Kaminetz fortress  

A diagram plan of the castle - fortress at Kam'yanetz-Podil'ski in Ukraine. This shows the walls and towers of the medieval castle as reconstructed in first quarter of the 16th century and the northern and southern bastions that were added later to accomodate artillery.. But there was additional outer bastions and curtains added to the west of the Novaya and Lyatskaya towers. This work completely blocked the only route to the castle along the narrow neck of land between the two sections of river. Part of this shows here as 'novaya krepost'. The 'vodnaya' (water) tower is actually far below the level of the castle, down between the river bank and the escarpment. The earliest sections stone of the fortress date from the 11th century to block the main road into the city, see the remains of the wall with firing positions in the Denna Tower and the ruins of the Small Oval Tower. But there were earthen and log fortifications here before that. In the late 14th century Spyutko Melsztynski, Polish voyevode from Krakow, who owned Kam'yanets, (1395-99) began a reconstruction. In the middle 15th century the castle was again rebuilt and ten new towers were built, of which two no longer remain. Then in the middle 16th century the military engineer, Iov Pretfes, rebuilt sections including the New Eastern and New Western towers and the Polna Gate and bridge nearby. Early in the 17th century with artillery coming into use, Theofil Schomberg, another military engineer, built the stone and earth bastioned trace fortifications to the west (the New Fortress). In 1672 despite the modernization, the fortress and city were captured by the Turks. After the Poles retook the fortress, the northern and southern artillery bastions were added outside the castle and barracks were built inside it.


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