The Soviets understand staff procedures to be those activities
undertaken by the commander's staff to assist him in the exercise of his
responsibilities to obtain information about the situation, make well-founded
scientific decisions, develop plans on the basis of the decisions, and organize
the coordination, support and control measures required to execute the plan.
1. Organization of staff procedure:
Organization of the field procedure of the front staff during the
preparation of the operation greatly affects the achievement of success in the
accomplishment of the front's missions. The vital role in this process
is played by the front commander and his chief of staff.
When he receives the operational directive and clarifies its content, the
front commander personally or through the chief of staff calculates the
time required by each level of command for preparation of the attack. He
determines when the decision should be made and how much time should be given
to the staff and other command and control organs to convey the missions to the
subordinate units and to plan the operation. The commander also determines when
and what preliminary instruction (warning order) should be given to
subordinates and when and what tasks should be accomplished by the staff and
other command and control organs.
The chief of staff acknowledges reception to the general staff of the
operational directive. Along with the chief of operations he prepares warning
orders for subordinate units. They organize the activities (operations) of the
staff to prepare the required information for the commander's decision.
After making the decision, the commander instructs the chief of staff, and the
political and other arms and services departments on the following topics:
planning the operation, conveying the missions to subordinates, coordination,
conducting party and political measures, supporting measures, command and
control of the troops, conducting control of the execution of assigned tasks
and extending assistance to subordinates.
The chief of staff makes an estimate of the situation. He listens to the
reports of relevant departments and prepares his report for the front
commander containing his deductions from the estimate of the situation and a
proposed decision for the operation. The chief of staff personally participates
in the preparation of important documents and leads the planning of the
Based on the instructions given by the commander, the chief of staff organizes
the staff work procedures, determines the method of communication and
cooperation with other command and control organs and coordinates and controls
the operation of all organs.
The operations department works out the calendar plan for the preparation of
the operation. The calendar plan is normally prepared in graphic form on graph
paper. This plan should include the following items in the following order:
1 - Making the decision and planning the operation
2 - Conveying the missions to subordinate units and the establishment of
coordination (interaction) among them
3 - Security measures against enemy's surprise invasion (attack)
4 - Occupation of forming up (FUP) areas and preparation of the troops for the
5 - Organization and implementation of combat support measures
6 - Party and political work
7 - Organization of the command and control and measures on command and control
According to this plan the staff issues instructions to the executing levels,
regulates the front's field command and control procedures and conducts
control over the execution of designated actions.
The chief of staff issues the assigned tasks to the related departments and
designates the deadlines according to the plan.
The chiefs of combat arms, support arms and the chief of logistics organize the
operation of their staffs in accordance with the commander's decision and his
instructions and also the instructions given by the chief of staff. In his
instructions, the chief of staff determines: what information and when it
should be provided; what instructions should be given to the troops; what
documents should be prepared and when; how the control of the execution and
assistance to the subordinates should be organized.
A graphic schedule is prepared to illustrate the daily (24 hours) action of the
staff to include the following: who should accomplish what tasks and when? time
of the meals and rest. Alternate working teams are established. The work and
rest time of the officers are determined by the chief of their departments.
2. Procedure to prepare information for the Front commander's decision
Based on a thorough clarification of the mission and an all round estimate of
the situation, the commander personally makes the decision.
The front staff prepares all necessary information and required
calculations for the commander to help him in making the decision. The volume
and content of this kind of work will not always be the same but would vary
according to the situation.
The decision is made either in peacetime or during the wartime. In the former
case the staff prepares complete information on the actual situation and likely
future changes. In the latter case all information might not be required since
the commander would have received much information on enemy and friendly forces
during the previous (preceding) course of combat operations. In this case only
the latest information (updates) which is required to make the decision is
reported to the commander.
The method and sequence of command and staff procedures for making the decision
can follow the following pattern.
When receiving the operational directive the commander, along with the chief of
staff and the chief of the political department, studies the directive and
clarifies the mission. The chief of the operations department marks on the map
the missions and the aim of the front's operation, the missions of SSM
forces and air forces of the supreme high command, the missions of adjacents
and boundaries with them. He also, along with the chief of reconnaissance,
marks on the map the latest situation (information) of enemy forces and
The commander begins the estimate of the situation while the staff present all
required information to him.
To ensure a more efficient performance in presenting the required information,
the commander or the chief of staff brief chiefs of all combat arms, support
arms and services on the newly received mission of the front to the
extent that it affects them. Meanwhile they designate the tasks of decision
making to be accomplished in first priority and designate who should report
what information and when. The chief of staff along with chiefs of operations
and reconnaissance departments determines what information on enemy forces and
friendly units is available and what further information should be acquired;
and who (the commander of air army and the chiefs of combat arms and combat
support arms) should acquire this information and when the required
calculations should be processed by the computers.
Acquisition and analysis of information and presenting the deduction of the
assessment of the enemy situation are conducted by the chief of reconnaissance
The information on enemy should include:
- Information on situation, characteristics of operation, combat composition
and grouping of enemy troops and means, primarily the availability and location
of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and means.
- Likely intention and aim of the enemy, combat capability and political and
morale status of its forces; enemy's strong and weak points.
The information on friendly forces should include the following items:
- Situation, combat composition, grouping and missions of front units.
- Availability and supply status of nuclear rounds and missiles in terms of
their state of readiness and their yields.
- The level of troops establishment, their strength, availability and status of
- The status of airfields.
- The situation and status of rear services, the supply level of the troops
with material supplies, the number of wounded and sick.
- The characteristics of the adjacent's operations and the status of
coordination with them.
Part of the information about adjacent forces is provided by the information on
file in the information section of the operations department or by using
communication means to confer with the adjacents. Sometimes even officers are
detached to inspect personally the situation on the ground.
The information on the condition of the situation under which the operation is
conducted is acquired and analyzed by the operations department and the staffs
of combat and support arms and services and the staff of rear service
departments. The acquired information is marked and portrayed on the working
maps and recorded in journals. This information is compared with previous
information and the level of urgency, importance and accuracy is determined on
the basis of reliability of its sources. The information proved to be reliable
and decisive and well analyzed is reported to the commander and chief of staff
and related chiefs of the departments.
In the process of preparing the information to be reported to the commander, a
wide range of operational and other calculations need to be conducted.
During the decision-making process the following calculations may be required:
- Calculation of time for the preparation of the operation.
- Determination of the expected consequences of the use of nuclear weapons of
the higher echelon.
- Calculation of the combat capabilities of the enemy and friendly forces.
- Determination of the quantitative and qualitative correlation of troops and
means of the opposing forces.
- Determination of the effectiveness coefficients of the initial nuclear
strike, the air force massive strike and also of repulsion of the enemy's
massive air and space attacks.
- Calculation of the friendly troops' combat capability in terms of different
axes, during their deployment, advance, etc.
The chief of staff fully estimates the situation and reports to the commander
on his deductions from the estimate of the situation and his suggestions on a
proposed decision for the operation. The chief of staff's report is based on
the commander's clarification of the mission and estimate of the situation.
In some cases, the front commander may conduct the evaluation of the
terrain actually on the ground to confirm parts of his decision (made on the
map) on the ground.
Consequently the commander makes a rational decision which includes the
- The concept of the operation
- The mission of subordinates
- The basic principles of coordination
- Command and control
The operations department prepares (formulates) the commander's decision on the
map with written instructions or it prepares the decision in a written form
with a map annex.
3. The procedure to convey the missions to subordinates and the
principal documents issued by the headquarters.
Combat missions are issued to subordinate operational units in accordance with
the commander's decision for offensive operations. The missions are issued by
the commander or according to his instruction by the chief of staff visiting
the subordinate commands. The missions can also be issued through communication
technical means or by written orders sent by communication means or
hand-delivered by staff officers.
The missions issued verbally are later supplemented by written documents.
The principal combat documents pertaining to issuance of combat missions are
the operational directive and combat instructions. The full text of the
operational directive is not sent to subordinate units but each unit is
separately informed about its relevant parts included in the full text of the
The operational directive is personally written by the chief of staff or chief
of the operations department on the basis of the commander's decision. The
combat instructions are filled out by the chief of the operations section or
relevant section chief by using the full text of the operational directive.
The chief of reconnaissance department participates in writing the point on the
enemy in the operational directive, and in spelling out the missions of combat
and combat support arms. The chiefs of related arms also may participate. The
directive and instructions are signed by the commander and the chief of staff.
The combat directives to combat and combat support arms and services are signed
by the related department chief and his chief of staff. Only the instruction on
engineer and chemical support are signed by front chief of staff and the
related department chiefs. The logistics instruction is signed by chief of the
logistic department and his chief of staff.
4. Procedure plan to the operation
Planning of the operation is an important task of the staff and other command
and control organs of the front. The essence of planning is: thoroughly
and elaborately regulating and working out all points specified in the
commander's decision and his instructions on the planning of operation. The aim
of planning is specification of the sequence and the method of accomplishment
of each offensive mission; distribution of troop efforts and material among the
assigned missions and attack axes; specification of the method of close
coordination among the troops, execution of party and political work, all
rounded support of combat actions and command and control of the troops.
Practically, the planning of the operation begins with the commander's decision
and leads to working out of the plan of the offensive operation, the plans for
employment of combat and combat support arms and all types of support, the plan
of party and political affairs, and the plan of the command and control of the
The plan of operations is marked on the map along with written instructions. In
some cases the plan is prepared in written form with a map annex containing the
commander's decision, "The Map of Commander's Decision." The plan may
have the following annexes: the plan of initial nuclear strike; the plan of the
employment of airborne and seaborne assault operations (desaunts); the plan of
movement and deployment of front forces in forming up areas (FUP) for
The commander's decision and his instructions on planning constitute the basis
for planning. The operation plan is worked out in the same way for both nuclear
and non-nuclear operations.
Preparation on map
Preparation for making the plan of the offensive operation begins
simultaneously with the decision-making process. After receiving the combat
mission the planning group officers, according to the instructions of the chief
of staff, prepare a 1/500,000 or 1/200,000 map. First they prepare the title
and upper part and then they mark on the map the information on the enemy, the
boundaries of their own formations, the immediate and subsequent missions of
the front, the missions of adjacents, the boundary line of strategic
nuclear strikes, and other missions and tasks conducted by the elements and
forces of the supreme high command in the front's area of offensive
The chief of the reconnaissance department marks on the map the grouping of
enemy troops and means. Later as the commander makes his decision the following
points are depicted on the plan map: the operational formation of the
front in (FUP) areas, the direction of main attack and other axes of
attack, the tasks and targets of chemical and chemical weapons, the composition
and reinforcements (attachments) of first echelon armies and their missions
including their first-day mission in the operation. This is followed by marking
the movement of the second echelon army to the line of commitment, the method
of its commitment into combat and its missions, the missions and drop (landing)
zones of air and seaborne assault units, the location of front and army
command posts at the beginning and in the course of the operation. The chief of
the operations department prepares the written instructions on the map. The
plan of operation is signed by the commander and chief of staff and approved by
the supreme commander.
The commander inspects the planning process, guides the operation of the staff
if necessary and ratifies and approves the planning documents. At the
designated time the commander reports and presents the plan of the operation
and other documents to the supreme commander.
The chief of staff directly supervises the planning process and coordinates the
activities of different departments. The chief of staff sets deadlines for the
preparation of the documents and specifies the amount of details to be covered.
He personally participates in preparation of important documents (such as
initial nuclear strike). The chief of staff controls the planning process,
specifies the time of completion of the work, signs the prepared documents and
gets them approved by the commander.
The planning group, joined by the chief of staff of the air army, the chief of
artillery and rocket forces and the chief of the operations department, works
out the plan of the initial nuclear strike. In the operations department the
plan of preparation and occupation of forming up (FUP) areas, the plan of the
employment of air and seaborne assault units, the plan of operational
concealment (maskirovka), the plan of protection against nuclear weapons and
the plan of hydrometerology are prepared. Officers from the operations
department are assigned to work out the above mentioned plans. A separate plan
of command and control of the troops and the plan of operation of the computer
center may be prepared.
The reconnaissance department provides the needed information on the enemy
required for planning the operation and also prepares the reconnaissance plan
of the offensive operation. The radio-electronic warfare section joins the
planning group to prepare the plan of radio-electronic warfare. The section
also participates in preparing the concealment (maskirovka) and disinformation
plan. The chief of the signal department along with his staff officers prepares
the signal communication plan. The prepared planning documents are reported to
and signed by the chief of staff at the pre-designated time.
5. Procedure to establish of coordination (interaction) - the plan
(table) of coordination
The coordination (interaction) of the troops in the operation is personally
organized by the front commander. The front staff ensures the
establishment of the coordination and its continuity during the course of
accomplishment of all missions of the offensive operation. The content of
coordination measures, in the context of the plan of the offensive operation,
includes the following points:
- Coordination of SSM and air force nuclear strikes with strikes launched by
the Supreme High Command and adjacent units and also with fire of conventional
- Coordination of combat action of large motorized rifle units with the
operation of other combat and combat support arms formations and the air force.
- Adjustment and reconfirmation of measures on all round support of combat
actions in the offensive operation.
- Organization in the headquarters and the troops of the alerting system.
- Specification of the method of communication within the headquarters and the
element conducting coordination (interaction) with the forces represented by
- Designation of a unified system of coordination signals, the signals to
indicate (define) targets, mutual identification and a unified system of
The front commander specifies the principal points of coordination in
his decision. Additionally, after the decision is made, he issues instructions
on coordination. For a better organization of coordination the front
commander conducts briefing (instructional) sessions with his subordinate
commanders on the map, terrain models (sand table) or if time permits (when
time is available) on the terrain.
When operations are organized and planned in peacetime, coordination is
developed and resolved through field exercises, war games and command and staff
exercises (CPXs). When time is limited the commander, while assigning missions
to subordinates, also instructs them on tasks related to coordination. Whenever
necessary the commander arranges a meeting of coordinating (interacting)
subordinate commanders who are assigned to the main attack direction and
listens to their coordination arrangements. On other axes the chief of staff or
first deputy commander organizes the coordination.
In case of a surprise beginning of combat operations, the commander issues
combat instructions on coordination by technical signal equipment or sends
responsible staff officers to convey the adjusted instructions on coordinating
measures to the units.
The front staff supports and assists the commander in organizing
coordination on the map, on the terrain or on the model of the terrain (sand
table). This support is provided by the operations department which also works
out the plan of the commander's activities regarding the organization of
coordination. The plan covers all points to be taken up by the commander and
the method and sequence of his work on the terrain or on the model of the
If coordination is going to be organized on the terrain the plan will include
the following points:
- The questions (issues) of coordination.
- The place and time of their discussion and solution; who attends the session
and on which terrain spot.
- The directions of movement.
- Designation of transportation means.
- Organization of communication and security.
- Measures on secrecy during the work on the terrain.
- Means and material required; who supplies them, etc.
When coordination is organized in front headquarters or in the
headquarters of one of the subordinate units, the operations department
provides and prepares the maps or models of the terrain.
The front staff, in regard to the organization of coordination should
make sure that during the execution of joint tasks, all participating combat
arms and different services of the armed forces should have a common
understanding about the form of accomplishment of the assigned mission.
During organization of the offensive operation plan, the actions of operational
formations of different arms and the air force are coordinated in terms of
objectives, place and time. The form of their joint operation during the
accomplishment of immediate and subsequent missions is also coordinated.
During organization of the plan of the initial nuclear strike, the front
staff coordinates the strikes of front forces with those of strategic
rocket forces, long-range air force, adjacents and also with the fire and
strikes of conventional means. The measures on all-round support of combat
operations of the troops are also coordinated.
The front staff along with the staff of the air army, the staff of air
defense forces and the chief of the chemical department works out the signals
and the method for mutual warning about the enemy's aircraft, and radioactive,
chemical and biological contamination of the terrain.
The chief of the signal department, in accordance with instructions from the
chief of staff, specifies the method of communication among the elements
interacting in joint actions. He also provides communications for the commander
with the units when the commander goes to the terrain to organize coordination.
The front staff may prepare a special coordination document (the plan or
the table of coordination). The document covers the method of accomplishment of
combat missions by joint action. The unified system of signals for
coordination, warning and numbering of the targets is specified.
The coordination plan is worked out by the operations department along with the
staffs of rocket and artillery forces, air defense, engineer, air army, the
chief of the chemical department and the chief of radio-electronic warfare.
The chiefs of combat and combat support arms may establish coordination between
subordinate units and large units of their respective arms, in accordance with
the commander's instructions. The chief of logistics coordinates the operation
of rear service organs and logistic units and establishments during
accomplishment of assigned missions.
6. Procedure to organize support of combat action
Staff actions on organization of measures in support of troop combat operations
not only cover the specification of the tasks related to different types of
support but also include the designation of troops and means to accomplish
these tasks, the assignment of missions to the elements which accomplish them
and the organization of coordination among them.
The front staff is responsible for the organization of reconnaissance,
protection against mass destruction weapons, operational concealment
(maskirovka), radio-electronic warfare and hydrometerological support. The
chiefs of engineers, chemical and logistics organize the support in their
The chief of staff issues necessary instructions to the relevant department
chiefs on preparing plans and instructions about support measures. He
coordinates the actions of the staff with those of combat and combat support
arms and services staffs in the area of required support of troop combat
In the front staff the chief of the reconnaissance department organizes
reconnaissance while the chief of operations is involved in organization of
plans and instructions on protection against mass destruction weapons,
operational concealment (maskirovka), and hydrometerological support. The chief
of the radio-electronic warfare section prepares instructions and plans about
radio-electronic warfare and the chief of the topographic section organizes
instructions on topogeodetic support.
The reconnaissance plan is prepared in written form with a map annex or in a
graphic form with an annex of written instructions. According to the plan,
instructions on reconnaissance are issued to the armies and the chiefs of
combat and combat support arms. Instructions to front reconnaissance
troops are given personally by the chief of the reconnaissance department. The
most important elements in the organization of reconnaissance are the
collection, analysis and reporting of reconnaissance information and the
dissemination of information to relevant persons.
Based on the instructions of the chief of staff, the operations department
along with the chief of the chemical department disseminates information on the
radiation, chemical and bacteriological situation. The operations department
establishes the system to warn the troops, headquarters and adjacents about
ground and air contamination. It also acquires information on hydrometerology
and informs subordinate units about the hydrometerological situation. The
operations department along with the chief of the chemical department, in close
cooperation with the chiefs of combat and combat support arms and services,
organizes the plan of troop protection and the protection measures against mass
destruction weapons. Such measures are also included in the plan of operations,
the plans for the employment of combat arms and services, the plan of
supporting measures of combat operations and the logistics (rear services)
plan. The operations department writes the instructions on troop protection
against mass destruction weapons and has them signed by the chief of staff
before it sends them to the subordinate units.
Operational concealment (maskirovka) is organized and implemented by the
front staff in accordance with the commander's decision and the
instructions of the general staff. The chief of staff personally participates
in organizing operational concealment. The chief of operations, the chiefs of
combat and combat support arms, the chief of staff of the air army and the
chief of staff of the logistic department may be called on to take part.
The front commander specifies the basic tasks on organization and the
area of concentration of the main efforts of radio-electronic warfare. The
chief of staff thoroughly evaluates the enemy's command and control system,
estimates the radio-electronic situation, determines the strong and weak points
in the enemy's radio-electronic system as well as the radio- electronic tasks
to be accomplished. The chief of staff gives instructions to the chief of the
radio-electronic department, the chief of staff of the air army, the chiefs of
combat and combat support arms on organization and execution of
radio-electronic warfare. He also instructs the chief of signals on protection
of friendly radio-electronic means against the enemy's radio- electronic
warfare. The chief of radio-electronic warfare, in close cooperation with the
above mentioned officers, prepares the plan and instructions on
radio-electronic warfare and controls their implementation.
Engineer and chemical support of the combat operation is organized by the
chiefs of engineers and chemical while all types of rear services support
(logistical support) are planned and conducted by the assistant front
commander for logistics.
The chief of staff in a close and timely manner controls the implementation of
the commander's instructions on support of combat operations. He also organizes
interaction and mutual information flow related to the organization of all
round support of combat operations.
7. Procedure to organize control of troops' actions
Control of troop actions during preparation of the operation is conducted by
the staff in order to ensure the timely and thorough execution of the
commander's instructions on taking necessary measures, organizing combat
operations and thoroughly preparing the troops to accomplish combat missions.
Under all conditions control is supplemented by assisting the subordinate
commanders and staffs in organization of offensive operations and by
maintaining constant high combat readiness of the troops to accomplish the
combat missions in the operation.
The commander controls the operation of the front staff, chiefs of
combat and combat support arms and services and the chief of logistics with
respect to comprehensive planning of the operation, timely issuance of combat
missions to the troops and the organization and support of the command and
control system. At the same time the commander, the staff and responsible
officers and other command and control organs control the actions of
subordinate units and staffs.
This control includes timely reception of the mission and its accurate
clarification by the subordinates; compliance of subordinate army and other
large unit commanders' decisions with the front commander's operational
concept and its thorough and accurate incorporation into the planning of the
operation. The staff is especially careful to control the following: the
preparedness of troop units to initiate the operation in a timely fashion, have
a clear understanding of the signals, observe rules of secrecy in command and
control and signal communication and the measures to protect the troops against
mass destruction weapons. The chief of staff bears the responsibility for
timely control of the troops' actions.
Control is maintained by various methods. Most often the commander or other
responsible officers go to the troops, or the units are contacted by
communication means. The documents sent by subordinates to the higher staff are
studied. Air photography of subordinate positions is conducted and
subordinates' transmissions are monitored. Visits to the troops are conducted
in accordance with a unified plan worked out by the operations department.
8. Organization of troop control
Measures on secrecy of troop control:
The troop control is conducted on the basis of (in accord with) the
front commander's and the general staff instructions. The chief of staff
specifies the measures to be taken on organization and establishment of the
troop control system in the (FUP) areas. He ensures the firmness and continuity
of control operations in the course of the offensive operation.
At the beginning of the operation the system of troop control includes
organization and deployment of the command post system, the signal system and
the system of collecting and organizing situational information.
The relocation of command posts and the maintenance of an un-disrupted signal
communication system are planned. The method of sending information on the
situation (situation reports) and their processing and the method of reporting
during the course of the operation are specified. The method of defense and
protection of command posts and signal centers and lines is determined.
Measures are taken to protect command posts and troop control means against
mass destruction means and against the enemy's radio-electronic warfare.
Measures are also taken to restore a disrupted troop control system. Measures
are specified to alternate command posts. Moreover, the traffic regulation and
provost service is organized and measures are taken to ensure the secrecy of
The troop control system includes permanent, field and mobile command posts.
The permanent command posts are prepared in peacetime and are used for the
troop control during the period of bringing the troops to the state of full
combat readiness, while occupying (FUP) areas, while repulsing the enemy's
surprise invasion and during the accomplishment of other missions in the
initial phase of the operation.
In the course of the operation field mobile command posts (main command post,
forward command post, rear command post and auxiliary command post) are
established, deployed and fortified to control the troops. When the operation
is conducted under special terrain conditions where troop control of part of
the troops is impossible or difficult from the main command post, an auxiliary
command post is established.
The signal system
It is established as a unified system at the front level. The principal
elements of the system are: signal centers of the front, armies, and
other large units' command posts; auxiliary signal center, the axes of
multi-channel radio-relay and telephone lines, the lines of signal directions
to the rear of the armies and SSM large units and units, the lines of
front (rokads) and also the radio axes and nets.
The system for collecting and processing information about the situation is
centrally established at the front level. It is ensured that in
peacetime information on the situation is continuously collected from the
general staff, espionage reconnaissance, radio and radar reconnaissance,
organization of observation along the border and from the border troops.
Measures on full deployment of the system of collection and processing
information on the situation are foreseen and taken well in advance. These
measures include the sources of information about the enemy and friendly
forces, the command and control organs who organize and conduct the collection
and processing of this information and the type of technical equipment to
process the acquired information.
Information on the enemy arrives at the center of collection and processing of
information from the chief of reconnaissance's command post, the command post
of the air army, the command post of the air defense chief, the staff of rocket
and artillery forces, and the chief of the chemical department. Information on
friendly forces is received from the armies' centers of information collection
and processing and the staffs of combat and combat support arms and services.
The information received at the center is logged and formulated in a way easy
to analyze and evaluate. The degree of importance, precedence and accuracy of
the reports is determined at the center and the important news is reported to
the commander and the chief of staff.
Traffic regulation and commandant (provost) service
This is organized by the staff in accordance with the commander's decision.
During the period of preparation of the offensive operation the principal tasks
of traffic regulation and commandant service are as follows:
- Regulation of troop movement on the roads, particularly in the passes and at
crossings, areas of contaminated terrain and lanes opened in obstacles.
- Control of troops to insure they observe the specified order in movement and
the concealment rules.
- Collection of personnel, vehicles, and equipment to their respective units
and large units.
- Provision of security along movement axes and combat against enemy's
reconnaissance and subversive groups and spies along the movement axes and in
- Report of contaminated areas and instructions to the staffs.
- Regulation of movement of the civilian population in accordance with the
The measures related to traffic regulation and commandant service are depicted
in the commandant services plan. This document is worked out in the operations
department and it is prepared on the map with written instructions. The chief
of route control, chief of signals, the chief of engineers and others are
called to participate in preparing the document. It is signed by the chief of
staff and chief of operations and approved by the commander.
To conduct traffic regulation and commandant service, road construction and
traffic units and movement regulation units are assigned and if necessary some
units from the combat troops can also be assigned for the job. Its composition
includes the commanders of regions and areas of the commandant service, provost
and traffic patrols (each 4-5 persons) and movement regulation patrols (each
3-4 persons) equipped with communication and transportation means, chemical and
radiation detection equipment, and road and traffic signs.
Secrecy of troop control is organized to ensure reliable protection of national
and military secrets. The principal measures for protecting state (national)
and military secrets are listed below:
- Education of all personnel of the units and staffs to a high spirit of
- Reduction to a minimum the number of the personnel involved in preparation of
information for making the decision, planning the operation and preparing the
documents to assign missions to the troops; and also cutting the number of
personnel who will have access to secret documents.
- When assigning important missions and in case important orders are issued,
they should be directly issued and transmitted to the commanders, chiefs of
staff, the chiefs of combat and combat support arms.
- Organization of secrecy in troop control by signal communication means and
not allowing open conversation over the signal communication means.
- Strict enforcement of signal communication discipline, limiting the number of
people authorized to use signal communication means. Controlling the observance
of rules of transmission over the communication means.
- Taking necessary measures on radio concealment.
- Reliable protection of classified and service documents during their
preparation and sending out.
- Constant control of the protection and secrecy of state (national) and
military secrets in the troops and staffs in full compliance with the field
regulations, directives, manuals, etc.
The chief of staff bears the responsibility for organization of secrecy of
troop control. The direct organizer of the troop control secrecy is the chief
of 8th section.