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Instructor Notes:
Author: Jalali, Sloan, Wardak
Date: July 1990




1. General: This one hour sublesson introduces fundamentals of Soviet artillery planning. It focuses on organization and employment for combat and prepares students for further lessons in which they will take the role of Soviet chief of artillery in planning at division, army, and front levels.

2 Sublesson Introduction: Explain the objective of this introductory hour in relation to the rest of the two-day course. Stress that the course is highly focused on practical application and that their ability to absorb the information in later hours and accomplish the practical exercises will depend on their individual initiative in rapidly learning the basic material.

3. Teacher Learning Objective: Students should develop a general understanding of Soviet conceptions on the employment of artillery as a direct and major participant in combat, not as limited to a combat support role common in other armies. This objective is sought through the following series of tasks.

Task: Describe the role of artillery in contemporary warfare.

Condition: Given assigned references and student notes.

Standard: Discussion should point out the greatly increased role for artillery brought about by its increasing lethality, accuracy, and mobility; but that artillery has always played an unusually significant role in Russian and Soviet armies. Information for this subject is in FM 100-2-1, Chapter 8, pages 13-15. Instructor should also read and be prepared to recommend articles in the collection, Artillery Employment: readings from the Polish Press trans. by Dr. Harry Orenstein at the Soviet Army Studies Office, Ft. Leavenworth. Also refer to Bellamy, Chris, Red God of War, Brassey's Defence Publishers, London, 1986; and Bailey, J. B. A. Field Artillery and Firepower, Military Press, Oxford, 1989.

Task: Describe the current trends toward future developments of artillery.

Condition: Given assigned references and student notes.

Standard: The Soviet military literature is placing emphasis on the "reconnaissance strike" and "reconnaissance fire" complexes. Point out the relationship between increased artillery accuracy and various reconnaissance means, especially radio-electronic. Discuss the influence of artillery capability on shifts in tactics and operational methods toward more emphasis on the defense. Much supporting material is in the set of readings of Polish articles on artillery as well as in FM100-2-1. Chapter 8, pages 11-12. In addition to the articles in the Polish Press the students have been given excerpts from Peredel'skiy Marshal Arty G. Ye, Artillery Battalion in Combat, Moscow, 1984, JPRS trans UMA 85-012-L, May 1985; and Lebedev, V. Y. Field Artillery Officer's Handbook, Moscow, 1984, JPRS Trans UMA 85-011-L 1985.

Task: Explain the types of Soviet artillery and their special missions.

Condition: Given assigned references and student notes.

Standard: Focus the explanation on types of weapons, ie. howitzers, mortars, guns, multiple rocket launchers. Show viewgraphs of tables of weapons characteristics. Relate these to the tables of norms for weapons fire. The students should be well acquainted with artillery weapons, so a long discussion is not necessary. The point is to alert the students to the necessity for integrating the fire of various types of weapons to solve tactical requirements. These weapons types are standard to US army as well. The tables for norms of ammunition expenditure and rates of fire at in Chapter Five of the Handbook on Soviet Planning. Soviet discussion is in Peredel'skiy, and in Lebedev cited above.

Task: Explain the organizational structure of Soviet artillery units.

Condition: Given assigned references and student notes.

Standard: The explanation should include the artillery organization from regiment to front in terms of TOE units. The discussion of how these units are re-organized into firing groups comes later. Show the wiring diagrams briefly, but it should not be necessary to spend much time on this subject. Standard organizational charts are in FM100-2-2 and various DIA organization guides.

Task: Describe the Soviet definitions for types of artillery fire.

Condition: Given assigned references and student notes.

Standard: The student reading material and handouts contain definitions of the most important Soviet terms required to understand artillery fire planning. Class discussion should focus on relating definitions of terms to the numerical norms for quantities of ammunition required to achieve the various levels of destruction or types of fire given in the definitions.

Task: Discuss the main Soviet principles for artillery employment.

Condition: Given assigned references and student notes.

Standard: The discussion should give the students a set of guidelines and criteria they may use in conducting themselves as Soviet artillery planners. Soviet principles are found in the above cited sources and are provided in the discussion notes.

4. Level of Instruction: Analysis.

5. Method of Instruction: The material in this introductory lecture is mostly included in the student reading. The period can be largely group discussion with intervention as required by the instructor to keep to the agenda.

6. Author's Intent: Overall this introductory lesson is to bring any students who may not be familiar with artillery up to speed. However the course presumes considerable prior military experience and general knowledge including about artillery. Therefore the instructor has a lot of ground to cover in the one hour, but should be able to do it quickly. This hour will include review of student outside reading to insure their understanding of the role of artillery, terminology, organization, and capabilities of Soviet artillery units, and Soviet tactical principles for employment of artillery in offensive situations. The employment of artillery when on the defensive must be deferred to future classes.

This is an introductory hour for review of student knowledge gained from background reading. The emphasis is on understanding of terminology and principles underlying the employment of artillery. This is required to enable students to perform practical exercises in subsequent lessons with minimum need to discuss these terms and principles.

a: Role of artillery - Soviet historical and future conception of the role of artillery in war places great emphasis on the destructive power of artillery as a major contributor to combat. The advent of nuclear weapons was seen as a great advance for nuclear missile as a kind of artillery. Now the reconnaissance strike complex and future high precision weapons is increasing the relative importance of artillery and means to defend against it.

b. Future development - Increases in lethality, mobility of platforms, speed of maneuver of fire, capability and requirement for information, and control mechanisms. Discuss the trends which have already taken place in increased number of guns per battery, increasing use of self-propelled artillery, increasing computers in fire control. Point out also the shift between reduction in number s of tanks and increase in numbers of artillery pieces in combined arms formations.

c. Types of artillery - Describe the types and missions and capabilities. Students should understand the need to mix and match capabilities of weapons with varieties of targets. They should understand the uses of capabilities and norms tables in planning. They should read texts for much of this information so teacher can lead class discussion.

d. Organization structure - Student should understand reasoning behind distribution of artillery at various levels in combined arms formations and units. There is a conflict between the desires for decentralized versus centralized control. Discuss the role of artillery as one of the combined arms commander's fundamental tools for influencing the course of combat. Student will have read material of organization charts.

e. Types of artillery fire - This is a very important section to prepare the students for being able to plan artillery fire in later lessons. Student should understand purpose for each type of fire. They will read text definitions. They should understand methods for conduct of each type of fire and the means to do so and ammunition required. In class examine the norms tables and diagrams for each type of fire.

f. Main principles - Students understand Soviet principles are somewhat different from US Army. They will read the sections from Voroshilov lectures on front and army artillery. Instructor leads discussion to emphasize few main points. The students should know principles in order to establish policy for use of artillery when playing role of chief of artillery at front level.

7. Equipment/Materials:

The lectures will focus on theory as presented in the outside reading. The only required material is the student reading material and viewgraphs.

8. Homework: Read texts prior to class.

Reading list for the entire course is as follows:
- Bailey, J.B.A. Field Artillery and Firepower, Military Press, Oxford, 1989.
- Bellamy, Chris, Red God of War, Brassey's Defence Publishers, London, 1986.
- Defense Intelligence Agency, Soviet Armed Forces Military Symbols, AP 220 - 3 - 18 - 70 - INT, Washington DC. October 1970.
- Donnelly, C. N. The Winds of Change in Soviet Artillery, Soviet Army Research Centre, RMA, Sandhurst.
- Donnelly, C. N. etal. The Sustainability of The Soviet Army in Battle, Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandhurst, for SHAPE Technical Centre, Sept. 1986.
-Donnelly, C. N. etal. Soviet Military Map Marking, Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA, Sandhurst.
- Dunn, Timothy G. Soviet Operational Art: Artillery in Support of the Breakthrough, Defense Intelligence College paper, 27 February, 1989.
- Holthus, Captain Michael D. " Soviet Artillery, Myth Versus Reality", Field Artillery, April 1989, pp. 10-14.
- Isby, David, Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army, Janes', New York, 1988.
- Jalali, A., Wardak, D., McJoynt, A., Franklin, K., and Sloan, J., Soviet Command and Staff Handbook, BCTP, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, 1990.
- Kardashevskiy, Supporting an Attack, Military Thought, 3-78, Moscow, Ministry of Defense.
- Kiselev, Col. V., The Development of Anti-tank Defense in the Postwar Years", Military History Journal, # 6, June, 1978 Moscow, Milistry of Defense.
- Lebedev, V. Y. Field Artillery Officer's Handbook, Moscow, Ministry of Defense, Sept 1984 in JPRS trans UMA 85-011-L, 1985.
- Lutsenko, V. and Teslenko, M. "The Artillery Commander's Decision", Voyennyy Vestnik, October 1978 Moscow, Ministry of Defense.
- Moon, Major, Alan B. "Silencing the Red God of War", Field Artillery, April 1989, pp 15-17.
- Novichkov, Col A. and Smetankin, Col S. "Consider Fire Capabilities", Voyennyy Vestnik, # 5, 1978, Moscow, Ministry of Defense.
- Orenstein, Harry, trans. and edit. Artillery Employment - Readings from the Polish Press, Soviet Army Studies Office, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, 1989.
- Peredel'skiy, Marshal Arty, G. Ye., Artillery Battalion in Combat, Ministry of Defense, Moscow, 1988, and 1984 edition in JPRS trans UMA 85-012-L May 1985. Excerpts transcribed and edited for this course by K. Franklin.
- U.S. Army FM 100-2-3 Soviet Army: Troop Organization and Equipment, Washington DC. July 1984, and Final Draft for new edition, November 1988.
- U. S. Army FM 100-2-1 The Soviet Army: Operations and Tactics, Washington DC. July 1984, and Coordinating Draft of September 1989.
- U. S. Army C&GS Battle Book, Student Text 100-3, Ft. Leavenworth, 1 April 1986.
- U. S. Army C&GS Soviet Artillery Doctrine RB 30 - 3, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, May 1976.
- Vainer, A. Ya. Tactical Calculations, Moscow, Ministry of Defense, 1982 trans. by JPRS.
- Vainer, A. Ya. Informatics in Military Affairs, Moscow, DOSAAF, 1989.
- Wardak, D. G. The Voroshilov Lectures Materials from the Soviet General Staff Academy, Washington DC. National Defense University Press, 1989.
- Wardak, D. G., Jalali, A., Sloan, J. Franklin, K., Edited Extracts from forthcoming volumes III and IV of The Voroshilov Lectures Materials from the Soviet General Staff Academy, prepared for this course.

9. Annexes:

Discussion Agenda

Lecture Notes

List of Viewgraphs



Course Introduction:

VG 1

Discuss purpose of entire course and agenda. Point out importance for students of reading materials over night prior to the practical exercises tomorrow.
2 min

Lesson I Introduction:

VG 2
Point out content of this hour and its place in the entire 16 hour course.
2 min

Principles of Artillery

VG 3-4
a. Role of artillery in contemporary operations and battle in nuclear war; in conventional war.

5 min

b. Future development of artillery

VG 5-6
--- speed of fire effect;
--- high precision munitions.

10 min

c. Type of artillery and their missions

VG 7-11
--- tube artillery:
--- guns;
--- howitzers;
--- AT guns;
--- mortars
--- rocket artillery

VG 12-13
--- tactical and technical capabilities of artillery pieces
--- fire power;
--- speed of effective fire;
--- maneuver;
--- basic load of ammunition.

10 min

d. Organization and structure of regiment, division, army, and front artillery (viewgraphs)

VG 14-27
--- class handout

10 min

e. Types of artillery fires (Each of the following types of fire is described. The description includes the purpose, method of conducting fires, and means and ammunition expenditure when required).

VG 28-38
---1. in terms of level of destruction of targets:
--- annihilation (table of norms);
--- suppression (table of norms);
--- destruction (table of norms);
--- harassment.

---2. in terms of method of fire
--- static barrage (diagram) - NZO;
--- rolling barrage (diagram) - PZO;
--- concentrating fire - SO (diagram);
--- successive concentration of fire - PSO (diagram);
--- fire curtain - OV (diagram);
--- massive fire - MO.

---3. in terms of fire support
--- fire strike;
--- fire preparation (prep fire);
--- assault support fire;
--- accompanying fire support.

10 min

f. Main principles of employment of artillery

VG 39




These general ideas may be discussed in connection with the changes in modern artillery and the important tactical characteristics of artillery as well as for elaboration on the more important terms and definitions. It is especially important to be sure the non-artillery men among the students get an appreciation for the requirement artillery has for performing continuous, precise mathematical calculations of where the guns are and where the targets are and what settings to put on the guns, etc.

Density of fire - rounds per minute on each target, means put that amount on target in density - requirements are found in tables;

Today - Soviets believe the sooner you put desired amount of fire on target the better - today can create same density in less time;
Reason - when start fire enemy won't stay but will take cover or move or conduct counter battery;

Soviets believe that maximum amount of ammunition must be delivered in first few minutes - sometimes deliver 1/2 or 1/3 total in first couple minutes.

After few minutes of fire no longer have advantages of surprise.

Some calculations - tank crew can recover from fire in thirty seconds and can take action in minute so action of target is creating more difficult for artillery.

Other factor is mobility of targets that enable escape, so density must be increased.

Enemy can locate artillery in two to three minutes and start counter battery in five to seven minutes - this will interfere with artillery plan - so must fire rapidly.

Calculation guns x number round per tube divided by time;

18 x 40=720 ÷ 10 min=72 rounds per min

or if 6 guns then 72 ÷6=12 rounds per tube

Can increase density in short time by increasing number of guns -also by using rapid fire mortars; increase battery from six to eight increase battalion from eighteen to twenty-four

Division and army artillery increased - then concentrate in smaller area and increase total by fifteen percent.

New organization of artillery and technical requirement matches.

Destruction means 70%-90% probability of kill of single target or to insure 50%-60% destruction of group target. This is destruction of target, artillery is often no longer capable annihilation

Suppression - suppress target - neutralizes for some time so it can't interfere - but target to get 30% of kill

Means casualties not less than 35% kill and weapons
--destruction of guns not less than 25%
--target out of action for some time. Minute to hours.

Harassment fire - undefined just some guns over time to harass enemy not defined with norms.

Massive fire - successive concentration of fire

Offensive rolling barrage and other kinds used for defensive purpose against counterattack or arrival of enemy reserves.

Concentration of fire - conducted by number of batteries against targets

Capabilities of units to conduct fire is different

VG on maximum effect dimensions of artillery

Shows capability of fire unit to fire on various targets. Take median in operational calculations.

Difference between gun/howitzer or howitzer/gun and howitzer - gun has some features that increase its range - but gun/howitzer has features that increase capability against targets in direct fire.

Concentration of fire is a method used other than in preparatory fire also during assault support fire in a different way, such as successive concentration fire in which the artillery battalions fire along lines.

Why does type of artillery preparatory fire change? - because of structure of enemy defense - understood as a system that is fixed at a certain depth for some time at beginning two hours little movement the two to three hours there will be more enemy movement - so understand that to depth of first-echelon battalion enemy is fixed in time and space. To depth of first-echelon battalions enemy has strong points - with depth of second line of strong points.

Beyond defense strong points is artillery position and brigade reserve - brigade reserve is mobile can move to engage - advance or occupy position - so tactical situation beyond the depth of immediate mission of battalion can change.

Depth of immediate mission of regiment - Assault support fire is conducted to this depth by successive concentration of fire or rolling barrage methods. Names of line of fire for wild animals.

As tank and infantry approach line 300-400 m artillery shifts to deeper line.

Sometimes artillery divided into two groups in order to fire on alternate lines. In rolling barrage higher density fire against more powerful defense.

Each section or line width 15 m per gun for calibers less than 100 mm or 25 m per gun weapons over 100 mm caliber;

Battery of 6 guns has 150 m of fire width against dense target defenses.

Always concern that speed of advance may not be the same along line - authority to shift fire delegated to regiment commanders because they know when to shift depending on speed of advance. There are special formula and nomograms developed to aid in the critical task of adjusting the shift of the barrage lines to stay just ahead of the advancing troops.

After this phase the advance varies in speed, some regiments go fast, some slower in defense, some shift to flanks to destroy encircled enemy.

The kind of tactical action changes with the depth of battle, so artillery support changes to accompanying fire. In this support one artillery battalion shifts into support of one rifle or tank battalion. - The artillery fire is conducted by concentration of fire

In offensive operation some fire meant for defensive purpose - to interdict enemy reserve, which will be trying to interfere with our attack. For this the artillery uses NZO, standing fire barrage, or PZO fire more calculated rolling fire barrage. Rolling barrage starts and inflicts casualties on enemy as enemy moves - either into our defense or when enemy defense moves to counterattack our offense.

Calculate where and when to start and shift this fire.

Depends on enemy tactics and speed and capability of artillery to fire. Start is where enemy deploys but not at a depth where accuracy and effect of fire is not high. When is time enemy deploys into platoon column, that is 3-4 km from FEBA or our advancing troops. Observed fire for rolling barrage - if unobserved then use concentration of fire.

Have to see area - enemy moving in columns toward counterattack.

The fire is on a line - fire on a line for length of time till enemy can clear area.

Norm for attackers is 50 m between tanks - 1.5 min in a line as enemy platoon deploys.

Capability of 152 howitzer - 5 rounds in first minute - battalion fire 90 rounds in 1 minute fire before enemy reaches area.

After fire on first line - prepare to fire on second line. This depends on reaction time of artillery. In other words the distance reduction in the setting of the sights for the subsequent fire line depends on the time it takes to change the settings and start the new fire and the distance the attacking enemy can cover during that time. The idea is to continue each new fire line at a timing appropriate to keep the moving enemy under fire continuously.

Show VG on average reaction time 3-6 min so 400 m - so set second line at distance so you can fire on it.

Have to adjust fire to what enemy reaction is. If the enemy stops or changes rate of movement or turns then artillery fire must be switched and adjusted accordingly. Base plan on best guess then adjust to match what enemy does.

Last line of PZO becomes final fire NZO

Standing fire barrage - purpose to cut infantry from tanks - fire to force infantry to take cover while tanks move on

Fire limit by time constraint by how long enemy stays - it moves so you must shift


Changes in Soviet artillery toward increased density of fire in shorter time by using more guns is due to the following:
--- high proportion of moving targets are difficult to locate;
--- constant and rapid relocation of artillery itself required to support high speed offensive movement;
--- high and changing rates of advance which artillery is supporting;
--- enemy counter battery becoming more effective with advanced munitions;
--- locating enemy artillery becoming more difficult;
--- need to destroy nuclear systems quickly.

The Soviet response is to reduce the length and increase the fire density of the artillery fire, especially the preparatory fire. The emphasis is on suppression of defenders to prevent them from using their weapons during the critical period while the attackers are closing; rather than on destruction, which in many cases cannot be achieved due to the huge quantities of ammunition required. Suppression is enhanced by a higher density of shells during a relatively shorter period, rather than more total shells delivered over a longer period. The higher density of fire is achieved by the increase in the number of guns from 6 to 8 in the battery and also by using an entire battalion instead of one battery as the firing element. However, firing by battalion instead of battery reduces some flexibility and is not as effective in broken terrain.

During accompanying fire phase the artillery must relocate quickly and continue to provide support. The faster the rate of advance the more time is spent in relocation instead of firing, but then if the rate of advance is already fast presumably not so much artillery fire is being required anyway. Nevertheless, Soviets have introduced more self-propelled artillery in order not only to increase its rate of movement,t also to reduce the time spent in coming into action.

Artillery plan is effort to make things more efficient, but it is a blueprint which will require continuous amendment as the battle progresses.

Battalion commanders of artillery and infantry operate together.

Battalion has forward OP post or flank fire OP too.

Maneuver capability of artillery -
one criteria of artillery is maneuverability
-- capability to go cross-country
--speed to deploy
-- prepare position and evacuate
--process, method, and equipment to help artillery to fire quickly
--important in meeting engagement

Division and army level norm - required to prepare 6-8 hours
--excluding movement 2 hrs of daylight to confirm targets.

Norm to reorganize artillery 2-3 hour brief preparation during engagement.

Sometimes if division meets strong resistance, division can't penetrate from line of march as it closes with enemy, then artillery must conduct this preparation before combined arms assault takes place.

All this depends on capability of artillery - if SP guns then capability is greater than towed artillery.

VG Norms for artillery to move:
--shows 122 152 BM-21 times to move etc.

In specific situations do calculations as follows:
--T=60 x D ÷ V + T1 + T2
--T=time to relocate;
--T1 time exit position T2 time to occupy position.

These formulas are in the Handbook Chapter Five on Norms and Calculations.

Tactical norm for relocation of artillery is to move three to four kilometers at a time.

Reason - to reduce time artillery is not able to fire so three to four kilometer move ok
-- if move longer distance then gap in artillery coverage will develop, if move less distance then time to go in and out becomes to great to make shift worthwhile.

At operational level plan everything including movement in terms of days, not hours.

--T=60 min x 4 km + 11 min. + 23 min.
-- 20 km/hr

--T=12 + 11 + 23=46 min.

This shows forty-six minutes to relocate D-30 for 4 km move.

When to deploy depends on where friendly troops are and range to targets.

Deliver as much ammunition as possible at beginning of fire for surprise - can't avoid counter battery completely.

Artillery can't fire continuously so can't make a norm on when to move.
-- how soon one has to move artillery depends on many factors.
-- T=[(D - d) ÷ V - (D - d) ÷ Vc ] - T;

D=range of gun;
-- d=distance to targets;
-- V=speed of own forces attack;
-- Vc=speed of artillery in relocate;
-- T=time in and out of position.

So this formula shows when to move artillery in relation to speed of troops advance.
-- range 14 km distance own troops 8 km;
-- speed of own troops 4 km/hr;
-- Vc=20 km/hr.
--70 - 34=36 min. T=[(14 - 8) ÷ 4 - (14 - 8) ÷ 20] - 34;

Means you can stay in area thirty-six minutes and still cover enemy - so after one and a half hours can't cover and have to move, but have to plan ahead and move on time

Leapfrog whole battalion in favorable situation

-- or by batteries in less favorable position
-- in SP guns less time to go in and out of position.

SP guns in contingencies Sp gun can stop any time and go into position - but other aspects of preparation is same.

Idea is to have some guns always ready - episodes
- - commitment of second-echelon of regiment and division and army
---repelling counterattack of enemy
--- reserves at all levels
--- crossing river
--- changing directions
--- sea landing air landing
--- combat in depth
---move between episodes

Operational level use broad norms and don't make all the detailed calculations.

Detailed planning done at division artillery staff level, but army staff does some general plans for breakthrough.

If there is an operation against a very strong defense the operation level does have to do more detailed planning.
-- - at lower level - battalion - battery - use many formulas, nomograms, and norms.

Use of norms standard - gives way to justify argument.

But argument will develop over realism of situation norms.

In nuclear war main role is destruction by nuclear weapons -
--but in conventional war artillery is more important
--but even in nuclear war there are roles for artillery
--VG shows areas where artillery supplements nuclear weapons.

Yield of division nuclear warheads was 3 kt; army 20, 40, and 100 kt. Security distance was as shown in the table in Handbook. A night distance increase, so artillery used in close area to own troops.

VG factors determining composition of front artillery

Formations in front will have artillery so that affects what VGK needs to give.

VG factors from GS
-- missions of front - if it has mission that needs artillery at beginning of war then it will have VGK artillery if front is in depth for second-echelon it doesn't need artillery

Nature of enemy - if it conducts offensive or is weaker or stronger - etc. will affect amount of artillery given to front.

Deployment of other means such as air power used to destroy enemy and establish air superiority.

VG manner of front equipped
-- 5,000 guns etc. - total

VG on organization of artillery in units

Will plan use of artillery and antitank artillery reserve too.

In 1980's bad idea to give a division a 160 mm mortar battery - give 160 mm battery to regiment in main direction.

Frunze books showed 160 mm in division

AT battery can cover 1 to 1.5 km front which is frontage of attack of one tank battalion.

VG division artillery regiment

With eight guns instead of six you have choice of increasing area of fire or reduce time of fire and still come up with same density-
--or could increase density.

Really increase in number of guns is just to stay even with increase in requirement for artillery.

Increase is like inflation to keep artillery even with increase need for it.

VG division antitank battalion

VG army artillery brigade - 96 guns

VG army antitank regiment

VG army multiple rocket launchers

VG Front doesn't have organic artillery but front is given 2-3 artillery divisions.

VG on missions of artillery
-- shows list of missions
--enemy nuclear delivery means is priority target

Artillery used in initial phase to suppress and destroy enemy as he deploys forward.

So artillery deploys at early stage in border areas.

Some artillery units must move forward to get in range to destroy enemy tactical nuclear means early.

Initial phase of war form may change if enemy takes offense then artillery mission is to stop enemy.

Another mission is to support deployment.

When front passes through security area - lead division uses forward detachment - artillery part of forward detachment and main artillery is prepared to provide artillery preparatory fire.

Three main factors in meeting engagement to gain initiative
-- overtake enemy in open fire;
-- overtake enemy seize critical terrain;
-- overtake enemy deployment.

So artillery important in meeting engagement.

Once you deploy first, you are in position to strike enemy.

Use forward detachment supported by artillery to seize area etc.

Artillery is at head of column be ready to deploy quickly and be ready to fire.

Requirement for higher density of fire in shorter time.

Short time available to hit enemy quickly with heavy fire.

Support breakthrough -
-- very important mission - how to achieve density
-- assault supporting fire

Support crossing water obstacles - key time for using artillery.

Division crossing river moves on wide front
--enemy resistance is at the river.

Final preparation for crossing is 1.5 km from river will take 3 - 4 hours to cross.

Forward detachment moves early seize crossing prevent enemy from preparing defense.

Advance guard moves to river.

Artillery battalion is with forward detachment must occupy area 3 - 4 km from river to be ready to cover crossing of river
-- when forward detachment reaches river
-- 20-30 minutes to take to prepare to cover crossing
-- so artillery must be ready early when forward detachment reaches river.

Counterblow - operational term - for major counterattack.

Support second-echelon will discuss in detail.

Support consolidation of seized area

Cover open flanks etc.

VG on ammunition expenditure norm against unobserved stationary targets.

Principles of Contemporary Employment of Artillery in Offensive Operations:

1. Mass use of artillery on the most important axis of the front:

One of the most important principles of military art is concentration of forces and means on the axis of the main attack and on the most decisive direction with the objective of attaining decisive superiority over the enemy. This will lead to his rapid destruction to attain the objective of the operation. An indicator of the massive use of forces and means is their concentration on the axis of the main attack. Designation of the location for the main strike in the operation has a very important significance. In operations without the use of nuclear weapons on the direction of the main attack, the concentration of the large mass of main forces on a relatively narrow front will create a favorable opportunity to quickly break open the defense and rapidly move into the depth of enemy territory. The narrower the strike front and greater the concentration of forces, the quicker the breakthrough and success in penetration. On the axis of main attack the most important role is played by the artillery and rocket forces. The artillery is capable of inflicting decisive destruction on the enemy personnel and firing means in a brief time. The greater the quantity of artillery the greater the capability to inflict destruction on the enemy in a short period, so that the enemy cannot reorganize and recover. Therefore on the axis of the main attack in the breakthrough sector the Soviet Army concentrates massive artillery (such as the army artillery group, divisional artillery groups, and regimental artillery groups). But it is important to know that concentration of a great mass of artillery on a narrow front is a very dangerous act in the face of possible nuclear strikes. This demands that the artillery concentrate during a minimum short time and with the accomplishing of measures for maskirovka. After accomplishing the mission, it must be quickly dispersed.

2. Interaction with the motor rifle, tank and airborne forces:

The organization of interaction is the coordination of the actions between elements of the combat operational formation by missions, targets, lines, axes, and in time. This is one of the main principles. Important elements of the operational formation of fronts and armies are the motor rifle, tank, artillery, and air forces. With the objective of obtaining success in the operation close interaction in the fulfillment of the most important missions between the motor rifle, tank, artillery, and air forces is one of the most important requirements of operational art. Interaction between motor rifle and tank forces and the artillery is organized during the breakthrough of the enemy, during the commitment of the second echelon, during repelling enemy counterattacks, during forcing water crossings, and during other important missions. In these situations the commander exactly designates the missions of each operational element at each stage in accordance with time, and location. Observance of this principal guaranties successful fulfillment of the issued mission.

3. Constant support by artillery fire of the attacking forces:

This principal is achieved by suppression and destruction of the personnel and fire means of the enemy in front of the attacking forces during the operation. It is done with the following aims:
-- preventing enemy from establishing a fire control and observation system during the offensive;
-- suppressing the enemy personnel and fire means;
-- supporting attackers constantly during the operation;
-- maintaining fire superiority over the enemy;
-- suppressing enemy maneuver of personnel or weapons;

These requirements create good conditions for rapid force movement during the operation.

4. Strong and continuous control of fire and maneuver:

This is an activity of the command and staff of the artillery for timely and effective employment of fire, which is controlled for the fulfilling fire missions . It consists of the following:
-- designating the character and coordinates of the targets;
-- clarifying the fire missions and conditions for their accomplishment;
-- issuing the missions to the artillery formations and units;
-- delivering, stopping, and coordinating fire and monitoring the results of fire ;
-- conducting fire maneuver;

Control of fire has specific characteristics in accordance with the type of weapons, and means and conditions for their use.

Maneuver of fire: This is shifting fire of sub-units, units, and formations of artillery in accordance wit the width of front and depth during the operation (battle) from one target (line, region) to another target (line, region) without changing the firing position.

They employ massive fire or concentration fire on selected targets with the objective of assured suppression or destruction in a short time period. Or they employ divided fire at one time at a number of targets with the aim of inflicting losses.




The definitions of the various methods of fire employed by Soviet artillery are shown in the alphabetical list below. The following are some of the more important types of artillery fire and their uses.

Fire on an individual target (ogon' po otdel'noy tseli). Fire of a battery, troop or gun which is carried out independently by indirect or direct fire.

Defensive fire (zagraditel'nii ogon'). A continuous fire curtain which is either static, i.e. located on one target (NZO - ne podvizhnii zagraditel'nii ogon') or successive, i.e. on several features in succession (PZO - posledovatel'nii zagraditel'nh ogon'.

Concentration of fire (sosredotochenniy ogon') (SO) - fire which is carried out simultaneously by several batteries (divisions) on one target or line.

Successive concentrations of fire (posledovatel'noye sosredotocheniye oghnya (PSO) - single, double or treble. PSO are used for the support of an attack or counter-attack by MR or tank sub-units by concentrations of fire successively switched from forward targets to targets in the depths of the enemy position. This is the main method of suppressing a modern anti-tank defense position.

Barrages (ognevoy val) (single or double) are used to support an attack when the enemy defense has a dense set of trenches making it difficult to determine the exact position of strong point. They are also used in the breakthrough of a fortified area. The barrage is a continuous fire curtain which is successively switched from line to line immediately in front of the attacking sub-units.

Rolling barrage - a continuous curtain of fire laid on successive predetermined lines at specified intervals in advance of attacking troops and on the axis of their advance.

Double rolling barrage - as above, but laid on two lines simultaneously, moving by leapfrog.

Heavy burst of aimed fire - a surprise, high density salvo (strike) followed by a steady bombardment during which the predetermined quantity of ammunition is fired over a fixed time period.

Fire strike- concentrated, massed fire of high density for a relatively short period of time, and on a very large scale.

Ricochet fire (rikoshetnaya strel'ba)- shells impacting at angles of 2 to 25 degrees with a delayed fuze setting, timed so that the shell bounces and burst at 3-4m height, giving maximum shrapnel beaten zone.
Direct fire (pryamoy navodkoy) - all modern Soviet field guns and howitzers are equipped for direct fire and carry shaped charged projectiles. A very high proportion of artillery support to an offensive will be by direct fire. "Direct fire" by mortars means that the target is in view of the weapon.

Running fire - a series of volleys.

Harassing fire (ognevoye nablyudeniye) shells landed sporadically - approximately 1 per minute per hectare - on the target to prevent troop movement in the open and lower the morale of the enemy.

Fire ambush (kinzhalnyy ogon') A surprise, dense and rapid burst of direct fire from close range from any type of weapon, including small arms.

In the course of the artillery support of the attack (counter-attacK) and the `in-depth' battle the safe distance of shells from own troops on average is: tube artillery - MR sub-units attacking on foot (400m); MR sub-units attacking in BMP (300m); tank sub-units (200m); all troops (100m).

ARMISKI ARTILLERISKAIA GROUPA (AAG) Army artillery group - The army artillery group is organized for the accomplishment of missions in support of the main forces of the army in the operation, including combat with the enemy's tactical nuclear means and artillery; inflicting losses on enemy reserves and command posts; and supporting the first echelon divisions in the direction of the main attack. Depending on the number of first echelon divisions operating on the direction of the main attack, the army artillery group can be divided into several subgroups. The number of artillery battalions in the army artillery group can be eight to ten or more. In addition a reactive artillery group can be established at the army level.

ARMISKI GROUPA REACTIVNIA ARTILLERIA (AGRA) Army rocket artillery group - In order to use the enormous capability of rocket artillery organic to the artillery division reserve of the supreme high command, a separate rocket artillery group is established in the army for central use in the direction of the army's main attack. It provides for rapid maneuver of artillery in the directions required to conduct missions for inflicting maximum losses on the main grouping of the enemy.

ARTELERISKOI SOPROVOZHDENIA Artillery accompanying fire - Artillery accompanying fire is an artillery combat action during the development of the attack in the depth of the enemy defenses. It is conducted by artillery and rocket strikes with non-nuclear warheads to inflict losses on newly detected targets and surviving enemy troops, which hamper the advance of the attacking troops. Artillery accompanying fire is part of accompanying fire. It begins at the end of the artillery assault support fire and continues to the accomplishment of the combat mission by the troops. During the artillery accompanying fire, artillery preparatory fire and artillery assault support fire can be conducted at specific junctures such as at the prepared defensive lines in the depth of the enemy defenses, which are to be penetrated on the march, the participation in repelling enemy counterattacks, support of the action of airborne troops, commitment of the second echelon troops into combat, etc. Accompanying fire is conducted by methods of concentration of fire(SO), and massive fire (MO) or by fire with artillery platoons, batteries, and battalions on call by the combined arms commander.

ARTILLERISKAIA PODGOTOVKA Artillery preparation - Artillery preparation for the attack is a direct combat action of the artillery prior to the assault of the infantry and tanks. It is conducted to destroy (to suppress) and to annihilate enemy targets. The artillery preparatory fire is a pre-organized fire to deprive the enemy of his capability to resist against the attacking troops. The artillery preparatory fire is part of the assault preparation fire. It begins at a specific time and ends on the arrival of the attacking subunits at the assault line. The duration and structure of artillery preparatory fire is determined by the concept of the operation (combat), grouping of the troops, characteristics of the enemy defense, required degree of inflicting losses on the enemy, and also the nature of missions conducted by the air force, rocket troops, and other elements. The duration of the preparatory fire during an attack from the march includes the time from the deployment of the units into battalion columns until they reach the assault line. In an attack from direct contact with the enemy the duration of preparatory fire is determined by the number of targets to be destroyed or by the width of the penetration area and the nationality of the enemy. Preparatory fire consists of one or several fire strikes for a duration of 20 to 40 minutes or more. During penetration of the enemy defense in the depth of his defenses and during the commitment of the second echelon troops into combat (engagement) and during the conduct of counterattacks (counterblow), its duration can be 10 to 30 minutes.

ARTILLERISKAIAY GRUPA Artillery group - The artillery group includes artillery sub-units, units and formations organized in a group during combat (operations) to conduct missions in support of combined arms and tank units (formations and operational formations) and controlled by an unified command. The artillery group is under command of the commander of the combined arms unit, formation, and operational formation. The composition of the group depends on the size of the penetration area (breakthrough area), nationality of the defending troops, support requirements, the number of battalions in each group, the number of targets, and the missions to be accomplished to destroy the targets by artillery. The composition of an artillery group can be changed during combat (operation).

ARTILLERISKAYA PODERSHKA Artillery assault support fire - Artillery assault support fire is an artillery action at the beginning and during the conduct of the assault by friendly troops, which inflicts direct and continuous losses on the enemy by fire in front and on the flanks of the attacking troops to create the conditions for their uninterrupted advance. At the same time it continues to inflict losses on targets in the depth of the enemy defenses. The artillery assault support fire begins after the end of the artillery preparatory fire. The principle methods of assault support fire are: - posledovatelnii sosredochenia ogon (PSO) successive concentration of fire simultaneously on one or two lines; - ognavoi val (OV) rolling fire simultaneously on one or two lines combined with concentration of fire;- sosredochenia ogon (SO) concentration of fire on call by the commanders of attacking subunits. The artillery assault support fire during the attack is coordinated with the advance of the motorized rifle and tank battalions (regiments).

ARTILLERYIA RESERVA VERHOVNAYA GLAVNAKOMDOVANIA Artillery reserve of the supreme high command - These are artillery units and formations not organic to combined arms formations and operational formations. Their armament is similar to that of the combined arms troops' artillery and also includes high powered (heavy) and special guns (175 to 240mm). These troops are assigned to reenforce combined arms operational formations, formations, and units operating on the main direction.

AVIATSIONNAIA PODERZHKA Air Support - Air Support is a kind of air force support conducted to support the assault of the troops. It is a kind of combat action of the air force in support of the combat formations and large units of the ground forces in operations or battle. It is part of the supporting fire of the attack. Air support begins when the troops initiate the assault. It is conducted by frontal aviation. Air support suppresses or destroys the enemy's nuclear delivery means, immediate reserves, command posts, strong points, weapons, and other targets. Small and mobile targets and targets out of range of the artillery are suppressed by air support.

AVIATSIONNAIA PODGOTOVKA Air Preparation or Air Preparatory Fire - Air Preparatory Fire to support the assault of the troops is a kind of combat action of the air force which is carried out before the commencement of the assault by ground forces in order to inflict casualties on the enemy; it is an integrated part of the preparatory fire of the attack and is simultaneously conducted with the artillery preparatory fire. In the air preparatory fire the frontal aircraft, army and sometimes long range or strategic aircraft participate. The air preparatory fire attacks primarily the enemy's nuclear delivery means, command posts, tanks, artillery and their assembly areas, defensive strong points, defensive areas, enemy aircraft on the airfields and the airfields themselves, and crossing sites. In the air preparatory fire the small and mobile targets and the targets which are out of the range of the artillery are suppressed by the air force.

AVIATSIONNOE SOPROVOZHDENIE Accompanying of ground forces by the air force - A type of support by the air force conducted in support of the attacking troops and in constant cooperation with the troops in the depth of enemy defenses by launching air attacks on enemy nuclear delivery means, enemy reserves, tanks, rockets and artillery systems and enemy's defensive strong points. It is part of the accompanying fire during the offensive operation.

DIVISONIA ARTILLERISKIA GROUPA (DAG) Division artillery group - The divisional artillery group is organized and assigned to combat the enemy's tactical nuclear means, artillery, and mortars; to inflict losses on the immediate enemy reserves, radio-electronic means, and command posts; and to reenforce the fire of regimental artillery groups operating on the direction of the main attack of the division. The divisional artillery group includes several artillery battalions of the same or different calibers. There can be 4 to 6 artillery battalions or more.

BEGLII OGON' Rapid Fire - Fire conducted from one or several guns at the maximum rate without disrupting the fire regime (schedule). Speed is more important than accuracy.

MASSIROVANNYI OGON' Massive Fire - Massive fire is a type of artillery fire with all or the most part of the artillery organic to the large unit conducted simulanteously to inflict losses on the enemy targets in the shortest possible time. Targets can be fired singly or simultaneously distributed among the artillery groups or units and battalions.

METODICHESKII OGON' Battery Fire - Fire conducted at a single command with equal and specific intervals between fires.

OGNEVOE SOPROVOZHDENIYE. Accompanying Fire - Accompanying fire inflicts losses on the enemy by fire during the course of the attack. It includes artillery fire, rocket and air strikes in the course of the attack of the sub-units, units and large units of combined arms in the depth of enemy defenses. Accompanying Fire inflicts continuous losses on the enemy by fire to destroy its personnel and equipment opposing the attacking forces. It also inflicts losses on the immediate reserves of the enemy. Accompanying fire is conducted following the assault supporting fire, that is it begins after the termination of the assault supporting fire and continues through the entire depth of the assigned mission.

OGNEVOI VAL. Fire Barrage - Fire barrage is a continuous fire screen on one or two lines conducted simultaneously in front of the attacking forces which is advancing into the enemy defenses. The fire is conducted and moved into the depth of enemy defenses successively in accord with the advance of the attacking forces. The artillery barrage is a type of fire and also a method of artillery support of the attack. This fire is prepared during the penetration of the enemy defenses. It is conducted on principal lines and intermediate lines. The shifting of fire from one line to another is conducted in accord with the signal of the attacking forces battalion and regiment commanders.

OGNEVOI UDAR. Fire Strike - Short term attack on targets or groupings of enemy troops by conventional weapons to inflict losses at a specific level and specific time.

OGNEVOI NALYOT Fire Attack - Form of artillery mission characterized by surprise and maximum density of rounds. Duration of the attack can be specified or unspecified. The fire is conducted at maximum rate (beglii ogon') or according to a schedule (metodicheskii ogon').

POLKAVAYA ARTILLERISKIA GROUPA (RAG) Regimental artillery group - The regimental artillery group is assigned to inflict losses on enemy personnel, mortars and other weapons deployed in the first enemy defensive position (first echelon battalion) or in their immediate rear. The regimental artillery group is established from several artillery battalions, their number can be 3 to 4 or more.

POSLEDOVATEL'NYI SOSREDOTOCHENNYI OGON' Successive Concentration Fire - Successive concentration fire is a type of artillery fire conducted during the support of the assault, that is assault supporting fire in support of motorized rifle and tank units. This fire is conducted to destroy any personnel equipment, tanks, and other equipment of the enemy in front of the attacking forces and on their flanks. These targets are engaged successively. The successive concentration of fire is conducted on predesignated areas which are to be suppressed. One or several disclosed specific targets of the enemy are included in each of these areas or targets.

PROTIVOTANKOVI RESERVE (PTR) Antitank reserve - The antitank reserve is antitank artillery units (subunits) assigned to repel the attacks (blows) of enemy tanks, to reenforce the antitank defense on the most important directions, and to conduct combat against enemy tanks during the battle. Its composition includes in addition to artillery troops, other means such as mobile obstacle detachments, flamethrowers, etc. The antitank reserve is established in the combined arms units, formations, and operational formations during all types of combat action. The antitank reserve is directly under the control of the commander. In the front the antitank reserve is organized of one or two antitank brigades of the front, or of the supreme high command. In the army the antitank reserve is organized of the army antitank regiment or front antitank brigade. In the division the antitank reserve is organized of the divisional antitank battalion or the army antitank regiment. In the regiment the antitank reserve is organized of the division antitank battalion or antitank guided missile battery.

SOSREDOTOCHENNYI OGON' Concentration Fire - Concentration fire is a kind of artillery fire conducted simultaneously by several batteries or several artillery battalions or ships on one or a group of targets. The field artillery is assigned concentration fire areas in the context of prepared plans. The battery and battalion conduct the concentration of fire on one target or one area.

ZAGRADITEL'NYI OGON' Blocking fire - Blocking fire is a type of artillery fire conducted on specific lines of terrain on the front and flanks units and subunits of the operating in a defensive action. This fire is preplanned and prepared in the course of a defensive operation. This fire is conducted in order to inflict losses and casualties on enemy infantry and tank units and to prevent their attack against the lines supported by artillery. The Zagraditel'nyi Ogon' is conducted by the regimental artillery groups and divisional artillery groups. These fires are prearranged and prepared by regimental artillery groups and divisional artillery groups and it is conducted at a specific time. Zagraditel'nyi Ogon' is classified in two types, fixed (nepodvizhnyi) Zagraditel'nyi Ogon' and mobile (nodvizhnyi Zagraditel'nyi Ogon'. Nepodvizhnyi Zagraditel'nyi Ogon' is the highest density of artillery fire used to stop the movement of the enemy, that is to repel its attack and counter-attack at the specific lines selected beforehand. Nepodvizhnyi Zagraditel'nyi Ogon' is prearranged and prepared and it is conducted at the specific time by guns using prearranged data of fire. The other type is Podvizhnyi Zagraditel'nyi Ogon' is a kind of artillery fire used in defense to repel the assault and attack of the enemy tanks and infantry troops by inflicting casualties on them and to prevent the advance of the enemy to the main defensive line. This fire is conducted continuously along specific lines; the method is to shift fire from one line to another successively. The lines are preselected on the most dangerous direction of tank attack.




VG 1- Course Outline

VG 2- Lesson I outline

VG 3- Role of artillery

VG 4- Missions of artillery in Front

VG 5- Future trends in artillery

VG 6- Capabilities of artillery

VG 7- Artillery types

VG 8- Norms for selected targets

VG 9- Norms table (Operational norms)

VG 10- Norms table

VG 11- Norms table

VG 12- Weapons characteristics

VG 13- Table of weapons characteristics

VG 14- 27 Artillery organization charts

VG 28- Artillery definitions

VG 29- Missions of artillery during preparatory fire

VG 30- Groups participating in conduct of artillery preparatory fire

VG 31- Structure of artillery preparatory fire

VG 32- Targets for assault support fire

VG 33- Methods for assault support fire conducted during attack against enemy first-echelon battalion positions

VG 34- Forms of accompanying fire conducted on targets resisting the attacking troops

VG 35- Norms for preparatory fire in support of second echelon

VG 36- Operational norms of the density of the artillery

VG 37- 38 Diagrams of barrage fire and concentration fire

VG 39- Principles of artillery




I Principles of Artillery 1 hour

II Staff Procedures 1 hour

III Documents and Maps 1 hour

IV Practical exercise front plans 4 hours

V Practical exercise army plans 5 hours

VI Practical exercise division plans 4 hours






Role of Artillery

Trends and Developments

Types of Artillery

Organization of Artillery

Definitions of Terms

Principles of Artillery Employment




Russian historical reliance on massed artillery "Queen of Battle"

Increased effectiveness brings increased application

Strategic nuclear rockets as kind of long range artillery

Conventional war brought return shift to massed artillery

Shift to self-propelled artillery




Increases in shell lethality, platform mobility, speed of maneuver, computer fire control systems, etc.;

Increased danger also from counter battery fire of enemy means complete fire quickly and move;

Reduced value of tanks further increased artillery value;

Integrated systems - reconnaissance strike and reconnaissance fire.




tube artillery
-- guns
-- howitzers
-- anti-tank guns
-- mortars

rocket artillery





rate of effective fire


basic ammunition load




in terms of level of destruction of targets
--- annihilation
--- suppression
--- destruction
--- harassment

in terms of method of fire
--- static barrage
--- rolling barrage
--- fire concentration
--- fire curtain
--- massive fire

in terms of fire support
--- fire strike
--- fire preparation
--- assault support fire
--- accompanying fire
--- overlapping fire

other terms











ARTELERISKOI SOPROVOZHDENIA Artillery accompanying fire -



ARTILLERISKAYA PODERSHKA Artillery assault support fire -

ARTILLERYIA RESERVA VERHOVNAYA GLAVNAKOMDOVANIA Artillery reserve of the supreme high command


AVIATSIONNOE SOPROVOZHDENIE Accompanying of ground forces by the air force -

BEGLII OGON'. Rapid Fire. -






OGNEVOI UDAR. Fire Strike -


OGNEVOI VAL. Fire Barrage -



. Successive Concentration Fire -



ZAGRADITEL'NYI OGON'. Blocking fire -




1. enormous fire power;

2. longer range;

3. accuracy of fire;

4. wide maneuverability;

5. capability to launch massive, concentrated fires quickly in great depths;

6. destroy various targets with a high rate of fire resulting in a high density of fire;

7. quick initiation (opening) of fire on targets;

8. high maneuverability provides for concentration of the bulk of the artillery on decisive directions quickly and discretely.




1. where nuclear weapons are not planned to be used;

2. where limited use of nuclear weapons is planned;

3. areas in the immediate vicinity of the line of contact with the enemy.






1. High Command: A total of 246 guns and mortars are included in these divisions.

2. Antitank Artillery Brigade of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command: Includes four battalions each composed of four batteries, three equipped with 100 mm or 125mm guns and one equipped with antitank guided missiles (nine in the battery). Total weapons in the brigade are as follows:

-- 100 mm guns - 72;
-- ATGM - 36.

3. Army's Artillery Brigade: Includes four artillery battalions with two battalions composed of 130 mm guns (thirty-six guns in two battalions) and two battalions of 152 mm howitzers (thirty-six howitzers in two battalions). The total number of artillery pieces in the brigade is seventy-two.

4. Army's Antitank Artillery Regiment: Includes three battalions, each with two batteries of 100 mm guns (twelve guns) and one battery of antitank guided missiles (nine in a battery). The number of weapons in the regiment totals sixty-three as follows:

-- 100 mm guns - 36;
-- ATGM - 27.

5. Artillery of Motorized Rifle Division:

-- division's artillery regiment;
-- two battalions of 122 mm howitzers each with eighteen howitzers, a total of thirty-six howitzers in two battalions;
-- one battalion of 152 mm howitzers with eighteen howitzers a total of fifty-four in the regiment.
-- divisions' separate multiple rocket launcher artillery battalion which is composed of three batteries, each battery having six BM-21 multiple rocket launchers, with a total of eighteen in the battalion.

6. Division Separate Antitank Battalions: Includes three batteries each composed of six 100 mm guns, a total of eighteen guns in the battalion.

7. Motorized Rifle Regiment's Artillery:
-- one battalion of 122 mm howitzers of eighteen howitzers;
-- one antitank guided missile battery of nine ATGMs;

8. Motorized Rifle Battalion's Artillery: Includes one battery of six 120 mm mortars and one antitank platoon, consisting of four ATGM weapons and two SGT-9 grenade launchers.





1. destroy and suppress enemy nuclear delivery means;

2. repulse enemy aggressions and destroy its groupings of forces which have penetrated friendly territory;

3. support deployment of first-echelon large units;

4. organize support of the passage of front forces through enemy covering forces;

5. destroy the enemy in meeting engagements;

6. support breakthroughs of enemy defensive lines;

7. support attacking forces during operations in the depth of the enemy defenses with assault supporting fire and accompanying fire;

8. support the front when crossing water obstacles;

9. participate in repulsing enemy counterblows (counterattacks);

10. support commitment of second-echelons of armies and the front in combat;

11. assist in destroying encircled enemy force groupings;

12. support consolidation of seized lines and areas;

13. cover gaps, open flanks, and boundaries across the front.





1. destroy enemy nuclear delivery means;

2. inflict sufficient losses on enemy artillery, mortars, antitank weapons, and his air defense batteries;

3. suppress enemy personnel in their defensive strong points;

4. destroy enemy troop control systems.




1. army artillery group;

2. artillery groups divisions and regiments conducting the penetration;

3. artillery of second-echelon divisions of the army;

4. reactive artillery (multiple rocket launchers) of the adjacent divisions to the penetration area.



1. two to three heavy fire strikes of 10-15 minutes with a density of 90-120 guns and mortars per km.




1. enemy artillery;

2. enemy personnel;

3. other enemy weapons;

4. enemy air defense artillery;




1. successive concentration of fire (PSO);

2. double successive concentration of fire;

3. rolling fire barrage (OV);

4. double rolling fire barrage;

5. a combination of these methods.

* In double method artillery is divided into two groups which fire on separate enemy lines.




1. concentration of fire (SO);

2. massive fire (MO).




1. preparatory fire lasts 30 min. with 2-3 heavy strikes;

2. density of fire is 40 -60 guns and mortars per km.

3. ammunition expenditure of .6 to .8 BK.




Operational norms for the density of artillery during preparatory fire to achieve sufficient losses on the enemy, (25-30% losses criteria), are established on the basis of the characteristics of enemy forces and given in terms of nationality and width of the penetration area. These are given in a table in the handbook for Soviet Planning Methods



Enemy Nationality Number of guns per km for given width of penetration area in km
4 km 6 km 8 km 12 km
U.S. Division 130 120 115 110
FRG Division 120 115 110 105
U.K. Division 115 110 105 100
Belgium & Holland Division 110 105 100 95




1. destroy and suppress enemy nuclear delivery means;

2. inflict losses on main groupings of enemy forces:
---- by massive fires from temporary positions during enemy movement toward the defense;
---- by massive fires from temporary positions during enemy deployment in assembly areas;
---- by counterpreparatory fires, massive fires, and concentration of fire from temporary positions on the enemy forces in their attack (FUP) positions inflicting heavy losses on enemy main groupings.

3. repulse enemy attacks with all systems of fire such as:
---- rolling barrage (PZO);
---- fixed barrage (NZO);
---- massive fires (MO);
---- concentration fires (SO).




4. inflict losses on the enemy during combat in the depth of the defense, preventing penetration of the enemy to the flanks by:
---- fixed barrage fire (NZO);
---- rolling barrage fire (PZO);
---- massive fire and concentration fire (SO).

5. inflict losses on the enemy during counterpreparatory fire which is conducted by:
---- one heavy fire strike;
---- short preparatory fire.

6. conduct assault support fire by:
---- successive concentration fire (PSO) on two to three lines;
---- mostly by massive fire and concentration fire in support of counterblows;

7. conduct accompanying fire by:
---- massive fire (MO);
---- concentration fire during the conduct of counterblows;

8. fight enemy artillery during combat actions to achieve fire superiority over the enemy on specific directions.




1. Regiment Artillery Groups (RAG): Established in regiments operating on directions of enemy main attacks or defending on main defensive directions.

2. Division Artillery Groups (DAG): Established in all divisions to assist regiments defending on directions of enemy main attacks and to inflict losses on enemy artillery and mortars.

3. Army Artillery Groups (AA): Established when sufficient artillery is available in the front and when enemy attacks are likely to be launched on specific directions and enemy attacks are expected to be conducted in narrower frontage.




1. massive use of artillery to foil enemy attacks and to inflict maximum enemy losses and concentration of fire power on directions of enemy main attacks and on movement routes, deployment lines, and attack positions (FUP areas) of the attacking enemy;

2. establish a barrage of dense fire of all types of fire means and fires of antitank weapons in front of the forward line (FLOT) on likely directions of enemy attacks and struggle against enemy tanks and nuclear weapons;

3. continue support of the combat action of defending troops during operations and during conduct of counterblows and counterattacks;

4. continue interaction with rocket troops, air force, motorized rifle, and tank forces in foiling enemy attacks.




1. Massive employment on important directions

2. Close interaction with motorized rifle, tank and air

3. Support attacking troops with continuous fire

4. Firm and continuous control of fire and maneuver




Lengthen duration of preparation fire

Increase location accuracy or correct fire by observation to decrease expenditure of rounds (A 25% decrease is permitted under these conditions).

Add guns, mortars, and MRL from:
---- second echelon units
---- army and front reserves

Use substitutes for some targets at short range.
---- small arms fire
---- tank fire

Move artillery closer to the front line to reduce the required norm and allow for higher rate of fire by using smaller charges.

Fire part of the norm during the advance to the concentration area, or during the support phase following the artillery preparation.

Use artillery or air strikes prior to the time of the attack.

Lower the criteria or fire ½ to ¾ of the norm against less critical targets.




Neutralization - temporary loss of fighting efficiency

Annihilation - total loss of fighting efficiency, and will continue in this state until restoration effort occurs

World War II experience:

Mathematical expectation of percentage of targets destroyed -
---- 20% - 25% neutralization of enemy batteries;
---- 50% - 60% annihilation of enemy batteries;
---- 70% - 90% destruction of an individual gun.

But, 80% of enemy batteries were found te be destroyed.

Mission Battery Battalion
Neutralizing a platoon strong point (with a 20-min artillery strike 150 x 150 m

2 ha

300 x 200 m

6 ha

Neutralizing a platoon strong point in a hastily occupied defensive position with a 15-min artillery strike 150 x 150 m

2 ha

300 x 200 m

6 ha

Destroying a launcher -- One target
Neutralizing towed arty deployed in open in 9-10 min One target Two-three targets
Neutralizing self-propelled unarmored or concealed towed artillery One target One-two targets
Neutralizing self-propelled armored artillery -- One target
Neutralizing batteries of air defense guided missile launchers -- One target
Neutralizing enemy personnel deployed in open in 3-4 min artillery strike 300 x 200 m

6 ha

400 x 400 m

16 ha

Stationary barrage fire (NZO) 300m 900m
Rolling barrage fire (PZO) 150m 450m
Successive concentrations of fire (PSO) One target or a strong point of 200 x 150m (3 ha) Two-three targets or strong point 300 x 300m (9 ha)
Fire curtain (Ognevoy val) (OV) 150m 450m
Laying smoke when the wind is: - toward enemy:

- in a crosswind








Number of Batteries required for range to target


< 10 10-15 km >15 km
1 Launcher A 2 3 6
2 Battery (plat) of towed cannon (mtrs) in open N 1 1 2
3 Battery (plat) of SP unarmored or covered towed cannon or mtrs N 1 2 3
4 Battery (plat) of SP armored cannon or mtrs N 2 3 4
5 Air defense guided missile battery N 2 2 3
6 Vehicle mounted radio or radar station, radar control point N 1 2 2
7 Motorized rifle company in assy area or on line of departure in the open N 3 3 3
8 Personnel and weapons in a plat strong point N 3 _ _
9 command post in the open (in vehicles)
a. -- battalion N 1 1.2 _
b. -- brigade, division N 2 3 3-6
10 Battalion command post in dugouts or cover N 3 3 _
11 Individual target (ATGM launcher, OP, etc.) N 1 _ _


Caliber 76 85 100 122 130 152 120 160
Barrages 18 16 12 8 6 6 6 4
Expenditure on basic and intermediate lines per minute on 100 meters of frontage

in a section of a barrage.

PSO 9 8 6 4 3 3 3 2
On one hectare of area of a group target in a minute.
PSO 18 16 12 8 6 6 6 4
On individual targets in a minute.



For shell expenditures against troops under cover

Caliber and system Coefficient w/o regard for preparation errors Coefficient including preparation errors
122-mm howitzer 1.0 1.0
85-mm gun 2.0 2.5
100-mm gun 1.5 1.8
122-mm gun 1.0 1.2
152-mm gun-how 0.6 0.7


Strong Point Dimensions

front x depth - ha

Range in kilometers
6 8 10 12 14
200 x 200 - 4 165 188 208 230 288
200 x 300 - 6 132 146 159 173 212
300 x 200 - 6 143 164 166 197 236
400 x 200 - 8 135 152 165 183 214
200 x 400 - 8 168 129 138 147 175
300 x 300 - 9 115 126 136 148 174
Average effective value 131 151 162 180 215
NORM 150 150 150 180 210

Note: 1 hectare (ha)=10,000 square meters in area


Norms for ammunition expenditure per hectare of strong point in a prepared defense, fired upon by a battalion of 152-mm howitzers.

Expenditure norms - ranges in km
Target Weapon 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
One battery 152mm how 136 169 237 317 480 _ _
152mm gun-how 112 178 226 278 410 532 702
130mm gun 82 143 218 328 412 610 740
Two batteries 152mm how 350 426 555 680 895 _ _
152mm gun-how 224 356 452 556 820 1064 1404
130mm gun 164 286 436 656 984 1220 1480
Two batteries 300m apart 152mm how 350 426 555 680 895 _ _
152mm gun-how 289 446 532 645 810 976 1116
152mm gun 212 346 512 724 960 1130 1330
All guns at one gun position 152mm how 168 209 273 364 528 _ _
152mm gun-how 136 215 260 336 458 582 752
130mm gun 100 161 256 386 538 664 790

Note: A dash indicates the weapon cannot fire to that range.



Fire capabilities, hectares/minute

Personnel under cover: Batteries in weapon pits;

Tanks and APC's

Personnel in the open and their weapons
120-mm mortar platoon 0.1 2
120-mm mortar battery 0.2 4
122-mm howitzer battery 0.2 2
122-mm howitzer battalion 0.5 - 0.6 5

Area example Hectares No of targets Total area
Division CP 8 - 12 ha 1 10
Brigade CP 6 ha 4 24
Battalion CP 4 ha 12 48
Radars 11 ha 1 11
Total 93


Capabilities for 20 min fire at area targets:

122 mm how 0.5
Bn 122 mm how 9
9 Bns 81 ha
Btry med MRL 12 1 Bn 12
10 Bns 93




Division: 12 - 20 km with 4 km breakthrough zone
Tactical density: 70-110 guns per km

Army Frontages km Bn/km Bns - min Bns - max
Breakthrough zone 12 4-6 48 72
Secondary zone 40 .5-.7 20 27
Front resources No. No. 120mm + arty Arty. totals Equivalent 18 weapon Bns.
MRD 6 198 1188 66
TD 3 144 432 24
Army 3 54 162 9
Front 1 336 336 19
Total 2116 118


Convert all targets for artillery group to norm or area (=rounds).


Target Class Criteria Number of targets Norm - rounds Total rounds
Missile launchers Annihilate 2 260 520
Artillery batteries Neutralize 6 380 2260
Mortar batteries Neutralize 12 430 5160
Strong point 4 ha Neutralize 20 20/ha 1600
Anti-tank wpns Neutralize 16 170 2720
Radars Neutralize 5 80 400
Command posts Neutralize 10 80 800
Other Neutralize 12 200 2400
Total 15880


Convert all weapons to equivalent 122mm howitzers. If preparation is half an hour, 80 rounds per weapon requires 11 battalions.

Location In a region of concentration In position On a deployment line
Front Depth Area Front Depth Area Front Depth Area
Infantry Platoon 200 200 4 200 - 400 150 - 200 4 - 8 300 - 400 100 - 200 4 - 8
Motorized Infantry Company 400 400 16 1000 1000 100 900 - 1000 400 - 500 35 - 60
Tank company 300 300 9 1000 300 30 1000 300 30
Battalion 4000 4000 1600 3000 2500 750 2000 - 2500 1000 - 1500 200 - 400

Approximate area of neutralization of artillery batteries and command posts.

--105mm or 155mm howitzer battery 1.5 - 2 ha
--203.2mm howitzer battery 2 - 2.5 ha
--Platoon of 106.7 (120mm) mortars 1 ha
--Radar station 1 ha
--Battalion command post 4 ha
--Brigade command post 6 ha
Division command post 8 - 12 ha


The amount of target area in hectares that a 122mm howitzer battalion can neutralize when firing at a range of 10 km or less. 100% of nor=150 rounds per hectare of target.

Time allowed for artillery strike in minutes 50% 75% 100%
Battalion Battery Battalion Battery Battalion Battery
5 4.0 2.0 4.0 _ 3.0 -
10 7.4 3.2 5.4 2.1 4.8 _
15 13.2 4.4 8.8 2.9 4.4 2.2
20 14.2 5.4 10.8 3.4 8.1 2.7