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George Page
Micha Jelisavcic
John Sloan

13 October 1854

The French observation corps of General Bosquet (1st and the 2nd Infantry Divisions, the cavalry brigade of D'Allonville), and the 1st and the 4th Chasseurs d'Afrique were located on the southern slope of Mount Sapun, spread to the south-east. The French base was at the bay of Kamych, on the Black Sea south west of Chersonesus where Colonel Reille was with 4 battalions. The British supply base at Balaklava was located south east of Sapun Heights separated from it by a wide valley having a low ridge running its length down the center. In Balaclava proper, Sir Colin Campbell with some 6000 men was positioned to the west of Kakikioi. The front line of the Allies being a great length, the Russians envisioned an attack from Chyorgun. They would first cut-off Balaclava from Sapun Heights and then occupy the British- Turkish emplacements close to Kadikioi, leaving in place a division, they planned with the other divisions to attack Sapun hill and finally to attack the enemy from behind its lines. But the commander of the Russian army, Prince Menschikov, did not want to await the arrival of the two new divisions which were in- route, and called upon a single division, the 12th Infantry Division, (the Azovskii and Dnieprovski infantry regiments, the Ukrainski and Odesski Chasseurs), 4 batteries from the 12th Artillery brigade, the 4th Sharp-shooters Battalion, the Kievskii Hussar Regiment commanded by the Duke of Leuchtenberg, and the Ingermandlanskii Hussars Regiment, commanded by Grand Duke of Sax-Weimar, the combined regiment of Lancers (Bugskii and Odesskii squadrons), the 53rd Don Cossack Regiment, the 1st Cossack of the Ob supply corps, the battery of the 12th mounted artillery, the 3rd horse-drawn artillery of the Don, in total 17 battalions, 28 squadrons and sotnias, 48 hand-held canons and 16 horse-drawn canons.

Balaclava is situated in the deep inlet between the mounts Poilerakhi and Spilia; there is a narrow plain to the north, approximately 1 kilometer in length, and the village of Kadikoi is at its northern extremity. Beyond this the valley is enveloped on the west by the slopes of mount Sapun, to the north by the Fedioukhin heights, to the east and in the south by the slopes of mounts Kayades, Poilerakhi and Spilia. On the Tchyorgoun end, this plain was covered by 4 redoubts, from east to west: #1 (3 guns), #2 (2 guns), #3 (3 guns) and #4 (3 guns), all manned by three Turkish batteries. At the east end of Kadikoi, an earthen works was situated on an isolated hill, and was manned by the 93 Highlanders. To the south of Kadikoi, on the slops of the mountains, a second tier included batteries connected by uninterupted earth works.
The 12th Infantry Division of General Liprandi, coming from Tchyorgun, whose complement included a column on the right-hand flank under Colonel Scudery: 4 ¼ battalions, 3 sotnias, which passed the Tchyornaia river on the bridge called "Traktir" (road-side eatery) and marched on the main road to Balclava; the column was followed by Lieutenant-General Ryzhov with 16 squadrons, 6 sotnias, 16 pieces of horse-drawn artillery, which were to be formed-up for the attack on the plain. The column of the center: Major-General Semyakin, by the direct route of Tchyorgun to Balaclava, having in first echelon (on the left) 3 ¼ batteries, 6 guns, in the second echelon (on the right) 2 batteries, 4 guns, and in reserve Major-General Levoutzki with 4 ¼ batteries, 8 guns. The left-hand column of Major-General Gribbe: 3 ¼ batteries, 4 squadrons, 1 sotnia, 10 guns, coming from Tchyorgun by the openings which lead to the valley of Baidary, to move then on the village of Kamary, to capture it and to circumvent the redoubts on the left. The right wing of the troops of Tchyorgun were to be covered on the flank on mount Sapun by Major- General Jabokritski with 7 ¾ batteries, 2 squadrons, 2 sotnias and 14 guns. The infantry, preceded by the marksmen, advanced in columns of companies at intervals of 10 paces; the reserves, in columns for the attack, followed at least 200 paces from the line.
The troops left Tchyorgun at 0500 hours on the morning of 13 October and the column of Major-general Gribbe initiated the battle: a sotnia of cossacks and a squadron of lancers drove back the enemy sentinels in the proximity of the Saint Jonas chapel and cut the road to Kamary; the artillery poring fire on redoubts #1 and 2. The fire of artillery covered the deployment of Lieutenant- General Ryzhov, formed in columns for the attack. All the Turkish batteries of the redoubts were silenced. The battery #3 horse- drawn artillery "Knights of the Don," opened fire on redoubt #3. Around 0700 hours of the morning, Semyakin sent Azovski Infantry to take redoubt #1. Despite the fire of 6 English guns, placed between redoubts #1 and 2 and the shooting of the Turks, the regiment overan the redoybt in half an hour. The defenders of redoubts #2, 3, and 4 gave up their positions in the face of the advance of General Levoutzki with Oukrainski Chasseurs and Colonel Scudery with Odesski Chasseurs. Once the redoubts were taken, Odesski Chasseurs placed itself on the right, in the thicket, with the cavalry of Ryzhov to its right; still more to the right, on the south-western slopes of the Mounts of Fedioukhin, the troops of Jabokritzki.
The English and the Turks approached Balaclava and were formed up to the north of Kadykioy. General Liprandi had the guns brought up between the redoubts and commenced firing on the positions of the Allies north of Kadykioy, while ordering all of the cavalry of Ryzhov to attack the enemy left and to destroy the supply dump. The line of cavalry crossed at a gallop the old bivouac of the English cavalry, and came up against the Heavy Brigade of Brigadier General Scarlett: 4th and 5th Dragoon Guards, 1st and 2nd Dragoons, 6th Inniskilling Dragoons, which it obliged to move back. The 2nd line charged the 93 Highlanders, but shaken by fire, and having lost many people, returned to the starting point, Major-general Jabokritzki covering its right flank. The Heavy Brigade of Scarlett attacked and wanted to pursue the hussars, but came under the criss-cross fire of the artillery and withdrew. Towards 1000 hours, the Allies were reinforced by the Division of the Duke of Cambridge and the French cavalry, and later the Cathcart Division. The combat ceased for nearly one hour.
The Russian cavalry continued to regroup behind the infantry and at the same place there were arriving the squadrons of the Combined Regiment of Lancers (squadrons of Bougski and Odesski) of Major-General Gribbe, under the command of Jeropkin. Lord Raglan believed the Russians were withdrawing, taking along the guns of the redoubts and ordered the commander of all the English cavalry, Lord Lucan, to advance all the cavalry and, with the assistance of the Cathcart Division, to seize the heights. Lucan sent only the Light Brigade of brigadier-General Lord Cardigan: 4th Light Dragoons, 8th and 11th Hussars, 13th Light Dragoons, 17th Lancers, aimed to attack the right wing of Liprandi. Coming out from behind the hill on which is redoubt #4, the English cavalry rushed towards the Russian cavalry. Odesski Chasseurs form-up in a square, shoot at the riders and the artillery brings them under a violent cross-fire. But the advance of the English was so fast, that the spray passed over the tops of their heads and they rode in amongst and pushed back the Battery #3 Horse-drawn Artillery of the Don and the Battery #12 Horse- drawn artillery. The 1st Cossacks of the Ural, which were behind, were very confined, and do not have time to gather up speed desired for an attack. They see their path crossed by caissons, other carriages, and artillery support units, and bear the shock on the spot, are thrown back on their heals and being pushed back, in turn they threw back the Kievski Hussars and the 3rd line where were the Ingermanlandski Hussars. All the cavalry ebbed in great disorder towards the channel of the river that was in the rear. The English continued their pursuit and a decisive battle took place close to the bridge over the channel. Liprandi brought the enemy flank under attack with three squadrons of the Combined Regiment of Lancers, who were hidden in the undergrowth. Weakened from the heavy losses suffered from the shooting of the infantry and artillery, the English cavalry could stand a new shock and Cardigan ordered the retreat. This withdrawal was carried out in an exemplary order, but the English line was almost destroyed by the charge of the lancers, the 2nd line managed to clear a passage; of 700 riders, only 200 made it back. To save Cardigan, general d'Allonville ordered the charge from mount Sapun of the 4th Chasseurs d'Afrique (4 squadrons) against the left of General Jabokritzki. The charge crossed the line of the shooters and reached a battery, but was halted by the Vladimirski battalions which were formed in squares. The allies then opened a hellish fire from artillery along the entire line and brought up fresh troops, but their advance was stalled, because Liprandi also beefed-up his right flank.
The battle ended. Losses of the Russians: 131 killed, 481 wounded, of the Allies: 598 killed and wounded, 1 flag, 2 guns.

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