Serindia Plan 3 - Site plan of Kiz-kurghan - Located in Sarikol part of Chinese Turkestan in mountains - note the Taghdumbash River.

 
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Serindia Plan 4 - Plan of ruined shrine near A,-terek, Hangya, Khotan -

 
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Serindia Plan 5 - Site plan of ruined shrines, Khadalik

 
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Serindia Plan 6 - Plan of main group of ruined shrines, Khadalik - section of timber and wattle wall in shrine viii, Khadalik

 
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Serindia Plan 7 - Revised site plan of ancient site beyond Niya River - The revision includes information from the first and second expeditions.

 
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Serindia Plan 8 - Plan of ancient residence N. xii, Niya site - Plan of ruined house N xix, Niya site.

 
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Serindia Plan 9 - Plan of ruined residence, N xiv, Niya site

 
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SerindiaPlan 10 - Plans of ruined houses N. xiii, and xv, Niya site

 
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Serindia Plan 11 - Plans of ruined houses N. xvi and xviii, Niya site - plus small sketch of ancient wooden cupboard from N xxii. iii.

 
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Serindia Plan 12 - Plan of Aiwan in Musa, Darogha's house, Bagh-jigda, Yarkand - Plan of ruined house N xx, Niya site

 
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SerindiaPlan 13 - Plans of ancient houses N. xxi and xxiii, Niya site

 
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SerindiaPlan 14 - Plan of ancient residence N, xxiv, Niya site

 
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SerindiaPlan 15 - Plan of ancient residence N. xxvi, Niya site

 
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SerindiaPlan 16 - Plan of ancient residence N, xxix, Niya site

 
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Serindia Plan 17 - Plans of ancient dwellings N. xxxv, xxxvi, xxxvii, xxxviii, Niya site

 
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SerindiaPlan 18 - Site plan showing ruined house N. xli, with adjoining ground and ancient river bed, Niya site

 
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SerindiaPlan 19 - Plan of ruined village Bilei-konghan, near Endere River

 
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Serindia Plan 20 - Plan of ruined fort of T'ang period, Endere Site, reproduced from survey of 1901, with additions - Endere was one of the sensational archeological discoveries Stein made during his first expedition to which he returned during the second expedition at which time he discovered more, especially the fortifications.

 
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Serindia Plan 21 - Plans of ruined structures E. vi and vii, Endere site - Elevations of wooden pillars from E. iv and v, Endere - Elevation and ground plan of fireplace in clay, room E. vii - Plan of ruined fort, south of Endere site

 
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Serindia Plan 22 - Site plan of ruined sites L.A. and L.B. at Lou-lan - This was one of Stein's principle objectives for his second expedition and even more so for the third - he took advantage of the delay in publishing Serindia in order to add to it some information acquired during the third expedition. - C124 and C125 are locations of two of his camps.

 
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Serindia Plan 23 - Site plan of ruined station L.A. Lou-lan site, with additions from 1914 -Note the name, Afrazgul Khan on the drawing - this junior surveyor was assigned for the third expedition and was not present during the second for which Serindiawas the report. The plan title notes that information was added from the third expedition of which Innermostasia was the actual report.

 
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Serindia Plan 24 - Site plan of ruined dwellings L.A. i, iv, and vii, Lou-lan site - Photo 94 shows one of these buildings{short description of image}

 
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Serindia Plan 25 - Plan of ruined structures L.A. ii, iii, v, and vi, Lou-lan site

 
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Serindia Plan 26 - Plan and section of ruined Stupa, L. A. group, Lou-lan site - Sketch plan and section of ruined Stupa between groups L.A. and L.B. Lou lan - the stupa appears in several of Stein's photographs

 
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Serindia Plan 27 - Plan of ruined structures L.B. i-iii, Lou-lan site

 
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Serindia Plan 28 - Plan of ruined houses L.B. iv and v, Lou-lan site

 
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Serindia Plan 29 - Site plan of Miran ruins, with additions of 1914 - Stein visited Miran on the way to Lou-lan and again on the way back during the second expedition and again during the third expedition.

 
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Serindia Plan 30 - Plan of Tibetan fort, M. i, Miran - the fort and ruined stupas are south of the small village - note the bastions - Stein found the refuse dumps here extraordinarily disgusting - many were in the small rooms shown along the eastern wall. This fort and that at Mazar-tagh indicate the extensive occupation of the Tarim by the temporary Tibetan conquest.

 
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SerindiaPlan 31 - Plan of ruined temple M. ii, Miran - Stein determined that the Buddhist temples a short distance from the fort predated it by centuries and were already buried when the fort was constructed. This temple is marked II on the site plan.

 
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Serindia Plan 32 - Plan and elevation of ruined shrines M. iii and v. Miran - Stein uncovered remarkable stucco and frescos partially preserved under sand along the walls.

 
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Serindia Plan 33 - Detailed map of ancient Chinese Limes west of Tun-huang - We have color versions of this and other maps that show locations of many towers along the left bank of the Su-lo Ho - In this one we see towers from Tvid at the west end to Txxiiig at the eastern border. - Towers Tx viiia and Txviiib are along the route south to Tun-huang. Stein numbered these towers more or less in the order in which he examined them.

 
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Serindia Plan 34 - Plans of watch towers T xxv, xxviii, and Txxix on ancient Limes north of Tun-huang - Stein did not prepare such plans for every tower, many of which were far too completely ruined. And there are many photos of the better preserved of the towers. Stein always refered to the Han wall as "Limes' reflecting his connection between this and the Roman frontier lines which had a similar strategic purpose.

 
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Plate 34a - Plan for ruined watch station tower T xxvii - part of the Han wall complex.

 
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Plate 34 - Plans for ruined watch station towers T xxix and xxv - part of the Han wall complex.

 
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Serindia Plan 35 - Plan of ruined town, Nan-hu - Stein visited the modern village, Nan-hu, and the adjacent medieval ruin, located west of Tun-huang, on his way back from Tun-huang to the Han wall. There was not much left of the medieval site.

 
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SerindiaPlan 36 - Plans of ruined watch towers Tiii, ivb, v, and xix on ancient Limes west of Tun-huang - actually more northwest and north of the town

 
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Serindia Plan 37 - Plans of ruined watch towers T vib, vic at western extremity of ancient Limes (Han Dynasty wall) north-west of Tun-huang - These can be found on the related maps.

 
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Serindia Plan 38 - Plans of ruined watch towers Tviii, xii, xiii, on ancient Limes , Tun=huang.

 
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Serindia Plan 39 - Plans of ruined watch stations T xxiia, xiva, Txvi ancient Limes west of Tun-huang

 
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Serindia Plan 40 - Plans of ruined fort and station T xiv, ancient Limes west of Tun-huang - Plan of remains of ruined station Txva, ancient Limes - Tun-huang

 
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Serindia Plan 41 - Plan of ruined magazine T.xviii, ancient Limes west of Tun-huang - it is actually more north of the town - This is a huge building that caused a lot of puzzlement for Stein until he figured out it was a storage magazine for a length of the wall. Here is{short description of image} a photo of the building. Other photos are in Innermostasia.

 
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Serindia Plan 42 - Site plan of cave-temples of "Thousand Buddhas', Tun-huang - the Roman numerals correspond to descriptions in the text and some of the photos.

 
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Serindia Plan 43 - Plans of cave-temples Ch i, ii, and iii, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - The 'walled up chapel' is the location in which thousands of rare manuscripts were found.

 
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Serindia Plan 44 - Plans of cave-temples Ch. v, vi, vii, and viii, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun=huang

 
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Serindia Plan 45 - Plans of cave-temples Ch. ix, x,xii, xv, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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Serindia Plan 46 - Plan of ruined town (So-yang-ch'eng), Ch'iao, tzu - Photo 240 shows some of the wall - {short description of image}

 
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Serindia Plan 47 - Plan of ruined shrines A.i and ii, Ara-tam, Hami - Plan of watch-station inside extant border wall, north of Chia-yu-kuan - One of the several photos of Ara-tami {short description of image}

 
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SerindiaPlan 48 - Plan of ruined Buddhist shrines A. iii, Ara-tam, Hami -Wang's garden palace - several photos are listed above

 
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Serindia Plan 49 - Rough sketch plan of ruined town site of Yar-khoto, Turfan - Sketch plan of ruins near Lapchuk - note the signature of R. B. Lal Singh who replaced Ram Singh about half way through the second expedition when the latter became too ill to continue.

 
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Serindia Plan 50 - Sketch plan of ruined fort, Chong-hissar, Lukchun - Sketch plan of ruined shrines, Kichik-hissar, Lukchun

 
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SerindiaPlan 51 - Site plan of "Ming-oi' temple ruins, Shikchin, Kara-shahr - Plan of cave temples north of 'Ming-oi' ruins

 
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Serindia Plan 52 - Sketch plan of portions of southern group of "Ming-oi' ruins - Shikchin, Kara-shahr. Stein obtained many artifacts at this site.

 
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Serindia Plan 53 - Sketch plan of portions of northern group of "Ming-oi' ruins, Shikchin, Kara-shahr. Stein obtained many artifacts at this site.

 
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Serindia Plan 54 - Site plan of ruined shrines, Khora, Kara-shahr Valley - Plan of ruined shrines, group iv, Khora

 
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Serindia Plan 55 - Plan of site and ruined dwellings of Kara-dong A photo number 302 {short description of image}

 
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Serindia Plan 56 - Site plan of ancient remains at Farhad-Beg-yailaki, Domoko

 
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Serindia Plan 57 - Plan of ruined structures F. i-v, Farhad-Beg-yailaki

 
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Serindia Plan 58 - Plan of ruined structures F. vi, viii, ix, xi, xii, Farhad-Beg-yailaki, Domoko

 
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Serindia Plan 59 - Site plan of eastern extremity of Mazar-tagh, with detailed plan of ruins of Mazar-tagh fort

 
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Serindia Plan 59 - Part 1 - Detailed plan for the ruined Mazar-tagh fort on the eastern bluff of Mazar-tagh ridge next to the Khotan River.

 
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Serindia Plan 59 - Part 2 - Detailed plan for the ruined Mazar-tagh fort on the eastern bluff of Mazar-tagh ridge next to the Khotan River.

 
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Silk banners of Lokapalas at Tun-huang - Lokapalas in Buddhist theology are the guardians of directions, Warrior kings dressed in armor - one of the two categories of Dharmapala the other being protectors of wisdom. The Lokapalas are Vaisiravana - He who hears all - north, with pike or halbard and often a snake (or umbrella and mongoose); Dhrtarastra - He who upholds the realm - east with bow and arrow or pipa; Virupaksa - He who sees all - west with sword or pearl; and Virudhaka - He who causes all to grow - south with sword or club - Unfortunately from this photo of a photo we cannot determine all the details but the same illustration is in On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks

 
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Serindia LXXVIII - Painting of two Bodhisttvas from the "Caves of Thousand Buddhas" at Tun-huang - The figure on the left is repeated in another illustration.

Serindia LXXXIX Linen banners and paintings, representing Buddha and Bodhisattvas, from "Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang

 
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Serindia - Silk banners of two Bodhisattvas from "Caves of Thousand Buddhas". - The same illustration is in Ruins of Desert Cathay and On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks.

 
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Serindia - Silk painting of the Lokapala Vaisravana - He who hears all - Chief of the four heavenly kings who guard the four cardinal directions - with attendant genii and demons from "Caves of Thousand Buddhas". The illustration appears in other of Stein's reports including On Central Asian Tracks.

Serindia Silk banners, representing Dharmapala (Lokapala) Vajrapanis, ( Vaisravana) from "Cave of Thousand Buddhas", Tun-huang - The Chief of the four heavenly kings who guard the cardinal directions. He is the son of Vishrava and to the Hindus known as Kubera - The deity who hears everything. He guards the north direction from his home on Mt Sumeru. He is represented with yellow face and carries an unbrella and has a mongoose.

 
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Serindia - Silk paintings of Avalokitesvara on left (Kuan-yin or Guanjin) The Lord who looks down - and Buddha - Avalokitesvara is a favorite Bodhisattva who looks down with compassion and has a role of assisting beings to Nirvana - sometimes depicted with 4 arms out of a thousand arms - a guider of souls with a willow branch. Shown here assisting a pious donor. The Avalokitesvara illustration is also in On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks.

 
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Serindia - Silk painting of Avalokitesvara of a thousand arms - The Lord who looks down with compassion - with attendant divinities at "Caves of Thousand Buddhas" - Tun-huang

 
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Serindia - Another silk painting representing Avalokitesvara with donors dated 971 AD at the "Cave of Thousand Buddhas" - Tun-huang - interesting that in Buddhist paintings as later in the west donors are shown smaller at the bottom.

 
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Serindia - Silk painting representing Buddhist heaven - at "Cave of Thousand Buddhas" - Tun-huang

 
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Serindia - A fresco tempera at Miran depicting a heavenly being - note the western features - The illustration is also in On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks.

 
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Serindia- Tempera painting at shrine at Miran - Stein was very taken with the western likeness - The illustration is also in On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks.

 
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