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SAND BURIED RUINS OF KHOTAN - PHOTOS

 
 

Sir Aurel Stein

 
 

These photos are in Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan - Personal Narrative of a Journey of Archeological and Geographical Exploration in Chinese Turkestan - Some of them also are in Ancient Khotan. For reference to locations please consult the details of the maps below that are from the map at the back of the book. They are also shown in the maps for Serindia and Innermostasia The text is here.

 
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The title page of Stein's book Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan - Personal Narrative of a Journey of Archaeological and Geographical Exploration in Chinese Turkestan - the copy obtained from the Temple Univ. Library.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 1 - Frontispiece showing seated Buddha, between torsos of colossal statues, Rawak Stupa

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 2 - Mohand Marg, Kashmir - the hill on which Stein had his tent home to which he repaired at every opportunity (closed by deep snow in winter)

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 3 - Ancient temple at Pandrenthan, Kashmir

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 4 - View of Burzil Valley - on Stein's route through northwest India (Pakistan) toward the Pamirs.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 5 -Mir's castle at Baltit - Stein had special permission to pass through the several semi-independent tribal areas and was well received as a guest of honor by the rulers in each. Tribal warfare resulted in much local fortification. Baltit is in Hunza territory

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 6 - Cliffs of Nilth Gorge, Nagir - One of the many gorges Stein passed through to reach these isolated tribal areas. See photos of rafiks

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 7 - Stupa of Thol, Nagir - Stein was an expert on Buddhist architecture in India and had studied the memoirs of Chinese Buddhist monks who visited the region - He took great interest in matching their descriptions with the remains he found.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 8 - Mount Rakiposhi, seen from Aliabad - The mountain is 25,550 feet high - Aliabad is to the north, between Hunza and Shimsal.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 9 - Hunza coolies, before start from Aliabad - Stein arranged ahead of time (through the British residents) for teams of laborers with or without pack mules, ponies, or yaks to be ready on each side of a high pass - one team to carry his equipment up and the other to meet at the top and carry it down the other side. Each side was a different tribal area with different ethnic inhabitants.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 10 - Fort-village of Altit - Everywhere Stein traveled he saw fortified villages, castles, watchtowers and frontier walls.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 11 - Rafik above Ataabad - A 'rafik' was a narrow corniche path built out of the sheer side of a mountain wall above an impassable stream or gorge - made of brush wood jammed into cracks in the rocks. Not recommended for ponies or even sometimes for donkeys.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 12 -Wakhi villager, Ghulmit -Gulmit is north-east of Aliabad (still within Hunza) - The Wakhi were used to ignoring the Indian-Afghan border

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 13 -View to north-east of Pasu village

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 14 - Batur Glacier, seen from south-east -

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 15 - Hunza valley below Khaibar

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 16 - Rafik near Murkhun - another example, this one shows more clearly how the whole frail construction hangs out over the gorge below.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 17 -Kanjutis carrying merchandise - Stein met these intrepid traders along one of the narrow mountain trails

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 18 - Kanjuti hillmen, discharged at Misgar - note the fortification in the background - Misgar is in the last valley leading up to the pass and border with China. Note these are mostly young men, but experienced in traversing the mountains.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 19 - Stein is now at the Chinese border - the Kilik Pass is slightly east of the Wakhan corridor of Afghanistan and is the direct crossing Stein used between India and Chinese Turkistan during his first expedition - Stein had to time these crossings carefully - too early in spring and the snow would be too deep, but too late and the snow would be melting, soft underfoot and filling the streams to over flowing. Sometimes he had to 'compromise' and start up at 3 or 4 AM while the snow was still hard. The Kilik and Ming-taka passes are on the international boundary in map {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 20 - Kilik Pass seen from Khushbel- not the highest pass, but nevertheless difficult. On the second expedition Stein used the Ming-taka pass slightly to the east.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 21 - Snowy range south of head of Ab-i-panja valley - Stein liked to use his photo theodolite for reference photos of distant peaks.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 22 - Photo-theodolite view of Oxus source of glaciers. In subsequent expeditions Stein was able to reach the sources of the Oxus

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 23 - View down Ab-panja valley from near Wakhjir pass - This pass is west of the Kilik and is between the Wakhan corridor of Afghanistan and Chinese Turkestan - Sarikol.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 24 - Kirghiz "ak-uis' at Tigharman-su - The Kirghiz were still nomadic and traveled throughout the Pamirs and even into parts of India. - Here they are in the westernmost corner of Chinese Turkestan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 25 - Wakhis and Kirghiz at Dafdar - Dafdar is well into the Sarikol region of Chinese Turkestan on the Tash-kurgan river some miles south of the capital at Tash-kurgan. See lower area of {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 26 - Chinese fort within ruined town of Tash-kurgan - Stein has several photos of this place in the different books. The town was not that ruined but most of the old fort was. See {short description of image}and a plan is at xixa below.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 27 - In the cemetery of Tiznaf - town slightly west of Tash-kurgan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 28 - Chinese garrison of Subashi - Stein thought these fellows did not have much to do. But they turned out to welcome him.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 29 - Muztagh-ata peaks seen from above Yambulak valley - Stein was determined to climb this massive mountain (23,00+) and did make it to about 20,000 feet before his guides and assistants had to call it quits. See {short description of image}Note that during this first expedition Stein detoured around the west and north-west sides of Muztagh-ata

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 30 - Icy range, with Sarguluk peak, to north-east of Karakul lake.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 31 - Muztagh-ata peaks seen from camp south of Lake Karakul, See also {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 32 - View from above Yambulak glacier looking westward - in Sarikol part of Chinese Turkestan looking toward Russia.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 33 - Ice range with peaks above Kongur-debe and Koksel glaciers.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 34 - Start for Gez Defile - This difficult passage led down from the Sarikol area north of Tash-kurgan to the plain near Kashgar. It was passable, with difficulty, only at certain times of the year.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 35 - Ascent of Shagildik Dawan (dawan means pass) - Stein was forced to abandon the route through gorges and climb over ridges and through passes adjacent to his preferred route. Note the men high on the ridge and at the crest.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 36 - Road to Mr. Macartney's house, with city wall - that is Kashgar wall - unfortunately Stein was well advised not to advertise his skills and mission by attempting to survey the Kashgar fortifications (much to my disappointment) And now all has been destroyed by modern city planning. Mr. Macartney was the Indian government resident in Kashgar and a source of critical support for all Stein's expeditions.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 37 - Priest in Liu-kin-tang's shrine

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 38 - In the bazaar of the 'new city, Kashgar' - Even in 1900 the 'old city' was being displaced by typical modern urban sprawl. Stein always took time to visit bazaars not only while looking for possible artifacts, but also to judge the economic conditions.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 39 - My servants from Kashgar and Yarkand. Stein found that his cook from Kashmir could not cope with the hardships in Turkestan so had to hire other personal servants of less than sterling quality. A very poor photo that I could not improve

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 40 - Caravan starting from Kashgar - Stein spent a month or so organizing his expedition, hiring local camels and ponies with their owners and attendants. He was assigned a Chinese secretary - interpreter from the Indian consulate.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 41 - Begs and Aksakal of Beshkarim - Stein met and was feted by the begs (local Moslem Turki leaders) and the Aksakal (chief of the Indian- Afghan trader merchant community) in each of the towns he passed through.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 42 - Ruined stupa of Mauri Tim - painting by Stein's friend and associate F. H. Andrews - the ruin was north of Kashgar and Stein spent a day visiting to satisfy his curiosity. See {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 43 - Hindu moneylenders - Stein was very caustic in his negative appraisal of these 'loan sharks'. They were members of a almost hereditary tribe of Indians who used their skill to fleece the locals and send the proceeds back to families in India.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 44 - Pilgrims' sarai at Ordam-Padshah - Between Kashgar and Khotan, along the desert caravan route were these lodgings (like motels) spaced to accommodate travelers along this lengthy and desolate route. See right side of {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 45 - Entrance to the Yamen, Yarkand - The Yamen was the district Chinese government office. Yarkand the first major town between Kashgar and Khotan. It was also the terminus of the Karakorum pass route over the Kun-lun to India, hence a major trading center.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 46 - Badakhshani trader, Yarkand - Badakhshan is the north-east region of Afghanistan along the Indian and Russian (now Pakistani and Tajikistani) borders and the chief trading route from Chinese Turkestan to Iran.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 47 - Liu-darin, Amban of Yarkand - this photo appears in several of Stein's reports - Liu-darin was the first of the several Chinese local officials whom Stein met and enlisted in his quest to follow the footsteps of medieval Chinese Buddhist pilgrims between Chang-an (Xi'an) and India.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 48 - Yetimlukum Mazar with cemetery, near Karghalik - Mazar was Moslem shrine.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 49 - Buddhist monk from China

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 50- Mendicant, or 'diwana' - Stein met these travelers at many stops along his routes.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 51 - House of Tokhta Akhun, Khotan - Tokhta Akhun was Stein's local host in Khotan for his three expeditions who provided not only accommodations but also significant assistance in finding local guides and logistic support.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 52 - Pan-darin, Amban of Khotan, with personal attendants - this photo also appears in several of Stein's reports, as well as other photos of Pan-darin. This Amban rendered the most assistance to Stein during his three expeditions. By the second Pan-darin had been promoted to Ak-su and by the third to Urumchi. Stein gained immediate friendship by showing Pan-darin the texts of medieval Buddhist pilgrims that he was following. Stein called Hsuan-tang his 'patron saint' whose memoir opened many doors for Stein.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 53 - Muztagh peak in the Kuen-luen range - not to be confused with Muztagh-ata in the Pamirs. This mountain was surveyed by Stein during his unsuccessful, initial efforts to penetrate the Kun-lun to the sources of the Yurung-kash river

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 54 - Taghliks and exiled criminals at Karanghu-tagh - Taghliks were local tribal hillsmen. Minor criminals were exiled from Khotan into the mountains to work. Karanghu-tagh was the last village south on the Yurung-kash river. Stein managed to penetrate a short distance further south before being stopped by impenetrable gorges and refusal of the locals to guide him further. See the southern part of map .{short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 55 - View up the Yurung-kash gorge, with spurs of peak K.5 on left. The theodolite shows the view is toward the south-east. K.5 was tied into the survey from the Indian side.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 56 - Yaks carrying baggage in Yurung-kash gorge, near Karanghu-tagh - Compare this with previous photo to get good idea of the elevation differences Stein regularly overcame. Even with yaks, however, he could not penetrate much further south.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 57 - Kuen-luen range with glaciers of Nissa valley, seen from Brinjak - Stein crossed the Brinjak pass on his way back from Karanghu-tagh to Khotan after climbing out of the Nissa valley. (He spells the mountains Kun-lun sometimes and Kuen-luen at other times.) For this area see{short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 58 - Eroded ranges to north-west, seen from above Yagan-dawan - another scene on Stein's route back to Khotan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 59 - Turdi, "Treasure seeker" - This gentleman had spent his lifetime exploring the desert north of Khotan searching for 'treasure' - that is artifacts salable to European collectors. Badruddin Kahn (Aksal of Khotan) immediately thought of Turdi as the ideal guide for Stein and was very right. Turdi knew all the locations of ruins and had an unerring sense of dead reckoning to lead Stein to them. Stein was quite emotionally over whelmed when they parted. The same photo is # 70 in Ancient Khotan

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 60 - Khotanese waiting for medicines - Stein quickly became something of a western medicine man in local lore and was besieged by people asking for medicine. He wisely brought along a supply and took some time from his work for charitable as well as public relations reasons.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 61 - Jade pit with diggers, near debouchure of Yurung-kash - Khotan from early medieval times to today has been famous as the source of precious jade - so highly prized by Chinese - The fortress, custom's post on the Chinese frontier north of Tun-huang was called the "Jade Gate" - It is found, but rarely, in the Yurung-kash river bed like gold in Californian and Yukon rivers. Rarity makes it all the more worth while to scrounge around in the rocks in hopes of finding a small piece.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 62 - North-west corner of excavated area at Yotkan, with entrance to 'yar' - Yotkan was the medieval capital and previous city prior to the shift eastward a few miles to build Khotan. The medieval city was completely destroyed and buried. In the late 19th century a chance flood of the river between them caused erosion and created a deep ditch or 'yar' in part of Yotkan. This revealed flakes of gold leaf from the medieval temples and set off a mad rush of prospectors. When the original 'yar' was exhausted the men rented land from the land owners and expanded the excavation - as seen here - Stein was not too interested in flakes of gold but highly excited to obtain any relics - potsherds, small statues, bronze items, and anything else of archeological value. See {short description of image}for Khotan and Yotkan

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 63 - Antiques from Yotkan - Samples of some types of relics Stein purchased from the archeological dig in Yotkan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 64 - Terra-cotta figurines from Yotkan - more samples from the extensive 'dig' but Stein of course was unable to pinpoint the locations and dates.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 65 - Old Villagers of Somiya - Stein was again following the Buddhist monk's memoirs to find medieval shrines south-west of Khotan. He interrogated the oldest inhabitants he could find and sometimes did get something useful out of the folklore.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 66 - Camels starting for Dandan-uiliq - Located in the desert north of Khotan - first place to which Turdi led Stein. They picked up a team of laborers at Tawakkel (Turdi's home town) along the way.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 67 -Ahmad Mergen and Kasim Akhun, of Tawakkel - these fellows claimed to know the way to Dandan but soon became lost so Turdi, who had been quiet so as not to embarrass them, then took over and quickly led to the right place.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 68 - Tawakkel labourers taken to Dandan-uiliq - Stein paid well - these fellows who lived in an oasis in the desert were not reluctant to sign on - as many of the mountain men were, and also the Chinese whom Stein encountered later around Su-chou. For location see {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 69 - Camp in the desert, Dandan-uiliq - This is the tent Stein used for his expeditions.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 70 - Ruins of Buddhist shrine, D II, at Dandan-uiliq, before excavation - the scene is typical of what Stein found in the desert. The upper parts of ancient building posts remained above the sand after hundreds of years and had attracted 'treasure seekers' for many years. Note Stein's measuring rod displayed to provide a scale reference. Stein's strong education in the latest archeological procedures enabled him to perform accurate and valuable recording, in contrast to many of the amateurs who explored only to seek souvenirs.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 71 - Cella of Buddhist shrine, D. II, at Dandan-uiliq, after excavation - Compare with previous photo - amazing what Stein uncovered by digging between the upper remains of building posts. The extent of remains depended on how fast structures decayed versus how fast they were covered and protected by drifting sand.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 72 - Fresco from outer wall of shrine, D. II, Dandan-Uiliq. For the area between Dandan-Uiliq and Niya see {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 73 - Smaller cella of Buddhist shrine D.II, at Dandan-uiliq, after excavation - This one had more remains than did the first one.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 74 - Room of monastic dwelling, D. III, Dandan-uiliq, find place of ancient manuscripts. (see next photo)

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 75 and 76 - Leaf of Brahmi Manuscript in non-Indian language and Obverse of portion of leaf of Buddhist text in Sanskrit.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 78 - Chinese document containing bond dated AD 782 and Chinese wooden tablet from Dandan-uiliq

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 80 - Street in suburb of Keriya - This town on the Keriya river was next one east from Khotan and Stein's base for exploration into the desert north and east.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 81 - Huang-daloi, Amban of Keriya - another Chinese official who greatly assisted Stein in obtaining workers and logistic support.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan82 - Village boys at Niya - Niya was another oasis on the edge of the Taklamakan. A local young man showed Stein some documents he had found north of the oasis far into the desert. This set Stein off on one of his most significant discoveries.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 83 - Trees with ex-votos, on path to Iman Jafar Sadik's tomb - Devout pilgrims would leave these scraps of cloth at a Moslem shrine. Imam Jafar Sadik was located north of Niya, into the desert but near the end of the Niya stream, and part way to the buried ruin that Stein made famous.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 84 - Ruins of ancient dwelling-house (N. iii), with garden - at the Niya ruin.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 85a - Ruined building N.i, first find-place of inscribed tablets, after excavation - It was a few of these remarkable tablets that were shown to Stein back at Niya and excited him to rush to collect more, which the young man insisted were still there. Stein was worried that either the tablets had been destroyed by time or had been taken. He prevented any of the laborers from getting near the 'find-place' until he could supervise personally. And the results more than met his hopes - see next photo.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 86 - Kharoshthi documents on wooden tablets - These caused a sensation in scholarly circles - the language, the method of creating the documents, the very existence after so many centuries, and the culture they revealed after years of study, all were remarkable.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 87 and 88 - Kharoshthi document on wood, under tablet - ancient wooden pen with bone know - from Niya ruin

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 89b - Clay impressions of classical seals, from Kharoshthi tablets - the seals were affixed to secure the document inside its cover - Stein was very excited to see the classical Romano-Greek style clearly made from standard molds.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 90 - Remains of ancient houses, at group of ruins, N.ii - at Niya site

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 92 - North wall of central hall of ancient dwelling-house N iii, during excavation - at Niya ruin

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 97 - Ruined stupa, at ancient site beyond Iman Jafar Sadik -that is Niya ruin - same photo is at Ancient Khotan 38.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 98 - Ruined dwelling-place, containing ancient rubbish heap N. xv - seen from south-east - this is at Niya ruin.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 99 - Ancient rubbish heap N xv. in course of excavation - at Niya ruin - this is same photo as Ancient Khotan 45

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 100 - Ancient Kharoshthi document on leather - found in Niya ruin

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 101 - Kharoshthi document on double wooden tablet - The example shows the three parts of the wooden tablet - the inner surfaces on which the message was written and the cover with seal.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 102 - Diagrams created by Stein's friend F. Andrews, depicting the method for sealing the wedge-shaped double tablet with string and a seal. - The same diagram is also in Ancient Khotan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 103 - Covering tablets of Kharoshthi documents on wood found at Niya ruin. These show the location of the seals.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 104 - Kharoshthi document on double oblong tablet - shows the document unopened and then with reverse and obverse sides. - fount at Niya site

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 105 - Seal-impressions in clay from Kharoshthi tablets - illustration by F. M Andrews - from seals found at Niya - Stein noted the Greek style.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 106 - Remains of ancient trees near sand-buried dwelling-place N viii - at Niya ruin

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 108 - Ruined buildings within Endere fort - note Stein's measuring rod. For location see {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 109 - Interior of ruined temple cella, Endere, after excavation

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 110 - Two leaves in Central-Asian Brahmi, from paper roll (E. I 7) found in Endere Temple

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 112 - Lower floor room of ruined dwelling-place, Endere fort - shows a fire place

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 113 - Interior of ruined quadrangle, Karadong - This site was north of Khotan. Stein visited after completing work at Endere. For Karadong see {short description of image}in the north-east corner

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 114 - Wooden gateway of ruined quadrangle, Karadong, after excavation.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 115 - Boys and girls at Keriya, in holiday dress

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 116 - Village children, Keriya

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 117 - Excavations proceeding along south-east wall of Rawak Stupa court - This small ruin turned out to be one of Stein's most spectacular discoveries - note the lower parts of relievo statues along the wall - seen in detail in subsequent photos. See {short description of image}and note that this Rawak is shown as Rawak Vihara, near to Khotan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 118 - Rawak stupa, seen from south corner of court - The stupa is also seen in photo 59 in Ancient Khotan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 119 - Relievo statues of Rawak stupa court, south-west wall, after excavation - here the workers are working to hold the statues up while Stein takes the photograph, otherwise the remaining statues would crumble - he had to refill the trench to protect them.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 120 - Relievo sculptures on outer south-east wall of Rawak stupa court, in course of excavation - again only the lower parts escaped destruction - The photo is also number 69 in Ancient Khotan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 121 - Relievo statue of Bodhisattva (R iv) on south west wall, Rawak stupa court

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 122 - Colossal statues on outer walls of south corner of Rawak stupa court - same photo is 66 in Ancient Khotan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 123 - Torsos of colossal statues along inner south-east wall - Rawak stupa site. - see photo 65 in Ancient Khotan

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 124 - Torsos of statues (Dvarapalas) at gate of Rawak stupa court. - photo 67 in Ancient Khotan

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 125 - Stucco head of small Buddha or Bodhisattva, originally painted, from Rawak stupa court

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 126 - Stucco head of small Buddha or Bodhisattva, retaining original colouring, from Rawak stupa court

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 127 - Islam Akhun - the forger of documents whom Stein interrogated and revealed to puzzled scholars - photo 71 in Ancient Khotan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 128 - In a Khotan bazaar

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 129 - Badruddin Khan and Afghan trader, Khotan - Badruddin Khan was the Ak-sal of the foreign merchant trader community and very influential. He greatly assisted Stein in finding expert guides to the desert and logistic support - other photos appear in Stein's other reports.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 130 - Halt on the march down the Gulcha valley, Farghana - At the conclusion of his first expedition, Stein traveled through Russian Central Asia and across the Caspian Sea and then through western Russia and Europe to London. He took his crates of artifacts with him. Thanks to the Russian railroads he was able to reach India via London more rapidly than by travel back across the mountains.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 131 - Ram Singh and Jasvant Singh, with "Yolchi beg,' in Mr. Macartney's garden, Kashgar - Ram Singh was the professional surveyor assigned to assist Stein by the Survey of India on the first expedition - he became ill during the second expedition and was replaced by Lal Singh. Jasvant Singh was a Rajput brought along by Ram and Lal as cook since dietary rules prevented them from eating with the Moslems or Stein. "Yolchi beg' was the nickname given to Stein's ever present terrier.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 132 - In the bazaar of Osh, Farghana - Stein was enroute to London.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 133 - At Samarkand: Market with ruined mosques in background - Stein stopped here on his third expedition also, enroute then to Iran. I believe that is the Bibi Khanum Mosque in the background.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 134 - Kirghiz family on the march - Stein could have taken this photo at most any place along his route between Kashgar and Samarkand.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan mapa - This map is in color at the back of the book - I made color photos of it as well. It shows the limited area of Stein's first expedition - through Sarikol to Kashgar and then along the caravan route on the south side of the Taklamakan to Yarkand, Khotan, Keriya and ruins at Karadong, Niya and Endere. The south central portion shows Stein's unsuccessful effort to reach the sources of the Yurung-kash river.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan mapb - Detail of the map showing Sarikol and Stein's route to Kashgar and then south-east to Yarkand

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan mapc - Detail of the map showing the area around Khotan

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan mapd - Detail of the map showing the Kun-lun and Yurung-kash river south of Khotan, the Rawak Vihara, Tawakkel, Al-sipil, Keriya, Karadong,

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan mape - Showing the area north-east of Khotan including Tawakkel, Karadong, Dandan-uiliq, Keriya, and Rawak Vihara

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan mapf - Showing the area between Niya and Endere and Stein's routes across the desert between them.

 
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This map from Stein's book, Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan shows the first stage of his travel upon leaving India over the Kilik Pass into Sarikol. He did no survey of course while still in India. The red line depicts the route. Note the short side trip west into Afghanistan that Stein indulged himself in to have a look down the Wakhan Corridor. The capital of Sarikol is at Tashkurgan. Rather than take the easier route from Tashkurgan down into the plain and then to Kashgar, Stein wanted to try to climb Muztagh-Ata, as Sven Hedin had done. Once north of the mountain he again chose a more difficult route to Kashgar. The map also shows the first stage of his subsequent travel from Kashgar to Yarkand -via a detour east into the desert to see Ordam-Padshah. The other red line shows his return route back to Kashgar via Yangi Hissar.

 
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A more detailed look at Stein's map from Sands showing the route from the India border at the Kilik Pass through the locations described in the text to Tashkurghan and then around and partway up Muztagh-Ata from the north side. The route through and around the Gez defile stands out as well.

 
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Detail from Stein's map in -Sands - shows his routes from India across Pamirs - his detour to attempt to climb Muztagh Ata - he reached 20,000 of the 24,000 peak from the north, then continued through Gez Defile - note the frequent moves across ridges where the defile was impassable. It shows his visits to three ruin sites north of Kashgar. Also shows his route to Yokand - He went through desert to see Ordan-Padshah. Then on return trip following year he used the main caravan route through Yangi Hissar.

 
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This section of Stein's map in Sands shows the route from Yarkand to Khotan- the route north-east to Dandan-uiliq via Tawakkel - the route from Dandan-uiliq to the Keriya River and up it to Keriya town - the route to Karadong and the route back from Keriya to Khotan via Domoko. The red lines in the southern mountains show Steins route in search of the source of the Yurung-kash which was blocked and his return on the western side through valleys and over passes. East of the Yurung-kash the red line shows Ram Singh's survey route later from the river eastward through mountains to Keriya. The later visits to Ak-sipl and Rawak Vihara are shown.

 
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This is a more detailed look at Stein's efforts to reach the source of the Yurung-kash and his subsequent route north-west to the Kara-kash River and back to Khotan. It shows also Ram Singh's route from Karanghu east and then north-eastward from Pisha to Keriya.

 
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A more detailed look at Stein's effort on the Yurung-kash blocked south of Karanghu Tagh and then his return travel northwest via Nissa and the Chash valley and over Kunat Dawan

 
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Map inset of the Khotan Oasis from Stein's book - Sands - shows the various places he mentions in his text such as Urungkash, Tam-oghil - Somiya, Yotkan, Nar-bagh, Ak-sipil, Kighillik and the two rivers. Red line is trace of his travels.

 
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Detail from Stein's map in Sands - It shows the area from Khotan to the Niya river and from that line north to beyond Dandan-uiliq and Niya ruin - Domoko, Aksipil, Rawak Vihara, Iman Jafar Sadik Mazar and other locations mentioned by Stein plus his routes appear.

 
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Detail from Stein's map in Sands - showing the area between Domoko and Dandan-uiliq and the Endere Ruins - The Niya ruins are identified simply by "Ancient site Stupa' north of the end of the Niya River

 
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Detail from Stein's map in Sands showing the Keriya River as far north as Karadong and the area as far east as the Endere River and Endere ruin. Keriya is at lower left.

 
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Detail from map in Stein's book - Sands - this shows the area from Khotan south as far as Stein could go up the Yurung-kash River - and the ruins between Khotan and Keriya into the desert

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan, Vol II - Ia - Mauri-tim stupa, seen from south

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - Ib - Ruined stupa and mound of Mauri-tim, seen from south-east

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - II - Fresco and stucco relief in small cella of Shrine D.ii, Dandan-uiliq

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - IIIa - Fresco from outer south wall of passage, Shrine, D.II, Dandan-uiliq -

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - IIIb - Frescos on inner walls of passage, shrine D.ii, Dandan-uiliq, seen from south-east - These show the artists skill at preparing template copies.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - IVa - Frescos on south wall of temple cella D.vi, Dandan-uiliq.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - IVb - Frescos on inner south wall of passage, shrine, D. vi, Dandan-uiliq - more copies.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - Va - Fresco on south wall of cella D.vii, Dandan-uiliq - not much left of tis one

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - Vb - Ruined cella D. xii, Dandan-uiliq, after excavation

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - VIa - Room Ni, first find-place of inscribed tablets, Niya site, seen from north after excavation - Stein was astounded and excited when a local herder showed him tablets found at a distance ruin in the desert. Stein was anxious to reach the place before either erosion or some one else would destroy or take the large number of remaining tablets indicated by the local man. Stein personally supervised the effort, many tablets were laying on the sand, but the large cache was found hidden in this building.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - VIb - Room N.i, in ruined house N.i, Niya site, seen from south before excavation - the same building as in previous photo shows how such sites were found by the remaining parts of building posts above the sand.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - VIIa - North wall of hall in ruined house N.iii, Niya site, after excavation

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - VIIb - South wall in hall of ruined house, N,iii, Niya site, after excavation

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - VIIIb - architectural wood-carving from ruined house, N.viii, Niya site

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - IXa - Implements in wood and pottery, found in dwellings N. iii, v, vii, viii, Niya ruin

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - IXb - Ancient jar brought from Niya site - Wooden cupboard found in ruined welling N. xi, Niya site.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - Xa - Fresco in chapel E. ii, Endere fort - not much left of this elaborate fresco

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II=Xb - Underground room, with fire-place, in dwelling E.v, Endere fort

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIa - Chinese sgraffito on A.D. 710, on wall of temple cella E.i, Endere fort

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIb - Chinese and Tibetan sgraffiti on west wall of hall E, iii, Endere fort

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XII - Tibetan sgraffiti on south wall of temple cella E.i, Endere fort

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIIIa - Rawak stupa and enclosing quadrangle, seen from south - one of the three most significant and famous sites Stein found in the desert during his first expedition.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIIIb - Relief sculptures, R. lxxii to R. lxvii, on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court. - The numbers are shown on the diagram at XL and described in the text.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIVa - Relief sculptures on inner south-east wall. Rawak stupa court - The first is the series of photos showing the remains of these sculptures. Stein numbers these from xix to xxx and describes them in the text

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of KhotanVol II - XIVb - Relief sculptures on inner south-east wall, Rawak Stupa court - second in the series.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIVc - Relief sculptures on inner south-east wall, Rawak Stupa court - third in the series.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIVd - Relief sculptures on inner south-east wall, Rawak Stupa court - fourth in the series.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVa - Relief sculptures on inner and outer south-east wall Rawak stupa court - numbered from xxxi to xliv - this is first in the set of photos.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVb - Relief sculptures on inner and outer south-east wall Rawak stupa court - numbered from xxxi to xliv - this is second in the set of photos.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVc - Relief sculptures on inner and outer south-east wall Rawak stupa court - numbered from xxxi to xliv - this is third in the set of photos.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVd - Relief sculptures on inner and outer south-east wall Rawak stupa court - numbered from xxxi to xliv - this is fourth in the set of photos.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIa - Relief sculptures on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court - Stein numbered these xlv to liv - this is first in the set of four.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIb - Relief sculptures on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court - Stein numbered these xlv to liv - this is second in the set of four.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIc - Relief sculptures on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court - Stein numbered these xlv to liv - this is third in the set of four.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVId - Relief sculptures on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court - Stein numbered these xlv to liv - this is fourth in the set of four.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIIa - Relief sculptures on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court - Stein numbered these lv to lxx - this is first in the set of four.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIIb - Relief sculptures on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court - Stein numbered these lv to lxx - this is second in the set of four.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIIc - Relief sculptures on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court - Stein numbered these lv to lxx - this is third in the set of four.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIId - Relief sculptures on outer south-east wall, Rawak stupa court - Stein numbered these lv to lxx - this is fourth in the set of four.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIIIa - Relief sculptures R lxxi to R lxxvii on outer south corner, Rawak stupa court - first in the set of two.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIIIb- Relief sculptures R lxxi to R lxxvii on outer south corner, Rawak stupa court - second in the set of two

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XVIIIc - Bricks with marks from rampart, Ak-sipil

 
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Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan - vol II - xviiid - Remains of stucco relief, R lxxxv, with decorativge halo, on outer passage wall, Rawak stupa court.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIXa - Plan of fort and ruined town of Tash-kurghan - the capital of the Sarikol region in the Chinese Pamirs east of Afghanistan and north of India (Pakistan). A photo is at number 26. It is also shown as photo 34 in Ruins of Cathay. Stein had to be discrete in his survey to avoid Chinese suspicion.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XIXb - Plan of ruined mound, Karakir-Tim, Pialma - and Plan of ruined stupa, Topa-Tim, near Kakshal Tati.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XX - Plan of ruined stupa, Kurghan-Tim, Kashgar - a photo is at Ancient Khotan #14

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXI - Plan of Kizil-Debe mounds, Kashgar

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXII - Plan of Mauri-Tim stupa ruins - north of Kashgar

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXIII - Map showing portions of Borazan and Tosalla tracts, Khotan oasis. - the area also is shown in maps of Khotan. The dotted lines depict Stein's visits to various mazars and ruins - The medieval capital at Yotkan is shown.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXIV - Plan of the ruined site at Dandan-Uiliq - photos numbers 70 to 74.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXV - Plan of southern group of ruined buildings at Dandan-Uiliq

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXVI - Plan of Ruined structures D.vi, D.vii at Dandan-uiliq - and Plan of Ruined shrine and house Div, D.v - at Dandan-Uiliq

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXVII - Site plan of ancient site beyond the Niya river.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXVIII - Plan of ruined house N.i - ancient site beyond Niya river - This is the house in which Stein found the famous wooden documents - photo is number 55.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXIX - Ruined stupa, ancient site beyond Niya river - and Sketch plan of group of ruined dwellings N.ii, at Niya site.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXX - Plan of ancient residence N iii, at Niya ruin

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXXI - Plan of ruined dwelling N. iv, ancient site beyond Niya river

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXXII -Plan of ruined dwelling N. v, ancient site beyond Niya river

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II XXXIII - Plan of ruined dwelling N. vi, ancient site beyond Niya river - and Plan of ruined dwelling N,vii, Niya site.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II -XXXIVa - Plan of northernmost group of ruins, ancient site beyond Niya river

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXXIVb - Plan of ruined house N.viii, ancient site beyond Niya river

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXXV - Plan of ruined dwelling N.ix, Niya ruin site

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXXVI - Plan of ruined fort, Endere site

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXXVII - Ruined stupa, Endere site

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XXXVIII - Plan of ruined quadrangle, Kara-dong site

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - XL - Plan of ruined Vihara, Rawak - Vihara is the entire shrine with stupa in the center - Stein found that this one retained much of the exterior wall and was able to excavate one corner - The walls were lined with relievo statues of which the lower part had been preserved under the sand. But many were so fragile that he had to cover them back up immediately after making photos - This plan shows the number Stein assigned to each statue and these numbers he included in the photos reproduced also here - but since the descriptions are in the text those numbers have been left out. See the photos from XIII to XVIII.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - LIXa - Portion of fresco painting on stucco, with inscription, from wall of shrine D.ii, Dandan-uiliq

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - LIXb - Painted panel, from ruined dwelling, Dandan-uiliq

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - LXXXIV - Heads of colored reliefs in stucco, from Rawak stupa court

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan Vol II - LXXXV - Relief head and bust in stucco (restored), from Rawak stupa court.

 

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