 # OUTLINE FOR POI - CALCULATIONS

## LESSON III: TACTICAL AND OPERATIONAL CALCULATIONS

### LIST OF VIEWGRAPHS

VG1 - Introduction and outline of Lesson III

VG2 - Basic time and distance calculation

VG3 - Basic time and distance calculation

VG4 - Nomogram - time and distance calculation

VG5 - Example basic time and distance

VG6 - Calculation of time to begin move to start line

VG7 - Calculation of time to begin move to start line

VG8 - Nomogram - time to begin move to start line

VG9 - Example - time to begin move

VG10 - Calculation of time to deploy into a new assembly area

VG11 - Calculation of time to deploy into a new assembly area

VG12 - Nomogram - time to deploy into new area

VG13 - Example - time to deploy in new area

VG14 - Calculation of time unit arrives in a new area

VG15 - Table Calculation of time unit arrives in a new area

VG16 - Blank table Calculation of time unit arrives in a new area

VG17 - Calculation of time unit arrives in a new area

VG18 - Example - time unit arrives in a new area

VG19 - Calculation of the duration of a march from one area to another

VG20 - Table calculation of duration of march

VG21 - Blank table calculation of duration of march

VG22 - Calculation of the duration of march from one area to another

VG23 - Example - duration of march

VG24 - Determine the required movement rate for a unit to regroup in a new area

VG25 - Form for calculating required travel speed

VG26 - Blank form for calculating required travel speed

VG27 - Determine the requried movement rate for a unit to regroup in a new area

VG28 - Example - required movement rate

VG29 - Calculation of length of route, average speed and duration of movement of moving column

VG30 - Form for calculation of transit time over multisegment route

VG31 - Blank form for calculation of transit time over multisegment route

VG32 - Calculation of transit time over multisegment route

VG33 - Example - transit time over multi-segment route

VG34 - Calculation of overall depth of column consisting of several sub-columns

VG35 - Nomogram - calculation of total length of column

VG36 - Calculation of overall depth of column consisting of several sub-columns

VG37 - Example - total depth of column

VG38 - Calculation of duration of passage of narrow points and difficult segments

VG39 - Nomogram - duration of passage of narrow point or obstacle

VG40 - Calculation of duration of passage of narrow points and difficult segments

VG41 - Duration of passage of narrow points and difficult segments (2)

VG42 - Duration of passage of narrow points and difficult segments (3)

VG43 - Duration of passage of narrow points and difficult segments (4)

VG44 - Duration of passage of narrow points and difficult segments (5)

VG45 - Example - duration of passage of obstacle

VG46 - Example - duration of passage of obstacle (2)

VG47 - Example - duration of passage of obstacle (3)

VG48 - Nomogram time to surmount long obstacle

VG49 - Calculation for passage times across start point (sl) by the head and tail of the column

VG50 - Calculation for passage times across start point (sl) by the head and tail of the column

VG51 - Nomogram - time to cross start or control point

VG52 - Calculation for passage times across start point (sl) by the head and tail of the column (2)

VG53 - Example time to pass point

VG54 - Calculation of expected time and distance of point of contact with advancing enemy

VG55 - Calculation of expected time and distance of point of contact with advancing enemy

VG56 - Nomogram - calculation of time and distance to point of contact

VG57 - Example - calculation time and distance of point of contact with advancing enemy

VG58 - Solution - calculation time and distance of point of contact with advancing enemy

VG59 - Calculation of time required for advancing and deploying sub-units to change from line of march into the attack

VG60 - Calculation of time required for advancing and deploying sub-units to change from line of march into the attack

VG61 - Table calculation of time to advance and deploy

VG62 - Calculation of the time and distance to the line of contact

VG63 - Table - calculation of expected time and distance to probable line of meeting engagement

VG64 - Blank table - calculation of expected time and distance to probable line of meeting engagement

VG65 - Calculation of the time and distance to the line of contact

VG66 - Example - the time and distance to the line of contact

VG67 - Calculation of expected time and rate of overtaking when pursuing the enemy

VG68 - Calculation of expected time and rate of overtaking when pursuing the enemy

VG69 - Calculation of expected time and rate of overtaking when pursuing the enemy (2)

VG70 - Nomogram - expected time and rate of overtaking enemy

VG71 - Example - expected time and rate of overtaking when pursuing the enemy

VG72 - Example - expected time and rate of overtaking when pursuing the enemy (2)

VG73 - Example - expected time and rate of overtaking when pursuing the enemy (3)

VG74 - Calculation of the work time available to the commander and staff for organizing repulse of advancing enemy forces

VG75 - Calculation of the work time available to the commander and staff for organizing repulse of advancing enemy forces

VG76 - Nomogram - work time available to commander and staff

VG77 - Example - work time available to the commander and staff for organizing repulse of advancing enemy forces

VG78 - Example - work time available to the commander and staff for organizing repulse of advancing enemy forces (2)

VG79 - Determination of quantity of various means for task performance

VG80 - Determination of quantity of various means for task performance

VG81 - Determination of quantity of various means for task performance

VG82 - Determination of quantity of various means for task performance

VG83 - Determination of quantity of various means for task performance

VG84 - Nomogram - quantity of weapons and probibility to fulfill task

VG85 - Determination of quantity of various means for task performance (2)

VG86 - Example - quantity of means for task performance

VG87 - Example of quantity of various means for task performance (2)

VG88 - Modeling battle

VG89 - Coefficients of comensurability

VG90 - Modeling battle

VG91 - Modeling battle

VG92 - Calculation of strike capability of sub-units

VG93 - Calculation of strike capability of sub-units

VG94 - Example of strike capability of sub-units

VG95 - Calculation of the width of main attack sector

VG96 - Calculation of the width of main attack sector

VG97 - Example of the width of main attack sector

VG98 - Calculation of required destruction of enemy

VG99 - Calculation of required destruction of enemy

VG100 - Nomogram - required destruction graph

VG101 - Example - of required destruction of enemy

VG102 - Calculation of rate of advance in relation to correlation of forces

VG103 - Nomogram - F factor and correlation of forces

VG104 - Example - rate of advance in relation to correlation of forces

VG105 - Nomogram - Force attrition army

VG106 - Nomogram - Force attrition front

VG107 - Determine the required amount of manpower and weapons for bringing sub-units back up to sufficient strength to restore their combat capability

VG108 - Form for calculation of required amount of forces

VG109 - Blank form for calculation of required amount of forces

VG110 - Determine the required amount of manpower and weapons for bringing sub-units back up to sufficient strength to restore their combat capability

VG111 - Example - the required amount of manpower and weapons for bringing sub-units back up to sufficient strength to restore their combat capability

VG112 - Determine the expected radiation dose

VG113 - Determine the expected radiation dose

VG114 - Nomogram - determine expected radiation dose

VG115 - Determine the expected radiation dose

VG116 - Example - the expected radiation dose

VG117 - Form for calculation of expected radiation dose

VG118 - Form - Quantitative characteristics of alternative routes

VG119 - Form - Effectrivenewss of artillery fire damage

VG120 - Form Effectiveness of artillery fire damage II

VG121 - Calculation to determine the effectiveness of fire destruction means

VG122 - Form for calculating weapons effectiveness

VG123 - Calculation to determine the effectivenss of fire destruction means

VG124 - Example - determine the effectiveness of fire destruction means

### Operational and Tactical Calculations 1 Basic Time and Distance Calculation Example problem using nomogram: Calculate the duration of a move along a 80 km route with an average speed of 35 km/hr, duration of halts total 1 hr & 30 min, and time taken to deploy into new area is 30 min. Solution: Start at the 80 point on the bottom scale "Length of March" go up to the "Speed of movement -35 kph" line then horizontally across to the I line. Draw a line from that point to the II line passing through the .5 point on the "Pulling in" line, then another line downwards from the II line passing through 1.5 on the "Duration of halts" line. This intersects the "Duration of march" line at 4 hrs and 20 min. Example problem using nomogram: Calculate the duration of a move along a ___ km route with an average speed of ___ km/hr, duration of halts total _________, and time taken to deploy into new area is ___min. Solution: Start at the 80 point on the bottom scale "Length of March" go up to the "Speed of movement -_____ kph" line then horizontally across to the I line. Draw a line from that point to the II line passing through the ____ point on the "Pulling in" line, then another line downwards from the II line passing through _____ on the "Duration of halts" line. This intersects the "Duration of march" line at __________. 2 Calculation of Time to Begin Move to Start Line Example problem: Determine the starting time for a column when the time for the head of the column to pass the start line is planned for 2100 hrs, the distance to the start line is 9 km, and the rate of march while moving out is 15 kph. ### Solution: Example using nomogram (Figure 83): Using the same initial data as the previous example enter the nomogram on the X axis at 9 km move up to 15 kph line then across to the 36 min on the Y axis. ### Example problem: Calculate the time required for a column to occupy a new area if the length of the column is 7 km, the depth of the new area is 3.5 km and the speed of movement during deployment is 10 kph. Solution:=(7 - 3.5) ÷ 10 x 60=0.35 x 60=21 Min Using the nomogram (Figure 84) provides the same answer. Enter at 7 on the length of column scale cross 3.5 on the depth of area scale then horizontally to 10 kph and then down to 21 min on the duration of movement scale. ### Example problem: Determine the length of a moving formation consisting of four columns, if the overall number of vehicles is 169, distance between columns is 600 meters, and distance between vehicles is 40 meters. Solution: ### Example using the nomogram (Figure 89): ### Determine the length of a moving formation if there are 3 moving columns and the distances between them is 400 meters, the overall number of vehicles is 65, distance between vehicles is 25 meters (variant a). Solution: First find the column depth without considering the distances between col use the right side of the nomogram and draw a perpendicular line from the "65" mark on the "Total number of vehicles" scale to the intersection with the "distances between vehicles- 25" line; from this point draw a horizontal line to the intersection with the "Column depth" scale. In the left part of the nomogram from the "3" mark on the "Number of columns in route formation" scale draw a perpendicular line to the intersection with the "Distances between columns- 400" line, from this point draw a horizontal line to the unnamed scale. Then connect the two obtained marks and find the calculation result on the "Depth of marching formation scale. Answer: is 2.5 km. Example problem: Determine the length of a moving formation consisting of four columns, if the overall number of vehicles is _____, distance between columns is ____ meters, and distance between vehicles is ___ meters. Solution: ### 9 Calculation of Duration of Passage of Narrow Points and Difficult Segments Example Calculation (A): Calculate the time required to cross an obstacle by a column of 54 vehicles with distance between vehicles of 75 meters and a maximum speed of 10 kph. t=(54 x 75) x 0.06 ÷ 10=24 Min There are two types of difficult sections on routes; the first is minor ones whose length is less than the marching column, and the second is major obstacles with length greater than the length of the column. The main factor for shorter obstacles is the number of vehicles in the column, the distances between them and their speed of movement while passing the obstacle. The main data for the larger obstacles are the length of the column, the length of the sector and the speed of movement. ### Example calculation (B): Determine the time for a column 2.5 km long to pass through an obstacle 5.5 km long at a movement rate of 15 km per hr. (2.5 + 5.5) ÷ 15=8 ÷ 15=0.53=32 min Example calculation (C): Determine what length of column can negotiate a pass 2.5 km long at a speed of 8 kph in a 45 min. Gk=(V x t) - d=(8 x 0.75) - 2.5=3.5 Km Solution: 3.5 km ### Example using nomogram (Figure 90): Example calculation: Using data from example (A), start at 54 on "Number of vehicles" line and draw a perpendicular to the intersection with the "Distances between vehicles - 74" line. From that point draw a horizontal line to the intersection with the "Travel speed - 10" line. From this point drop a perpendicular line to the "Duration of surmounting obstacle" scale at which point the result shows 24 minutes. Example calculation variant B: Determine the number of vehicles able to cross an obstacle within 30 min, if the allowable movement speed is not more than 15 km per hr and the distance between vehicles is 100 m. Solution: Start at 30 on "Duration of surmounting obstacle" scale, move vertically to "15 km per hr on speed" scale, then horizontally to "Distance between vehicles -100 m" and down to "Number of vehicles" scale where the result shows 75 vehicles. Example calculation variant C: Calculate the distance between vehicles in a column of 80 vehicles in order that the column crosses a bridge within 36 min at rate not more than 10 kph. Solution: Starting at 80 on the "Number of vehicles" scale and at 35 min on the "Duration of surmounting obstacle" scale draw perpendicular lines. From the intersection of the perpendicular with the "Speed of movement -10" scale draw a horizontal line to intersect with the first perpendicular. The point of intersection is on the "distance between vehicles- 75" line. This means that the distance between vehicles must be no more than 75 meters. ### Example Calculation (A): Calculate the time required to cross an obstacle by a column of ____ vehicles with distance between vehicles of ___ meters and a maximum speed of ____ kph. t=(___ x ____) x 0.06 ÷ ___=___ Min Example calculation (B): Determine the time for a column ____ km long to pass through an obstacle ___ km long at a movement rate of ____ km per hr. (____ + ____) ÷ ___=__ ÷ ___=_____ Example calculation (C): Determine what length of column can negotiate a pass _____ km long at a speed of ____ kph in a ____ min. Gk=(V x t) - d=(8 x 0.75) - 2.5=3.5 Km Solution: ____ km Example using nomogram (Figure 90): Example calculation: Using data from example (A), start at ____ on "Number of vehicles" line and draw a perpendicular to the intersection with the "Distances between vehicles - ___" line. From that point draw a horizontal line to the intersection with the "Travel speed - ___" line. From this point drop a perpendicular line to the "Duration of surmounting obstacle" scale at which point the result shows ___ minutes. Example calculation: Determine the number of vehicles able to cross an obstacle within ____ min, if the allowable movement speed is not more than ____ km per hr and the distance between vehicles is ____ m. Solution: Start at ___ on "Duration of surmounting obstacle" scale, move vertically to "____ km per hr on speed" scale, then horizontally to "Distance between vehicles -_____ m" and down to "Number of vehicles" scale where the result shows ____ vehicles. Example calculation: Calculate the distance between vehicles in a column of ___ vehicles in order that the column crosses a bridge within ____ min at rate not more than ___ kph. Solution: Starting at ___ on the "Number of vehicles" scale and at ____ min on the "Duration of surmounting obstacle" scale draw perpendicular lines. From the intersection of the perpendicular with the "Speed of movement -____" scale draw a horizontal line to intersect with the first perpendicular. The point of intersection is on the "Distance between vehicles- ____" line. This means that the distance between vehicles must be no more than ___ meters. Example using nomogram (Figure 91): Example calculation: Determine the time required to pass through a damaged strip of road, if the length of the sector is ____ km, the length of the column is ____ km, and the average speed while crossing the sector is ____ kph. Solution: Mark on the "Depth of column" scale at ____ and the "Length of sector" scale at ____ and then draw a line through these points to the intersection with the Y or vertical axis. From this point draw a horizontal line to the "Speed of movement - ____" line and draw a perpendicular down to the "Time of surmounting" line to read the result of ___ min. Example calculation: Determine what length of column can negotiate a pass ____ km long at speed of ___ km per hr in a given time. Solution: From the ____ mark on the "Time of surmounting" scale draw a perpendicular to the intersection with the "Speed of movement- ___" line. From this point draw a horizontal line to the Y axis. Connect this point with the ____ mark on the "Length of sector" line and continue it to intersect with the "Depth of column" line. This shows the result is ____ km. This means that a column of ____ km length may negotiate the passage in the given time. ### 13 Calculation of the Time and Distance to the Line of Contact Example problem: determine the expected time of meeting and the distance to likely line of contact with the enemy and the duration of movement to that line under following conditions: ----- start time of own forces - 20:00 hrs; ----- start time of enemy forces - 21:00 hrs; ----- distance to enemy - 105 km; The commander decides there will be a break of 20 minutes (.3) hr during the advance. The plan is to delay enemy forces 30 -40 minutes (.6) hr. It is assumed that during movement enemy will be required to take halts of 30 minutes (0.5) hrs. The speed of movement of own forces is 28 km per hr. The speed of movement of the enemy is 19 km per hr. The answer is that contact will be at 11:20 at a distance of 84 km. Duration of movement to meeting line is 3 hrs. Example problem: determine the expected time of meeting and the distance to likely line of contact with the enemy and the duration of movement to that line under following conditions: ----- start time of own forces - _______ hrs; ----- start time of enemy forces - _______ hrs; ----- distance to enemy - ____ km; The commander decides there will be a break of ____ minutes (____) hr during the advance. The plan is to delay enemy forces __________ minutes __ hr. It is assumed that during movement enemy will be required to take halts of _____ hrs. The speed of movement of own forces is ___ km per hr. The speed of movement of the enemy is ____ km per hr. The answer is that contact will be at ____ at a distance of ___ km. Duration of movement to meeting line is ___ hrs. ### 14 Calculation of Expected Time and Rate of Overtaking when Pursuing the Enemy Example: Determine how much time it will take for forces to overtake a retreating enemy when the distance to him is 20 km, his rate of retreat is 10 km per hr, and the rate of advance of friendly forces is 25 km per hr. Solution: to=20 ÷ (25 - 10)=1.3 hrs ; Determine the pursuit speed required to enable friendly forces to overtake enemy in 45 min, when he is 15 km away and his travel speed is 12 km per hr. Solution: Vn=((15 + 0.75) (12)) ÷0.75=32 km per hr. Examples of calculations using the nomogram Figure 96: Determine the expected time to overtake enemy when his distance is 30 km, his travel speed is 20 km per hr, and the speed of pursuit is 28 km per hr. In the calculation (variant a) establish a perpendicular line from the "30" mark on the "Distance between friendly and enemy forces" scale. Then draw a line through the "28" mark on the "Friendly forces travel speed" and the "20" mark on the "Enemy travel speed" scale to its intersection with the horizontal upper axis. From this point draw a line down as shown by the dots to the intersection with the previously set perpendicular line. From the point of intersection draw a horizontal line to the right and read off the result of 3 hrs and 45 min on the "Expected encounter time" scale. Determine the required pursuit speed to intercept the enemy in 1 hr and 20 min, when the enemy is at a distance of 40 km and is traveling at a speed of 5 km per hr. In calculation (variant b) establish a perpendicular line from the "40" mark on the "Distance between friendly and enemy forces" scale to the intersection with the horizontal line, drawn from the 1 hr and 20 min mark on the "Expected encounter time" scale. From the meeting point draw a line, as shown by the dots and dashes, to the horizontal scale. Draw a line through the point of intersection of this scale and the 5 mark on the "Enemy travel speed" scale and continue it to the intersection with the "Friendly force travel speed" scale, where the result is 35 km per hr. This means that the pursuit speed must he at least 35 km per hr. Example: Determine how much time it will take for forces to overtake a retreating enemy when the distance to him is ___ km, his rate of retreat is ___ km per hr, and the rate of advance of friendly forces is ___ km per hr. Solution: to=___ ÷ (___ - ___)=____ hrs ; Determine the pursuit speed required to enable friendly forces to overtake enemy in ____ min, when he is ___ km away and his travel speed is ___ km per hr. Solution: Vn=((____ + ____) (___)) ÷ ____=___ km per hr. Examples of calculations using the nomogram Figure 96: Determine the expected time to overtake enemy when his distance is ____ km, his travel speed is ____ km per hr, and the speed of pursuit is ____ km per hr. In the calculation (variant a) establish a perpendicular line from the "___" mark on the "Distance between friendly and enemy forces" scale. Then draw a line through the "___" mark on the "Friendly forces travel speed" and the "___" mark on the "Enemy travel speed" scale to its intersection with the horizontal upper axis. From this point draw a line down as shown by the dots to the intersection with the previously set perpendicular line. From the point of intersection draw a horizontal line to the right and read off the result of _____ hrs on the "Expected encounter time" scale. Determine the required pursuit speed to intercept the enemy in _______, when the enemy is at a distance of ___ km and is traveling at a speed of ___ km per hr. In calculation establish a perpendicular line from the "___" mark on the "Distance between friendly and enemy forces" scale to the intersection with the horizontal line, drawn from the _____ mark on the "Expected encounter time" scale. From the meeting point draw a line, to the horizontal scale. Draw a line through the point of intersection of this scale and the ___ mark on the "Enemy travel speed" scale and continue it to the intersection with the "Friendly force travel speed" scale, where the result is ___ km per hr. This means that the pursuit speed must he at least ____ km per hr. ### This means the attacking unit can be expected to succeed in reaching a depth of 9.5 km in the defender's position. The Soviet author does not indicate the scale of this combat, and in fact uses the term for sub-unit (ie. a battalion or smaller), but from the dimensions of the combat area (8 km by 10 km) we may assume this is a regiment attacking of a brigade frontage to the full depth. If we use the same formula to evaluate battle at division level we may assume "utils" of NH=800 for attacker and NO=700 for defender and the following other values for variables: YN=90%; YO=80%; PN=0.1%; PO=0.4%; K=1.5; PNK=0.5%; POK=0.7%; FO=20km; GO=30km; FN=15km; The resulting equation is as follows: ### With these assumptions the attackers may be expected to achieve a depth of penetration of 53 km. Using the same formula to evaluate battalion scale combat we may assume both sides have "utils" of 40, the defender has a superiority coefficient of 2.5 and the widths are 4, 2, and 1.5 km. Then the formula yields the result as a penetration of 3.2 km. These are not unreasonable depths for the types of units being considered. 