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Dastagir Wardak

Ali Jalali

John Sloan




The Soviets understand staff procedures to be those activities undertaken by the commander's staff to assist him in the exercise of his responsibilities to obtain information about the situation, make well-founded scientific decisions, develop plans on the basis of the decisions, and organize the coordination, support and control measures required to execute the plan.




1. Organization of staff procedure:

Organization of the field procedure of the front staff during the preparation of the operation greatly affects the achievement of success in the accomplishment of the front's missions. The vital role in this process is played by the front commander and his chief of staff.

When he receives the operational directive and clarifies its content, the front commander personally or through the chief of staff calculates the time required by each level of command for preparation of the attack. He determines when the decision should be made and how much time should be given to the staff and other command and control organs to convey the missions to the subordinate units and to plan the operation. The commander also determines when and what preliminary instruction (warning order) should be given to subordinates and when and what tasks should be accomplished by the staff and other command and control organs.

The chief of staff acknowledges reception to the general staff of the operational directive. Along with the chief of operations he prepares warning orders for subordinate units. They organize the activities (operations) of the staff to prepare the required information for the commander's decision.

After making the decision, the commander instructs the chief of staff, and the political and other arms and services departments on the following topics: planning the operation, conveying the missions to subordinates, coordination, conducting party and political measures, supporting measures, command and control of the troops, conducting control of the execution of assigned tasks and extending assistance to subordinates.

The chief of staff makes an estimate of the situation. He listens to the reports of relevant departments and prepares his report for the front commander containing his deductions from the estimate of the situation and a proposed decision for the operation. The chief of staff personally participates in the preparation of important documents and leads the planning of the operation.

Based on the instructions given by the commander, the chief of staff organizes the staff work procedures, determines the method of communication and cooperation with other command and control organs and coordinates and controls the operation of all organs.

The operations department works out the calendar plan for the preparation of the operation. The calendar plan is normally prepared in graphic form on graph paper. This plan should include the following items in the following order:

1 - Making the decision and planning the operation

2 - Conveying the missions to subordinate units and the establishment of coordination (interaction) among them

3 - Security measures against enemy's surprise invasion (attack)

4 - Occupation of forming up (FUP) areas and preparation of the troops for the attack

5 - Organization and implementation of combat support measures

6 - Party and political work

7 - Organization of the command and control and measures on command and control secrecy.

According to this plan the staff issues instructions to the executing levels, regulates the front's field command and control procedures and conducts control over the execution of designated actions.

The chief of staff issues the assigned tasks to the related departments and designates the deadlines according to the plan.

The chiefs of combat arms, support arms and the chief of logistics organize the operation of their staffs in accordance with the commander's decision and his instructions and also the instructions given by the chief of staff. In his instructions, the chief of staff determines: what information and when it should be provided; what instructions should be given to the troops; what documents should be prepared and when; how the control of the execution and assistance to the subordinates should be organized.

A graphic schedule is prepared to illustrate the daily (24 hours) action of the staff to include the following: who should accomplish what tasks and when? time of the meals and rest. Alternate working teams are established. The work and rest time of the officers are determined by the chief of their departments.

2. Procedure to prepare information for the Front commander's decision

Based on a thorough clarification of the mission and an all round estimate of the situation, the commander personally makes the decision.

The front staff prepares all necessary information and required calculations for the commander to help him in making the decision. The volume and content of this kind of work will not always be the same but would vary according to the situation.

The decision is made either in peacetime or during the wartime. In the former case the staff prepares complete information on the actual situation and likely future changes. In the latter case all information might not be required since the commander would have received much information on enemy and friendly forces during the previous (preceding) course of combat operations. In this case only the latest information (updates) which is required to make the decision is reported to the commander.

The method and sequence of command and staff procedures for making the decision can follow the following pattern.

When receiving the operational directive the commander, along with the chief of staff and the chief of the political department, studies the directive and clarifies the mission. The chief of the operations department marks on the map the missions and the aim of the front's operation, the missions of SSM forces and air forces of the supreme high command, the missions of adjacents and boundaries with them. He also, along with the chief of reconnaissance, marks on the map the latest situation (information) of enemy forces and friendly units.

The commander begins the estimate of the situation while the staff present all required information to him.

To ensure a more efficient performance in presenting the required information, the commander or the chief of staff brief chiefs of all combat arms, support arms and services on the newly received mission of the front to the extent that it affects them. Meanwhile they designate the tasks of decision making to be accomplished in first priority and designate who should report what information and when. The chief of staff along with chiefs of operations and reconnaissance departments determines what information on enemy forces and friendly units is available and what further information should be acquired; and who (the commander of air army and the chiefs of combat arms and combat support arms) should acquire this information and when the required calculations should be processed by the computers.

Acquisition and analysis of information and presenting the deduction of the assessment of the enemy situation are conducted by the chief of reconnaissance department.

The information on enemy should include:

- Information on situation, characteristics of operation, combat composition and grouping of enemy troops and means, primarily the availability and location of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and means.
- Likely intention and aim of the enemy, combat capability and political and morale status of its forces; enemy's strong and weak points.

The information on friendly forces should include the following items:

- Situation, combat composition, grouping and missions of front units.

- Availability and supply status of nuclear rounds and missiles in terms of their state of readiness and their yields.

- The level of troops establishment, their strength, availability and status of equipment (vehicles).

- The status of airfields.

- The situation and status of rear services, the supply level of the troops with material supplies, the number of wounded and sick.

- The characteristics of the adjacent's operations and the status of coordination with them.

Part of the information about adjacent forces is provided by the information on file in the information section of the operations department or by using communication means to confer with the adjacents. Sometimes even officers are detached to inspect personally the situation on the ground.

The information on the condition of the situation under which the operation is conducted is acquired and analyzed by the operations department and the staffs of combat and support arms and services and the staff of rear service departments. The acquired information is marked and portrayed on the working maps and recorded in journals. This information is compared with previous information and the level of urgency, importance and accuracy is determined on the basis of reliability of its sources. The information proved to be reliable and decisive and well analyzed is reported to the commander and chief of staff and related chiefs of the departments.



In the process of preparing the information to be reported to the commander, a wide range of operational and other calculations need to be conducted.

During the decision-making process the following calculations may be required:

- Calculation of time for the preparation of the operation.

- Determination of the expected consequences of the use of nuclear weapons of the higher echelon.

- Calculation of the combat capabilities of the enemy and friendly forces.

- Determination of the quantitative and qualitative correlation of troops and means of the opposing forces.

- Determination of the effectiveness coefficients of the initial nuclear strike, the air force massive strike and also of repulsion of the enemy's massive air and space attacks.

- Calculation of the friendly troops' combat capability in terms of different axes, during their deployment, advance, etc.

The chief of staff fully estimates the situation and reports to the commander on his deductions from the estimate of the situation and his suggestions on a proposed decision for the operation. The chief of staff's report is based on the commander's clarification of the mission and estimate of the situation.



In some cases, the front commander may conduct the evaluation of the terrain actually on the ground to confirm parts of his decision (made on the map) on the ground.



Consequently the commander makes a rational decision which includes the following points:

- The concept of the operation

- The mission of subordinates

- The basic principles of coordination

- Command and control

The operations department prepares (formulates) the commander's decision on the map with written instructions or it prepares the decision in a written form with a map annex.


3. The procedure to convey the missions to subordinates and the principal documents issued by the headquarters.

Combat missions are issued to subordinate operational units in accordance with the commander's decision for offensive operations. The missions are issued by the commander or according to his instruction by the chief of staff visiting the subordinate commands. The missions can also be issued through communication technical means or by written orders sent by communication means or hand-delivered by staff officers.

The missions issued verbally are later supplemented by written documents.

The principal combat documents pertaining to issuance of combat missions are the operational directive and combat instructions. The full text of the operational directive is not sent to subordinate units but each unit is separately informed about its relevant parts included in the full text of the operational directive.

The operational directive is personally written by the chief of staff or chief of the operations department on the basis of the commander's decision. The combat instructions are filled out by the chief of the operations section or relevant section chief by using the full text of the operational directive.

The chief of reconnaissance department participates in writing the point on the enemy in the operational directive, and in spelling out the missions of combat and combat support arms. The chiefs of related arms also may participate. The directive and instructions are signed by the commander and the chief of staff. The combat directives to combat and combat support arms and services are signed by the related department chief and his chief of staff. Only the instruction on engineer and chemical support are signed by front chief of staff and the related department chiefs. The logistics instruction is signed by chief of the logistic department and his chief of staff.


4. Procedure plan to the operation

Planning of the operation is an important task of the staff and other command and control organs of the front. The essence of planning is: thoroughly and elaborately regulating and working out all points specified in the commander's decision and his instructions on the planning of operation. The aim of planning is specification of the sequence and the method of accomplishment of each offensive mission; distribution of troop efforts and material among the assigned missions and attack axes; specification of the method of close coordination among the troops, execution of party and political work, all rounded support of combat actions and command and control of the troops.

Practically, the planning of the operation begins with the commander's decision and leads to working out of the plan of the offensive operation, the plans for employment of combat and combat support arms and all types of support, the plan of party and political affairs, and the plan of the command and control of the troops.

The plan of operations is marked on the map along with written instructions. In some cases the plan is prepared in written form with a map annex containing the commander's decision, "The Map of Commander's Decision." The plan may have the following annexes: the plan of initial nuclear strike; the plan of the employment of airborne and seaborne assault operations (desaunts); the plan of movement and deployment of front forces in forming up areas (FUP) for the attack.

The commander's decision and his instructions on planning constitute the basis for planning. The operation plan is worked out in the same way for both nuclear and non-nuclear operations.


Preparation on map

Preparation for making the plan of the offensive operation begins simultaneously with the decision-making process. After receiving the combat mission the planning group officers, according to the instructions of the chief of staff, prepare a 1/500,000 or 1/200,000 map. First they prepare the title and upper part and then they mark on the map the information on the enemy, the boundaries of their own formations, the immediate and subsequent missions of the front, the missions of adjacents, the boundary line of strategic nuclear strikes, and other missions and tasks conducted by the elements and forces of the supreme high command in the front's area of offensive operations.

The chief of the reconnaissance department marks on the map the grouping of enemy troops and means. Later as the commander makes his decision the following points are depicted on the plan map: the operational formation of the front in (FUP) areas, the direction of main attack and other axes of attack, the tasks and targets of chemical and chemical weapons, the composition and reinforcements (attachments) of first echelon armies and their missions including their first-day mission in the operation. This is followed by marking the movement of the second echelon army to the line of commitment, the method of its commitment into combat and its missions, the missions and drop (landing) zones of air and seaborne assault units, the location of front and army command posts at the beginning and in the course of the operation. The chief of the operations department prepares the written instructions on the map. The plan of operation is signed by the commander and chief of staff and approved by the supreme commander.



The commander inspects the planning process, guides the operation of the staff if necessary and ratifies and approves the planning documents. At the designated time the commander reports and presents the plan of the operation and other documents to the supreme commander.

The chief of staff directly supervises the planning process and coordinates the activities of different departments. The chief of staff sets deadlines for the preparation of the documents and specifies the amount of details to be covered. He personally participates in preparation of important documents (such as initial nuclear strike). The chief of staff controls the planning process, specifies the time of completion of the work, signs the prepared documents and gets them approved by the commander.

The planning group, joined by the chief of staff of the air army, the chief of artillery and rocket forces and the chief of the operations department, works out the plan of the initial nuclear strike. In the operations department the plan of preparation and occupation of forming up (FUP) areas, the plan of the employment of air and seaborne assault units, the plan of operational concealment (maskirovka), the plan of protection against nuclear weapons and the plan of hydrometerology are prepared. Officers from the operations department are assigned to work out the above mentioned plans. A separate plan of command and control of the troops and the plan of operation of the computer center may be prepared.

The reconnaissance department provides the needed information on the enemy required for planning the operation and also prepares the reconnaissance plan of the offensive operation. The radio-electronic warfare section joins the planning group to prepare the plan of radio-electronic warfare. The section also participates in preparing the concealment (maskirovka) and disinformation plan. The chief of the signal department along with his staff officers prepares the signal communication plan. The prepared planning documents are reported to and signed by the chief of staff at the pre-designated time.


5. Procedure to establish of coordination (interaction) - the plan (table) of coordination

The coordination (interaction) of the troops in the operation is personally organized by the front commander. The front staff ensures the establishment of the coordination and its continuity during the course of accomplishment of all missions of the offensive operation. The content of coordination measures, in the context of the plan of the offensive operation, includes the following points:

- Coordination of SSM and air force nuclear strikes with strikes launched by the Supreme High Command and adjacent units and also with fire of conventional means.

- Coordination of combat action of large motorized rifle units with the operation of other combat and combat support arms formations and the air force.

- Adjustment and reconfirmation of measures on all round support of combat actions in the offensive operation.

- Organization in the headquarters and the troops of the alerting system.

- Specification of the method of communication within the headquarters and the element conducting coordination (interaction) with the forces represented by the headquarters.

- Designation of a unified system of coordination signals, the signals to indicate (define) targets, mutual identification and a unified system of numbering targets.

The front commander specifies the principal points of coordination in his decision. Additionally, after the decision is made, he issues instructions on coordination. For a better organization of coordination the front commander conducts briefing (instructional) sessions with his subordinate commanders on the map, terrain models (sand table) or if time permits (when time is available) on the terrain.

When operations are organized and planned in peacetime, coordination is developed and resolved through field exercises, war games and command and staff exercises (CPXs). When time is limited the commander, while assigning missions to subordinates, also instructs them on tasks related to coordination. Whenever necessary the commander arranges a meeting of coordinating (interacting) subordinate commanders who are assigned to the main attack direction and listens to their coordination arrangements. On other axes the chief of staff or first deputy commander organizes the coordination.

In case of a surprise beginning of combat operations, the commander issues combat instructions on coordination by technical signal equipment or sends responsible staff officers to convey the adjusted instructions on coordinating measures to the units.

The front staff supports and assists the commander in organizing coordination on the map, on the terrain or on the model of the terrain (sand table). This support is provided by the operations department which also works out the plan of the commander's activities regarding the organization of coordination. The plan covers all points to be taken up by the commander and the method and sequence of his work on the terrain or on the model of the terrain.

If coordination is going to be organized on the terrain the plan will include the following points:

- The questions (issues) of coordination.

- The place and time of their discussion and solution; who attends the session and on which terrain spot.

- The directions of movement.

- Designation of transportation means.

- Organization of communication and security.

- Measures on secrecy during the work on the terrain.

- Means and material required; who supplies them, etc.

When coordination is organized in front headquarters or in the headquarters of one of the subordinate units, the operations department provides and prepares the maps or models of the terrain.

The front staff, in regard to the organization of coordination should make sure that during the execution of joint tasks, all participating combat arms and different services of the armed forces should have a common understanding about the form of accomplishment of the assigned mission.

During organization of the offensive operation plan, the actions of operational formations of different arms and the air force are coordinated in terms of objectives, place and time. The form of their joint operation during the accomplishment of immediate and subsequent missions is also coordinated.

During organization of the plan of the initial nuclear strike, the front staff coordinates the strikes of front forces with those of strategic rocket forces, long-range air force, adjacents and also with the fire and strikes of conventional means. The measures on all-round support of combat operations of the troops are also coordinated.

The front staff along with the staff of the air army, the staff of air defense forces and the chief of the chemical department works out the signals and the method for mutual warning about the enemy's aircraft, and radioactive, chemical and biological contamination of the terrain.

The chief of the signal department, in accordance with instructions from the chief of staff, specifies the method of communication among the elements interacting in joint actions. He also provides communications for the commander with the units when the commander goes to the terrain to organize coordination.

The front staff may prepare a special coordination document (the plan or the table of coordination). The document covers the method of accomplishment of combat missions by joint action. The unified system of signals for coordination, warning and numbering of the targets is specified.

The coordination plan is worked out by the operations department along with the staffs of rocket and artillery forces, air defense, engineer, air army, the chief of the chemical department and the chief of radio-electronic warfare.

The chiefs of combat and combat support arms may establish coordination between subordinate units and large units of their respective arms, in accordance with the commander's instructions. The chief of logistics coordinates the operation of rear service organs and logistic units and establishments during accomplishment of assigned missions.


6. Procedure to organize support of combat action

Staff actions on organization of measures in support of troop combat operations not only cover the specification of the tasks related to different types of support but also include the designation of troops and means to accomplish these tasks, the assignment of missions to the elements which accomplish them and the organization of coordination among them.

The front staff is responsible for the organization of reconnaissance, protection against mass destruction weapons, operational concealment (maskirovka), radio-electronic warfare and hydrometerological support. The chiefs of engineers, chemical and logistics organize the support in their related areas.

The chief of staff issues necessary instructions to the relevant department chiefs on preparing plans and instructions about support measures. He coordinates the actions of the staff with those of combat and combat support arms and services staffs in the area of required support of troop combat operations..

In the front staff the chief of the reconnaissance department organizes reconnaissance while the chief of operations is involved in organization of plans and instructions on protection against mass destruction weapons, operational concealment (maskirovka), and hydrometerological support. The chief of the radio-electronic warfare section prepares instructions and plans about radio-electronic warfare and the chief of the topographic section organizes instructions on topogeodetic support.

The reconnaissance plan is prepared in written form with a map annex or in a graphic form with an annex of written instructions. According to the plan, instructions on reconnaissance are issued to the armies and the chiefs of combat and combat support arms. Instructions to front reconnaissance troops are given personally by the chief of the reconnaissance department. The most important elements in the organization of reconnaissance are the collection, analysis and reporting of reconnaissance information and the dissemination of information to relevant persons.

Based on the instructions of the chief of staff, the operations department along with the chief of the chemical department disseminates information on the radiation, chemical and bacteriological situation. The operations department establishes the system to warn the troops, headquarters and adjacents about ground and air contamination. It also acquires information on hydrometerology and informs subordinate units about the hydrometerological situation. The operations department along with the chief of the chemical department, in close cooperation with the chiefs of combat and combat support arms and services, organizes the plan of troop protection and the protection measures against mass destruction weapons. Such measures are also included in the plan of operations, the plans for the employment of combat arms and services, the plan of supporting measures of combat operations and the logistics (rear services) plan. The operations department writes the instructions on troop protection against mass destruction weapons and has them signed by the chief of staff before it sends them to the subordinate units.

Operational concealment (maskirovka) is organized and implemented by the front staff in accordance with the commander's decision and the instructions of the general staff. The chief of staff personally participates in organizing operational concealment. The chief of operations, the chiefs of combat and combat support arms, the chief of staff of the air army and the chief of staff of the logistic department may be called on to take part.

The front commander specifies the basic tasks on organization and the area of concentration of the main efforts of radio-electronic warfare. The chief of staff thoroughly evaluates the enemy's command and control system, estimates the radio-electronic situation, determines the strong and weak points in the enemy's radio-electronic system as well as the radio- electronic tasks to be accomplished. The chief of staff gives instructions to the chief of the radio-electronic department, the chief of staff of the air army, the chiefs of combat and combat support arms on organization and execution of radio-electronic warfare. He also instructs the chief of signals on protection of friendly radio-electronic means against the enemy's radio- electronic warfare. The chief of radio-electronic warfare, in close cooperation with the above mentioned officers, prepares the plan and instructions on radio-electronic warfare and controls their implementation.

Engineer and chemical support of the combat operation is organized by the chiefs of engineers and chemical while all types of rear services support (logistical support) are planned and conducted by the assistant front commander for logistics.

The chief of staff in a close and timely manner controls the implementation of the commander's instructions on support of combat operations. He also organizes interaction and mutual information flow related to the organization of all round support of combat operations.


7. Procedure to organize control of troops' actions

Control of troop actions during preparation of the operation is conducted by the staff in order to ensure the timely and thorough execution of the commander's instructions on taking necessary measures, organizing combat operations and thoroughly preparing the troops to accomplish combat missions. Under all conditions control is supplemented by assisting the subordinate commanders and staffs in organization of offensive operations and by maintaining constant high combat readiness of the troops to accomplish the combat missions in the operation.

The commander controls the operation of the front staff, chiefs of combat and combat support arms and services and the chief of logistics with respect to comprehensive planning of the operation, timely issuance of combat missions to the troops and the organization and support of the command and control system. At the same time the commander, the staff and responsible officers and other command and control organs control the actions of subordinate units and staffs.

This control includes timely reception of the mission and its accurate clarification by the subordinates; compliance of subordinate army and other large unit commanders' decisions with the front commander's operational concept and its thorough and accurate incorporation into the planning of the operation. The staff is especially careful to control the following: the preparedness of troop units to initiate the operation in a timely fashion, have a clear understanding of the signals, observe rules of secrecy in command and control and signal communication and the measures to protect the troops against mass destruction weapons. The chief of staff bears the responsibility for timely control of the troops' actions.

Control is maintained by various methods. Most often the commander or other responsible officers go to the troops, or the units are contacted by communication means. The documents sent by subordinates to the higher staff are studied. Air photography of subordinate positions is conducted and subordinates' transmissions are monitored. Visits to the troops are conducted in accordance with a unified plan worked out by the operations department.


8. Organization of troop control

Measures on secrecy of troop control:

The troop control is conducted on the basis of (in accord with) the front commander's and the general staff instructions. The chief of staff specifies the measures to be taken on organization and establishment of the troop control system in the (FUP) areas. He ensures the firmness and continuity of control operations in the course of the offensive operation.

At the beginning of the operation the system of troop control includes organization and deployment of the command post system, the signal system and the system of collecting and organizing situational information.

The relocation of command posts and the maintenance of an un-disrupted signal communication system are planned. The method of sending information on the situation (situation reports) and their processing and the method of reporting during the course of the operation are specified. The method of defense and protection of command posts and signal centers and lines is determined. Measures are taken to protect command posts and troop control means against mass destruction means and against the enemy's radio-electronic warfare. Measures are also taken to restore a disrupted troop control system. Measures are specified to alternate command posts. Moreover, the traffic regulation and provost service is organized and measures are taken to ensure the secrecy of troop control.

The troop control system includes permanent, field and mobile command posts.

The permanent command posts are prepared in peacetime and are used for the troop control during the period of bringing the troops to the state of full combat readiness, while occupying (FUP) areas, while repulsing the enemy's surprise invasion and during the accomplishment of other missions in the initial phase of the operation.

In the course of the operation field mobile command posts (main command post, forward command post, rear command post and auxiliary command post) are established, deployed and fortified to control the troops. When the operation is conducted under special terrain conditions where troop control of part of the troops is impossible or difficult from the main command post, an auxiliary command post is established.

The signal system

It is established as a unified system at the front level. The principal elements of the system are: signal centers of the front, armies, and other large units' command posts; auxiliary signal center, the axes of multi-channel radio-relay and telephone lines, the lines of signal directions to the rear of the armies and SSM large units and units, the lines of front (rokads) and also the radio axes and nets.

The system for collecting and processing information about the situation is centrally established at the front level. It is ensured that in peacetime information on the situation is continuously collected from the general staff, espionage reconnaissance, radio and radar reconnaissance, organization of observation along the border and from the border troops. Measures on full deployment of the system of collection and processing information on the situation are foreseen and taken well in advance. These measures include the sources of information about the enemy and friendly forces, the command and control organs who organize and conduct the collection and processing of this information and the type of technical equipment to process the acquired information.

Information on the enemy arrives at the center of collection and processing of information from the chief of reconnaissance's command post, the command post of the air army, the command post of the air defense chief, the staff of rocket and artillery forces, and the chief of the chemical department. Information on friendly forces is received from the armies' centers of information collection and processing and the staffs of combat and combat support arms and services. The information received at the center is logged and formulated in a way easy to analyze and evaluate. The degree of importance, precedence and accuracy of the reports is determined at the center and the important news is reported to the commander and the chief of staff.

Traffic regulation and commandant (provost) service

This is organized by the staff in accordance with the commander's decision. During the period of preparation of the offensive operation the principal tasks of traffic regulation and commandant service are as follows:
- Regulation of troop movement on the roads, particularly in the passes and at crossings, areas of contaminated terrain and lanes opened in obstacles.

- Control of troops to insure they observe the specified order in movement and the concealment rules.

- Collection of personnel, vehicles, and equipment to their respective units and large units.

- Provision of security along movement axes and combat against enemy's reconnaissance and subversive groups and spies along the movement axes and in troop locations.

- Report of contaminated areas and instructions to the staffs.

- Regulation of movement of the civilian population in accordance with the specified order.

The measures related to traffic regulation and commandant service are depicted in the commandant services plan. This document is worked out in the operations department and it is prepared on the map with written instructions. The chief of route control, chief of signals, the chief of engineers and others are called to participate in preparing the document. It is signed by the chief of staff and chief of operations and approved by the commander.

To conduct traffic regulation and commandant service, road construction and traffic units and movement regulation units are assigned and if necessary some units from the combat troops can also be assigned for the job. Its composition includes the commanders of regions and areas of the commandant service, provost and traffic patrols (each 4-5 persons) and movement regulation patrols (each 3-4 persons) equipped with communication and transportation means, chemical and radiation detection equipment, and road and traffic signs.

Secrecy of troop control is organized to ensure reliable protection of national and military secrets. The principal measures for protecting state (national) and military secrets are listed below:

- Education of all personnel of the units and staffs to a high spirit of vigilance.

- Reduction to a minimum the number of the personnel involved in preparation of information for making the decision, planning the operation and preparing the documents to assign missions to the troops; and also cutting the number of personnel who will have access to secret documents.

- When assigning important missions and in case important orders are issued, they should be directly issued and transmitted to the commanders, chiefs of staff, the chiefs of combat and combat support arms.

- Organization of secrecy in troop control by signal communication means and not allowing open conversation over the signal communication means.

- Strict enforcement of signal communication discipline, limiting the number of people authorized to use signal communication means. Controlling the observance of rules of transmission over the communication means.
- Taking necessary measures on radio concealment.

- Reliable protection of classified and service documents during their preparation and sending out.

- Constant control of the protection and secrecy of state (national) and military secrets in the troops and staffs in full compliance with the field regulations, directives, manuals, etc.

The chief of staff bears the responsibility for organization of secrecy of troop control. The direct organizer of the troop control secrecy is the chief of 8th section.