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So war is not only about fighting. Here we show a post battle frolic of stalwart warriors during the Thirty Year's War in Germany. The flats are made by Dr von Droste and the scene was painted by the late Tom Yuskiw. (From the Sloan collection)

Table of Contents

Ancient history

Alexander the Great - essay encyclopedia article
Allia, Battle of an essay on this traumatic Roman defeat by the Celts which led to the sack of the city.
Cannae - battle - book review - references
Hannibal - encyclopedia article
Hannibal - essay
Horatius the epic poem by Macauley.
Marathon - Battle - book review - references
Peloponnesian War
Punic Wars
Scipio Africanus
Xenophon - Greek historian, article from 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica

Medieval history

Bouvines, Battle of
Bortenovo battle, (22 Dec. 1317), photos of large painting in Tver Museum.
Castilon, battle in 100 Years War - original essay with maps and illustrations.
Charlemagne An essay by John Sloan
Charlemagne The entry by Arthur Holland in the Encyclopedia Britannica
Claimants to the medieval French throne - geneological diagrams.
Crusades An essay by John Sloan
Crusades a table depicting the dates and personalities of the Crusades
Formigny battle in 100 Years War. Original essay with maps.
Granada - Spanish reconquest - original material
Hundred Years' War - many linked speciality pages
Orleans - Siege of in 1428-29
Kulikovo battle - Russian victory in 1380 - maps with text to be added soon
Kulikovo battle - bibliography
Russian medieval arms and armor - text and illustrations..
Streltzi - article from Gorget and Sash magazine

Modern history

d'Este, Isabella essay about Isabella by John Sloan
Urbino, Dukes of essay about the Monefeltro family by John Sloan
text and photos of the medieval town
Thirty Years' War - article from 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica
War - 11th edition Encyclopedia Britannica article on the history of war and on the Laws of War circa 1910.
Cavalry - Encyclopedia Britannica article on the history of cavalry
Infantry - Encyclopedia Britannica article on the history of infantry
Mechanical artillery - results of research on medieval mechanical artillery.
Gunpowder weapons - results of research on early gunpowder weapons
Cossacks - article from Gorget and Sash magazine
Crimean war Encyclopedia Britannica article
Crimean war - Alma battle illustrated guide with many photos taken on the battlefield
Crimean war - Alma Kinglake book - the chapter on the Alma battle.
Crimean war - Balaklava battle - narrative of battle
Crimean war - Balaklava battle - tour and illustrations on battlefield
Crimean war - Inkerman battle - narrative of battle
Crimean war - Inkerman battle - description of location with illustrations on battlefield
Crimean war - Panorama museum in Sevastopol to the Heroic Defense of the City
Crimean war - Sevastopol siege in 1854-5, fortifications and description with illustrations
Crimean war - cemetery in Sevastopol - text of remarks by Pavel Lyashuk
Crimean war - Saber - article by Pavel Lyashuk - text
Crimean war - Sevastopol - Encyclopedia Britannica article
Crimean war - Simpson paintings of scenes of the war by famous British artist

Desert War the study of Rommel's desert campaigns prepared by a team of German officers under direction of General Major Alfred Toppe for the US Army after WWII. This is a very long file.
Fortifications - central listing of our various web sites on fortifications.
Ivangorod fortress - text and photos
Izborsk fortress - text and photos
Kalos Liman - ancient Greek city archeological site in Crimea - text and photos
Kaminetz-Podilski - Ukrainian fortress city
Khotin fortress on Dniester River
Kopor'ye fortress - text and photos
Narva fortress now in Estonia - text and photos
Pskov city fortress - text and photos
Smolensk - history text and photographs of the medieval fortress city
Sudak - medieval Genoese fortress on site of earlier Alan - Khazar city Sugdai - Surozh - extensive text and photos.
Trinity St Sergius fortress monastery - text and photos
Tula - text and photos of this southern frontier fortress city for defense of Moscow from Tatars.
American Armor Museums
Aviation - U. S. Army Aviation museum, Ft Rucker. USAF museum and Smithsonian Air and Space museum coming soon.
U.S. Army military museums, including Ft Rucker,, 1st Cavalry Division, Ft Lee, Ft Hood, Ft Lewis and West Point.
- National museum of the U. S. Marine Corps
Virginia armor museum - photographs of open house and another in 2006 now here VAarmor.
Military Museum The photos from the huge People's Revolution museum in Beijing.
Aviation Museum,The photos from the Chinese museum outside Beijing.
Monino - Russian aviation museum - photos from visits
Kiev - outdoor military museum, exhibits of armor, artillery and several aircraft
Kubinka - Russian Museum of Armored forces - photos of selected exhibits of world's armor -we have only German and Russian items
Naval museum in St. Petersburg in 2005
Machiavelli on War - a summary of the book by John Sloan
Machiavelli Discourses on First Ten books of Titus Livy - summary by John Sloan
Machiavelli article by John Symonds in Encyclopedia Britannica
Machiavelli an essay on Machiavelli by John Sloan
Machiavelli general listing of topics on Machiavelli

American Revolutionary War - extensive web pages, especially on French forces
Fort Steuben, Ohio - a reconstructed American frontier fort from 1878
Lafayette campaign to Yorktown description of this important battle - preliminary, with maps.
French expeditionary force in US Revolutionary war - original material.
French Revolutionary War - article from Encyclopedia Britannica
Napoleon biography - article from Encyclopedia Britannica.
Napoleon's campaigns - article from Encyclopedia Britannica
Suvorov - Russian field marshal - photo, several maps, short biography with more text to be added.
Suvorov museum in St. Petersburg - few photos
Kutuzov - Russian field marshal - text and illustrations about the special exhibition in the Artillery Museum in St Petersburg.
Borodino battle - photos of the battlefield and chronology of entire campaign of 1812.
Borodino 1999 - reenactment, views from the event in 1999.
Great Northern War - review of excellent book
Great Northern War - book on Peter's navy
Great Northern War - article by Col Tushin
Great Northern war - battle at Kletsk
Great Northern War - bibliography
Poltava battle - review of the excellent book by Peter Englund
Plevna battle in Russo-Turkish war - text and maps |
Gorget and Sash - table of contents of 12 issues of this available magazine.
Gorodetz - photos of town on Volga - text on city history is with Volga cruise directory.
Russian army - Muscovite army organization - an essay by Dr. Dianne Smith
Russian army of Ivan IV. A essay by Dr. Dianne Smith, slightly different from the above. - and its organization
Review by John Sloan of the book - Ivan the Terrible: A military History by Dr. Alexander Filjushkin
Review by John Sloan of the book - The Battle of Borodino: Napoleon against Kutuzov by Alexander Mikaberidze
Review by John Sloan of the book - Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe, 1500-1700 by Brian L. Davies
Russian campaigns and battles - listing of articles and graphics
Russian army main page for section on Imperial uniforms.
Russian army of Peter I - Viskovatov Illustrations.
Russian army of Alexander I - Viskovatov Illustrations.
Lithographs of the hussar regiments of Alexander I
Russian army of Nicholas I - Viskovatov illustrations.
Russian army of Nicholas II nick2arm Illustrations of uniforms from various old books.
Russian army uniforms of 1840's.
Russian army uniforms of 1910, has all the illustrations of uniforms from the book by Col Shenk of 1910.
Russian Aviation museum at Monono near Moscow
Russian Central Army Museum in Moscow
Russia World War II memorial museum in Moscow
Russian wars with neighbors - graphs of warfare by years from 1450 to 1800, being expanded back to 900AD.
Russo-Japanese War entry from 11th edition Encyclopedia Britannica
Russo-Turkish war entry from 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica
Korea - a section of photos taken during my tour of duty in Korea in 1956-57.

General and publications

Gorget & Sash
Desert Warfare
Manual TM 30-430 Handbook on USSR Military Forces
Military History Web sites

Peloponnesian War

For an essay on the Peloponnesian War please go to Peloponnesian.

Punic Wars

For an essay on the Punic Wars please go to Punic Wars

Scipio Africanus

For an essay on Scipio and his family please go to Scipio.


For my essay on the military aspects of Charlemagne's reign please go to Charlemagne.
For the essay on Charlemagne in the 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica please go to Charenc.


For an essay on the Crusades please go to Crusades and for a summary table

Bouvines, Battle

Here is an essay on the battle of Bouvines .

Hundred Years War

New pages are being developed for the Hundred Years War and medieval siege (pre-gunpowder) artillery. HYW. And for medieval French military history at Oriflame. Please look here to see the geneology of the claimants to the French crown. A new web site focused on the important battle of Castilon is now prepared atCastilon. And another is ready on the battle of Formigny. Return to TOC

Renaissance personalities.

For an essay on Isabella d'Este and her family please go to d'Este.
For an essay on the Montefeltro Dukes of Urbino and their times please go to Urbino.

Machiavelli On War

He is generally considered the first modern military theorist. The essays in Makers of Modern Strategy begin with Felix Gilbert's article. For a further look at Machiavelli's thoughts on war and politics please go to Machiavelli. We have recently added the article on Machiavelli from the 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica. Return to TOC

Spanish Reconquesta and War in Granada

For information from the author of a new book on the Spanish Reconquesta culminating in the War in Granada go to Granada
Return to TOC

American Revolution

An expanding location for original material on the American Revolution and links to other web sites. American Revolution. And for a close look at the French expeditionary army that was so critical to the success of the American Revolution please go to Expedition.

French Revolution and Napoleon

We are adding the articles from the 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica dealing with the French Revolution and Napoleon here. - Napoleon biography - Napoleon's campaigns - French Revolutionary wars. The general listing on Napoleon. More are being added as we get to them.

Other military historical products

Gorget & Sash

We maintain back issues of this journal, devoted to the study of military history in the early modern period (1500 - 1800). To view the table of contents of these issues and obtain information on ordering any desired issue or individual articles, please go to Gorget. Return to TOC

German Experience in Desert Warfare

This is a reprint by Xenophon of the study prepared for the US Army by German officers under direction of Generalmajor Alfred Toppe. It is very long and contains much detail on topics from intelligence planning to water supply to cartography and weather as well as on tactical operations and logistics. Readers are of course welcome to download the text or buy a hard copy. Please go to Desert.


In 1979 we reprinted 1000 copies of the U. S. Army TM 30 -430 Handbook on USSR Military Forces. This is the only reprint ever produced of the standard manual on the Soviet Army and Air Force at the conclusion of World War II. We have now reproduced the manual again in microfiche format for easy distribution and viewing. Please go to manual to read the full details about this important reference.
As we continue to produce materials on military history, and wargaming, for instance on World War II, we will feature them on this page. If you have a favorite military historical topic or questions, it is likely that we have some information that could be added to this web site, so please ask. We also import military figures and uniform reproductions from Russia that will be shown here when ready. Return to TOC

Greenhill Books, ably owned and operated by Lionel Leventhal, is one of the most consistent publishers of military books active today. We were planning on putting their entire catelogue on this site, but there is no need now that they have their own web site. Check it out for excellent military history books.

For extensive reviews and recommendations on military history books please go to
Von Ranke.

Return to TOC.
To return to Xenophon home page please click here. To find information on Russian - Ukrainian military history, please go to Russia. Please send questions and comments to Xenophon.

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