I. AIMS AND MISSIONS OF AIR DEFENSE IN DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS
The aims of air defense in front defensive operations are the following:
- timely detection of the aerial enemy;
- protecting and covering main forces and important rear service targets;
- providing air defense cover for troops during counterblows (counterstrikes)
and during counterpreparatory fire.
Air Defense Missions in Defense
Air defense missions in defense are the following:
- covering main groupings of forces, rocket and artillery troops, rear service
targets, and airfields against enemy air strikes during preparation and conduct
of defensive operations;
- detecting the aerial enemy an warning air defense about him;
- fighting enemy air assault forces in the air;
- covering troops during the conduct of counterpreparatory fire and during the
conduct of counterblows (counterstrikes);
- destroying enemy pilotless aircraft (drones) and manned aircraft.
II. SOME SPECIFICS OF AIR DEFENSE IN DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS
The fire system of the Front air defense
This system includes the areas of organized and controled combat action
(fireing) of air defense rockets and artillery organic to the Front and armies,
which are organized in a unified plan and coordinated with the air defense fire
system of divisions in accord with the concept of the operaiton, and the form
and directions of action of the air enemy vozduchnii
During the organization of the combat action of air defense rocket andartillery
formations, units and sub-units to cover the Front rear service troops
and installations, (when thefiresystem is being established) the grouping of
air defesnse means is established in conformity with the basic principles of
concentrating the main forces of the air defense to cover the main grouping of
the troops and critical establishments of the Front. The grouping of
Front's air defense troops is divided into two parts.
----- - one group is tasked to provide air defense for the first echelon
----- - the second group covers the rear installations in the depth
The air defense grouping assigned to cover the first echelon troops are
----- - inflict heavy losses on theair enemy along their directions ofapproach
to the troops at all altitudes
----- - be prepared and capable to repel those enemy air attacks which are
conducted with a high density
----- - to conduct the struggle against both tactical aircraft and enemy army
----- - to have the capability to become fully combat ready in a very short
time as the air enemy's flight is detected
The grouping of air defense rocket and artillery units should support the
creation of multi-layered destruction areas to destroy enemy air targets in
important areas. The outer line of the destruction area falls at a distance so
that the air enemy is destroyed before it reaches its targets.
The S-75 air defense rocket regiment of the Front which are assigned to
reenforce the air defense cover of first echelon troops deploy 10 - 20 km. from
the forward line of troops on one or two lines of air defense battalions. They
cover the troops' groupings and their position areas. The depth of the combat
formation of the air defvcense rocket regiment is up to 5 km if deployed in
battalion lines and 10 - 30 km if it deploys in grouping form. The minimum
distance between air defense rocket battalions should be such as to avoid
mutual interference and therefore for example 10 km. The maximum distance
should be limited to the capability of interaction and covering of the troops
in the destruction area and the need for reliable command and control therefore
it couldbe up to 30 km.
The command posts of the regiment is deployed in a favorable position suitable
for thecomand and control and normally in the center. Its maximum distance from
the battalions sould not be more than 20 km. The technical battalion is
deployed in one or two technical positiohns inthe rear of the regiment
positions at a distance of up to 30 km from the farthest battalion.
The combat formation used by a S-75 air defense rocket regiment which is
covering the operational rear services installations and a S-75 rocket regiment
covering the second echelon army is normally the grouping form. The grouping is
established in such a way that all of the air defense rockets could destroy
enemy air before they reach their targets. this can be achieved when the
distance between them 10 to 30 km. The distance of the battalions from the
installations should not be less than 5 km so that both are not destroyed by
the same medium nuclear rounds.
The Front S-125 air defense rocket regiment is primairly employed to cover air
fields of the nuclear armed aircraft. Each airfield is allocated two rocket
The air defense artillery divisions and regiments organic to the Front
are assigned to cover important targets of the Front and when necessary
they are assigend to reenforce the air defense of combined arms and tank
The separate air defense regiment organic or attached to the armies are
employed to cover army troops and installations.
The layout of air defense fire system should be mobile and its relocation
during the operation must be planned. The relocation should be conducted in
accord with the accomplishment of the mission by the troops and the time of
movement of covered targets. The relocation is conducted successively or
simultqaneoulsly. Theform of relocation during the operation can be reajusted
by the chief of Front air defense as required by thesituation.
In order to provide for the firmness of air defense fire system and its command
and control the positions of air defense means and the command posts are
prepared in terms of engineer works and the main positions alternative
positions and dummy positions are establihsed ,. Thecombat formation of air
derfense troops are widely dispersed. The material reserves are dumped and
Organization of cover by fighter aircraft
The combat employment of fighter aircraft is planned jointly by the air army
commander and the cheif of Front air defense on the basis of thedecision
of the Front commander.
In this process the method of repelling massive strikes of the air enemy and
particularly its initial strike are determined. Depending on the
characteristics of the enemy strike and those of the grouping of friendly
fighter aircraft, the interception line during aircraft commitment to combat,
the composition of different echelons of aircraft, the interception line of the
air enemy from air patrol positions, and the interception line from airfields;
on each likely direction of enemy flight are determined and the number and
areas of air patrols, the degree of combat readiness, and the method of
maneuver are specified.
The first line of commitment of fighter aircraft into combat from air patrol
positions can be forward of the front line. The subsequent lines of commitment
to combat are specified behind the first line at a distance to provide a
sufficient area to fight against the enemy air until it reaches the fire area
of air defense means. If such conditions cannot be provided the action of
fighter aircraft in the area of the air defense rockets with their interaction
or between the areas of action of the air defense rockets or in the rear of
these areas is provided for.
The combat action of fighter aircraft in the course of the operation is
organized by specifying the combat action areas for fighter aviation divisions.
the number of such areas depends on the number of fighter aviation divisions in
the Front air army.
Organization of troop control and interaction (coordination).
The control of air defense troops and means in Front offensive
operations is conducted to exercise constant control over theaction of the
troops and to direct their efforts in support of the accomplishment of assigned
air defense missions in the offensive operation.
For the troop control of air defense forces, the air defense command post is
established, which is mobile and always with the Front main command post
and considered as an integral part of it. The air defense command post includes
the following elements:
----- - combat conmtrol center
----- - center of collection and analysis of reconnaissance information and
warning of the troops
----- - signal center, composed of receiving and transmiting radios
In the air defense command post a 24 hour duty service is conducted by
alternate duty teams or by full combat staff. In order to provide for constant
air defense troop control, the required number of personnel with communications
means from the air defense command post is detached to establish a forward air
defense command post.
To control the action of the fighter aircraft a combat control center for the
air army fighter aircraft and also operational groups of air defense
operational formations and formations operating in the area are established in
the air defense command post. The following elements are established:
A combat control center of the air army is established in the air defense
command post of the combained arms and tank armies.
A group for combat control of the air is established in the command posts of
the infantry and tank divisions.
Guidance and target identification points are established with the command
posts of the air defense rocket units.
The control of the Front air defense troops is conducted by the
Front commander. He personally establishs the concept of the air defense,
determines the troops and means for each objective, issues tasks, and
The direct control of air defense troops during the repelling of enemy attacks
is conducted by the cheif of Front air defense.
coordination (interaction) of Front air defense troops with other air
defense troops and means
Interaction (coordination) of air defense is established at the Front
level and it is aimed at the most effective use of the combat capability of the
air defense to totally destroy enemy air targets on the axis of approach to
friendly troops and to cover installations.
The interaction (coordination) is a concerted and continuous effort of air
defense means coordinated in terms of objectives, time, place, and the forms of
accomplishment of combat missions.
Interaction between air defense rocket units and fighter aircraft
The interaction is established separately in their own areas and jointly in
their areas of common action.
While interacting in their separate areas the fighter aircraft operate in front
of, in the intervals between, at the flanks, or at the rear of the areas of
combat action of the air defense rocket units. In this form of action the
question of security of the fighter aircraft is not present. This form of
interaction is easy and the tasks to repel the enemy attack are more clear.
While interacting in a common area (the area of the action of air defense
rockets) the efforts of fighter aircraft and air defense rockets is divided in
terms of different altitudes, directions (secotrs), lines and targets.
The decision about where the interaction should be conducted and what forms in
the common area is made in the air defense command post of the Front
(army) normally by the beginning of repelling the enemy sorties after the
assessment of the characteristics of their flight.
The cheif of front air defense, along with the air army commander,
during organization of interaction between air defense troops and fighter
aircraft determines the following points;
----- - the form of combat action of fighter aircraft in different phases of
----- - the method of exchange of reconnaissance information on the air enemy
----- - adjustment of the combat action area of rocket troops and fighter
aivation, the area of patroling in the air, the interception lines of enemy
targets from air patrol positions and from the airfield positions
----- - the method of establishing form of fighter aircraft during repelling
enemy first massive strike and also the action of fighter aircraft and rocket
troops in one area.
----- - the action of air defense means and fighter aircraft to cover airborne
assault units in their assembly areas, embarkcation areas,during their flight,
and landing and in the course of their combat action, and the measures to
coordinate the actions of air defense means and fighter aircraft.
----- - the flight corridors of fighter aircraft
----- - the method of relocation of air defense troops and fighter aircraft and
their maneuver in the course of the operation which should be readjucted during
the conduct of the operation.
Interaction or coordination of Front air defense troops with the air
defense operational formations and formations of border Fronts (border
In establishing the interaction between them the following issues are
----- - coordinating the action of air defense troops and means which are
assigned to cover the Front troops and departure areas and in the attack
zone and the method of their action.
----- - determining possible maneuver of these troops in support of the
Front and the organization of the action of Front air defense troops
on the most important lines in the attack zone and their relocation and also
specifying the interception line for fighter aviation.
----- - resolving the question related to organization of the air defense of
Front supply routes after the advance of the troops, method of expanding
the air defense system in the wake of the Front attacking troops.
composition of operational groups and method of air attachment to coordinating
----- - specification of the method of employment of air defense radar system
in the interest of the Front.
----- - planning the combat action during combined operations (seaborne and
airborne assault operations)
(note: the control of air defense troops allocated for combined operations is
conducted by the Front commander and direct control of air defense
troops is exercized by air defense troop commanders and air defense chiefs of
the Front and army)
----- -specification of the method of interatction between air defense troops
and Front fighter aircraft with the air defense troops and fighter
aircraft of operational formations and formations
----- - determining the unified system of identification of friendly aircraft
Method of interaction and coordination between Front air defense
troops and the air defense troops of adjacent fronts.
In coordinating the action of air defense troops of the Front with air
defense troops of adjacents the following points are specified;
----- - method of mutual warning about the enemy
----- - composition of those fighter aircraft troops which are assigned to
operate in the area of adjacent fronts and the form of calling them in
----- - the airfields designated for landing of those fighter aircraft wich
operate in the area of the adjacent Front and their rear service support
----- - the method of flight of the fighter aircraft in the area of air defense
rocket troops and measures related to the questions of their security
----- - coordinating the position areas of air defense rocket troops of the
Front (army) to establish a reliable air defense on the common flanks
Organization of supply of air defense guided rockets
Supply of Front air defense troops with air defense rockets is planned
and organized on the basis of the allocated number of rockets allocated for the
operation. Therefore the requirements for rockets is assessed on the basis of
tasks in the operation and the reserve which should be available in the troops
at the end of the operation to support the future combat actions.
The distribution of rockets allocated for the operation is conducted by the
chief of the air defense troops of the Front, depending on the character
of the enemy actions and the significance of the direction of the attack the
number of allocated rockets to different formations is not the same, but at the
beginning of the initiation of the operation the air defense rocket troops
should have the maximum reserve of rockets.
During preparation for the operation the necessary plan documents are prepared
which will show the expenditure of different types of air defense rockets, and
instructions are issued about the supply, preparation, and maintenance of
During the preparation of the supporting measures about air defense rockets the
following points are specified, the areas of deployment of the air defense
rocket depots and the methods of their relocation, availability, supply,
distribution, and time of preparation of the rockets.
The chief of air defense troops along with the chief of rocket technical supply
service organize supply of rockets. The chief of air defense informs the
technical rocket service chief about the number of air defense rocket launchers
in the Front, their supply status with rockets, the areas of deployment
of technical battalions of air defense rocket regiments. Additionally the
method of supply of rockets, time of delivery, listing and number of rockets to
be resupplied, time and place of their delivery, directions of movement of
supply vehicles, and method of relocation of positions for air defense rockets
(add two tables)
air defense rockets andair defense artillery
IV. Conduct of Air Defense
The combat action of Front air defense forces and means is a collection
of measures conducted to destroy the air enemy and to prevent his strikes
against friendly troops and objectives. These meausres include the following:
----- - continuous reconnaissance of the air enemy
----- - bringing the air defense troops to a high state of combat readiness and
their commitment to repel the initial and subsequent strikes of the aerial
----- - conduct of maneuver and regroupment of air defense forces and means and
restoration of the air defense system and the troops' combat capabilities
----- - maintaining of coordination among the air defense troops in the course
of repelling the enemy air strikes and continuous control of air defense troops
In order to bring the troops to the status of higher combat readiness for
repelling enemy air attacks the following states of combat readiness are
established: constant, higher and full combat readiness.
In peacetime the air defense troops are in the state of constant combat
readiness. In this case a part of the troops and means are assigned to the 24
hour-duty cycle. The command and control of these troops is normally conducted
from the command post of the air defense operational formations or formations
and from the air defense command post of the Front. When thesituation
becomes complicated the air defense troops and means of theFront are brought to
the higher or full combat readiness. The sequence and method of conducting
duties in the higher state of combat readiness are determined on the basis of
plans and the conditions of the situation.
The enemy can launch a surprise air attack before the Front troops
accomplish their preparations for the attack. In such circumstances the
repulsion of the enemy air attack is conducted by on-duty air defense troops
and means and at the same time other troops are brought to full combat
readiness and are committed into action while the air forces on both sides are
deploying for aerial action.
By the arrival of information about the flights of enemy aircraft and as the
information about the initiation of the massive initial strike is acquired the
efforts of all kinds of reconnaissance are directed to timely detection ofenemy
aircraft, to determine the main direction of their flight, to locate the main
grouping of enemy air attack means, and to specify the likely areas and
objectives of their combat actions. Special attention is given to the detection
of targets at low and very low altitudes, mobile and maneuvering targets, and
also the aircraft conducting radio jamming.
At the same time as the commitment of the on-duty air defense troops and means,
theremaining air defense means are brought to the state of full combat
Until all air defense troops of the Front are brought to full combat
readiness, the command and control of the repulsion of the massive flights of
the enemy aircraft is conducted from the command post of the air defense
operational formations or formations established and allocated in peacetime to
control the on-duty air defense troops.
On the basis of reconnaissance information about the aerial enemy and
information about the status of friendly air defense troops and means, the
chief of Front's air defense troops, without waiting for more detailed
information, reconfirms the decision about the repulsion of the enemy sorties.
In his decision the chief of Front air defense troops determines which
grouping of the aerial enemy on which lines should be destroyed by what troops,
the missions of air defense troops and Front fighter aircraft, and the
method of coordination with other air defense formations, operational
formations, and with others.
When enemy preparations for the attack are detected, the Front troops
are brought to the state of full combat readiness in advance. The grouping of
air defense troops and means are deployed and therefore the massive flights of
the enemy's air forces are repelled by all air defense troops and means and
Front fighter aircraft in coordination with other interacting air
The enemy aircraft, which break through the area of combat action of the first
echelon fighter aircraft are destroyed by air defense rocket troops as they
enter the rocket troops' areas of action.
After issuing missions to the air defense forces and means, the chief of air
defense troops and the commander of the Front air army control their
combat action. Depending on the combat situation, they influence the course of
combat against the aerial enemy by commitment of new troops into combat,
directing the maneuver in the air of large units and units, and by commitment
of their reserves into combat.
In the course of the enemy initial massive flight or after it has been repulsed
the disrupted air defense system of the Front air defense tgroops and
the command and contgrol system of air defense troops and means, which is
interrupted by the enemy action, are restored. Also combat readiness and combat
capability of the air defense troops and means are restored, necessary
regrouping of air defense troops and means is conducted, and the damaged
equipment is repaired, and other measures are taken to prepare the air defense
troops and means for the repulsion of the subsequent enemy flights.
As the attack is initiated the Front air defense troops andmeans
relocate in turns on the basis of the air defense plans for the operation and
the actual situation. The chief of Front air defense instructs the Front
air defense units and formations on the time for leaving their positions for
relocation, the direction of their movement, and the time to be prepared in
their new positions.
In the course of the offensive operation on the lines where by the arrival of
friendly troops massive and concentrated enemy air strikes are probable the air
defense units and formations assigned to cover the first echelon troops should
be totally or mainly deployed when the troops arrive. These lines could be the
----- - the forward line of the enemy defense
----- - intermediate enemy defense lines
----- - the line of commitment of sechond echelon troops
----- - water obstacle lines
----- - lines for repelling enemy counterblows
----- - lines of deployment for meeting engagement, etc
The radio-technical air defense battalion of the first echelon armies during
the attack conducts the reconnaissance of the aerial enemy by those of its
radar companies which are deployed in position. The remaining radar companies
move behind the first echelon divisions of the army and deploy in positions
which the chief of the army air defense troops designates in order to expand
the area of radar coverage.
The S-75 air defense rocket regiment involved in covering the main grouping of
forces relocates in alternating groups of one or two battalions each, by bounds
of 30 - 50 km.
The S-75 air defense rocket regiment which covers the installations and
objectives in the operational rear relocates in full strength simultaneously
with the relocation of the covered targets. (One time in each one to two days.)
Or they are assigned to move to cover new and important targets.
The air derfense artillery division (regiment) which coveres targets in
operational rear area relocates simultaneously with the covered targets in the
course ofthe offensive operation orthey are moved to cover new tqargets.
The relocation of the fighter aircraft bases is conducted in accord with the
plan of the army coordinated with the air defense plan.
The chief of Front air defense troops constantly follows the air and
ground situation and reports to the Front commander about the changes in
the air situation, readjusts the missions of air defense troops and means, and
the coordination amongst them, takes necessary measures to provide timely
support for air defense rocket troops in terms of supply of rockets and supply
of ammunition to air defense artillery. he also assigns missions to
subordinates and informs the adjacents about the air situaiton in the
Front area. Moreover, the chief of air defense constantly maintains
coordination with national air defense forces and adjacent Fronts.
When the Front troops enter a meeting engagement at the beginning of the
operation, their cover is provided by the same air defense grouping which was
established at the beginning of the operation. But if the meeting engagement
developes in the course of the subsequent operation the air defense troops are
maneuvered and their efforts are concentrated to cover the grouping of forces
which operates on important directions or to cover combined arms reserve who
are approaching to be committed to reenforce the attack. to accomplish this
mission the main part of the fighter aircraft operating in the first echelon of
the air army are called regardless of their allocated area of action. The
divisions are instructed about the line of commitment of fighter aircradft to
combat and the method of their command and control. Efforts of all
reconnaissance means should be guided to detect the committment of new enemy
troops into combat.
The air defense of second echelon armies during their advance andcommitment
into combat is provided by Front air defense troops and means and the air
defense means of second echelon armies and the firts echelon army which
operates in the area of the commitment of the second echelon army.
Prior to the committment of the second echelon armies into combat the cheif of
air defense specifies the missions of air defense troops and means and the
method of their deployment and coordination. He also gives instructions on
combat action of Front air defense troops and means to support the
commitment of second echelon toops into combat and specifies the number of
allocated air defense rockets and rounds and the time of their delivery to the
troops. The cheif of air defense troops also issues instructions on the
organization of radar reconnaissance, warning and command and control.
The repulse of the enemy air attack against second echelon armies in their
assembly areas is conducted by the armies organic air defnse means, and
Front fighter aviation. The method of combat action of air defense
troops and means in coordination amongst them is readjusted accordingto the
situation by the chief of Front air defense forces.
As the advance of the second echelon troops to the line of commitment begins
their cover against enemy air strikes is provided as follows:
----- - the air defense means of large units which are marching in column;
----- - the air defense means of armies firing from temporary positions. Such
positions are established on the main direction of advance, on large rivers,
road junctions, built up areas, and in open parts of the terrain.
----- - the air defense rocket troops
----- - special purpose radio-technical troops and fighter aircraft operating
in the over-all air defense system of the Front.
In the area of the commitment of the second echelon to combat cover of the army
troops is provided by the system of air defense troops and means organized by
the Front and also at the same time by the army air defense troops, and
air defense rocket troops of the Front advancing from the depth, as well
as the air defense rocket troops of those first echelon armies located where
the second echelon is going to be commitmed. Moreover, the bulk of the Front
fighter aviation is also called to cover the second echelon during its
commitment. command and control of the troops and means during the repulse of
the enemy's massive flight is conducted by the air defense command post.
During crossing over water obstacles in the course of the operation The
air defense should cover the following targets:
----- - the main forces of first echelon approaching the river and those troops
which have crossed the river and are on the far bank and also the crossing
sites where the troops conduct assault river crossings to develop the attack
Based on the decision of the Front commander's decision for an assault
rever crossing, the cheif of air defense is assigned to conduct the following
----- - providing for timely advance of the air defense rocket troops and air
defense artillery and radio-technical units to the river;
----- - reenforcement of fighter air patrols along the approaches to the water
obstacle and the the area of the assault crossing
----- - readjustment of the coordination between the troops and the air defense
The air defense troops and means should move to the crossing areas in a manner
that will insure that they can organize the air defense of the crossing sites
and the crossing troops prior to any likely enemy air attacks.
The bulk of the air defense troops and means allocated to cover the crossing
sites and crossing troops on the far bank move with the first echelon troops.
The air defense means of first echelon divisions are crossed to the far bank by
organic and attached crossing means. The Front (army) air defense rocket
and radar units deploy on the firendly bank and cover the crossing of the main
forces of the troops. The crossing of these air defense units to the far bank
is conducted by rafts and bridges.
Depending on the situation and importance of the crossing sites, a part of the
air defense troops and means of the first echelon are allocated to cover them
after the first echelon troops of the Front have crossed the river until
they are relieved by other air defense means of the Front.
In order to reenforce the air defense of the troops in the direction of
likely enemy counterblows Maneuver of the air defense units and fighter
aircraft is conducted on the basis of the decision of the Front
commander. If the enemy launches airborne assault landing during its
counterblow, the air defense troops destroy them during their flight and
landing (dropping) and also the air defense troops provide air cover for
friendly troops assigned to destroy enemy airborne troops on the ground.
The air defense of friendly airborne troops is provided for on the baiss of the
air defense plan and conducted by the air defense troops and means allocated
for this purpose.
The repulse of the enemy air attacks on the troops which pursue the
retreating enemy is conducted by those air defense rockets (and artilery) units
and fighter aircraft which move behind the attacking troops or relocate to new
positions. Their efforts are primairly concentrated for air defense of the most
successful troop grouping or those which have cutoff the enemy's retreat.
In the course of the offensive operation the Front air defense troops
and means will relocate simultaneously with the covered troops and this will
leave some of the targets and supply routes siezed from the enemy uncovered.
Therefore in order to cover such targets against enemy air strikes movement of
part of the national air defense troops in the wake of the attacking Front
becomes necessary. To accomplish this task the radio-technical troops and
fighter aircraft will be employed first of all. The air defense rocket units
rarely will be following the Front's attacking troops, but if so, they
will be the troops of the national air defense forces or those taken away from
the targets which have lost their significance for being covered. Movement of
part of the national air defense forces can be conducted by special order of
the supreme high command.
Organization and Conduct of Air Defense During the Conduct of
While conducting front counterblows (counterstrikes) part of the air
defense radio technical regiment's radars are maneuvered (moved). This
establishes a dense (saturated) radar covered area at low altitudes on
deployment lines of troops conducting counterblows (counterstrikes).
While covering troops during the initiation of front counterblows
(counterstrikes), maneuver of front air defense rocket and artillery
units are conducted. They are moved in the direction of the counterblow.
Simultaneously, first-echelon armies' air defense rocket and artillery troops
are regrouped to reinforce air defense cover for counterstriking forces in
areas where counterblows (counterstrikes) are launched.
The organic air defense rocket and artillery of troops participating in
counterblows (counterstrikes) are employed to provide air defense at the
- during deployment of troops;
- during movement of troops to counterstrike lines;
- during development of the attack.
Moreover, a portion of the fighter aviation troops are allocated to cover
counterstriking forces, and their form (method) of action is specified.
The fighter aircraft, as a rule, operate from on-call (standby) status on the
airfields. Their main effort is concentrated on covering main groupings of
AIR DEFENSE IN ARMY OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS
I. COMPOSITION OF AIR DEFENSE FORCES OF THE FRONT, ARMY AND
MOTORIZED RIFLE DIVISION AND REGIMENT
1. In the Front
The composition of front air defense means is not standard and it also
may vary in the strategic operation depending on the following:
- composition of the front;
- front's missions;
- front's role;
- location of the front.
The composition of the front air defense forces and means is specified
by the Supreme High Command. It usually includes the following elements:
a. Two to three S-75 air defense rocket regiments. Each regiment containing six
rockets (total of eighteen S-75 rockets [launchers] in the regiment).
b. One to two S-125 air defense rocket regiments. Each regiment is composed of
three battalions containing eight rockets (launchers) (total of twenty-four
S-125 rockets [launchers] in the regiment.
c. One to two air defense artillery divisions. Each division composed of three
to four regiments. In each regiment there are six air defense artillery
batteries containing eight guns (total of forty-eight 57 mm antiaircraft guns.
d. One air defense radio technical regiment.
A front composed of three combined arms and one tank army, in the
Western TVD, will have the following air defense means excluding the divisional
air defense forces and means:
- six to eleven S-75 air defense rocket regiments;
- one to two air defense artillery divisions;
- four to eight separate air defense artillery (S-60) regiments;
- one to two S-125 air defense rocket regiments;
- one radio technical regiment;
- three to four radio technical battalions;
- two to three fighter aviation divisions (six to nine regiments).
2. In Combined Arms Army
The combined arms army contains the following:
a. One to two S-75 air defense rocket regiments. Each regiment is composed of
three rocket battalions containing six air defense rocket systems [launchers]
(total of eighteen S-75 air defense rocket launchers in the regiment.
b. One to two air defense artillery regiments. There are six air defense
artillery batteries in the regiment. Each consists of six guns (total of
thirty-six 57mm air defense guns in the regiment.
c. One air defense radio technical battalion.
3. In Motorized Rifle Division
a. One S-60 air defense artillery regiment composed of four batteries with six
guns in each (total of twenty-four 57mm guns in the regiment).
b. There are 114 Strela-2M air defense rockets in a motorized rifle division
and sixty-nine Strela-2Ms in a tank division.
4. In Motorized Rifle Regiment
The motorized rifle regiment contains an air defense battery of two platoons in
the regiment which are the following:
- platoon of ZSU-23-4 with four systems;
- platoon of ZPU-4 with four systems.
Combat Capabilities of Army Air Defense Troops
Combat capabilities of army air defense troops are measured in the following
- fire power;
- coverage area;
- maneuver capability of air defense units and large units;
- capability to supply and prepare rockets.
Fire power is the capability of inflicting potential losses on the following:
- air targets;
- dimension of destruction areas;
- numbers of targets which may be destroyed in one cycle of fire in a specific
- S-75 air defense rocket regiment engages air targets and under favorable
conditions may destroy them and resume fire on other targets after two minutes;
- The S-60 air defense artillery regiment of the division fires on one target
at a time;
- The army's S-60 air defense regiment may fire on two targets at a time;
- The air defense battery of motorized rifle and tank regiments may destroy one
target at a time and may shift fire on another target after one minute;
- The Strela-2M squad (three Strela-2M portable rockets) fires on one target.
Probability of destroying the air target with one squad is 0.53-0.6. Therefore,
three squads must be employed to destroy one aerial target.
Destruction capabilities of air defense means differ between day and night. It
must be noted that enemy aircraft will fly on certain directions not over the
entire army area. All army air defense means may destroy twelve to thirteen
aircraft in one cycle of fire.
The areas covered by air defense means depends on the following:
- speed and position of flight of the target;
- type of destruction and jamming means;
- range of the air defense means;
- distance between air defense battalions.
Capability of Maneuver
The capability of maneuver is determined by the following:
- time of deployment into combat formations;
- speed of movement;
- range of movement (zapas khoda);
- crossing capability (cross country movement capability).
Capability for Supplying and Preparing Rockets and Rounds
The capability for supplying and preparing rockets and rounds depends on the
capability of rocket technical subunits to assemble and prep rockets. To
accomplish this task technical battalions are organized. One technical
battalion in a sixteen hour day may prepare thirty S-75 rockets. All
front rocket technical battalions may prepare 180-330 S-75 rockets and
250-500 S-125 rockets in a day (twenty-four hours).
Aims and Missions of Air Defense in Army Offensive Operations
Air defense in army offensive operations is organized to protect the following:
- striking forces;
- fire means;
- army rear service targets.
Air defense provides this protection in order to accomplish the following:
- protect against enemy air strikes;
- cover and support their free (unimpeded) maneuver;
- successful conduct of their combat missions.
This aims are achieved through the following:
- inflicting decisive losses on the aerial enemy over the approaches and over
the location of the friendly forces;
- foiling strikes of the aerial enemy;
- timely detection of the aerial enemy.
Principle Air Defense Missions
The principle air defense missions in the offensive operation are as follows:
- covering main groupings of forces and other targets in army areas;
- conducting reconnaissance to detect the aerial enemy and warning the air
- destroying enemy pilotless (drones) and manned reconnaissance aircraft;
- fighting enemy air assault troops in the air.
Organization of Air Defense in Army Offensive Operations
Organization of air defense is a number of measures taken by the chief of army
air defense and his staff to organize air defense in support of army offensive
operations. These measures include the following:
- planning army air defense and conveying missions on air defense to troops;
- establishing groupings of air defense troops in the departure (FUP) areas,
preparing them for combat actions and maintaining constant combat-readiness to
repel enemy air attacks.
- organizing air defense during the conduct of offensive operations to
accomplish missions related to the following:
- assault crossing over major water obstacles;
- committing second-echelon forces into combat;
- repulsing enemy counterblows;
- organizing troop control and interaction of air defense forces and means;
- organizing combat support measures and supply of air defense guided rockets.
Planning Air Defense
The chief of army air defense prepares army air defense plans after receiving
missions from the army commander. He studies the instructions from the higher
staff on air defense and all-around assessment (estimate) of the situation. He
then issues instructions and combat instructions on air defense to motorized
rifle, tank large units, and air defense units.
The air defense plan in army offensive operations is a detailed formulation of
the air defense decision combined with calculations and necessary instructions.
The air defense plan is a part of the plan of army offensive operations.
The air defense plan is graphically prepared on a 1/200,000 or 1/100,000 scale
map with written instructions. In the graphic part of the plan the following
elements are reflected:
- composition, groupings, and likely directions of the attack from the aerial
enemy and the main groupings of enemy ground forces;
- operational formation of army troops, its command posts, army boundaries, and
- position areas of air defense and radio technical units, immediate adjacent,
front and national air defense means operating in army areas, in
departure (FUP) areas, and in the entire depth of army offensive operations.
The line of reconnaissance of the aerial enemy by radar and the destruction
(killing) zone of air defense means.
- fighter aviation airfields, lines of intercepting enemy aircraft, areas of
- missions conducted by forces and means of other branches of services in the
interest of air defense (where, when, and by what means enemy air targets are
- directions (areas) of the flight of aircraft carrying airborne assault
- bridges and crossings over rivers.
Other information and calculations are reflected in writing in written
instructions along with necessary annexes. The written instructions illustrate
- brief deductions of the assessment of the enemy;
- concepts and missions of air defense;
- combat composition of air defense troops and means and their combat
- control of air defense forces and means;
- organizing coordination (interaction) with fighter aviation and other air
- availability, supplying (delivering), and distributing rockets (rounds);
- methods of numbering air targets;
- warning troops of the aerial enemy;
- combat-readiness and combat standby (on-call) duties of air
Annexes to air defense plans include the following:
- plan of detection (reconnaissance) of the aerial enemy;
- warning and signal diagram;
- other necessary tables and graphics.
Army air defense plans are signed by the army's chief of staff and chief of air
defense. It is approved by the army commander. Written instructions are signed
by the chief of army air defense.
Organization of Air Defense During Assault Crossings Over Major Water
During air defense assault river crossing missions the following are specified
and reconfirmed in advance:
- likely groupings in crossing areas;
- form of movement to water obstacles;
- their deployment on the friendly bank of the water obstacles.
Air defense rocket units assigned to cover crossing areas, move as part of the
forward detachment, to the water obstacles and deploy there. This is done in
accordance with instructions from the army chief of air defense troops (PVO).
They will cover actions of friendly troops during their assault crossings.
In crossing areas, air defense artillery covers crossing sites against low
flying enemy aircraft. Divisional air defense artillery means are interspersed
in marching columns of troops and move to water obstacles with the columns.
Under some conditions air defense artillery of divisions move as part of the
forward detachment to cover them during assault crossings.
Air defense rocket means cross to the far bank in accordance with the advance
of friendly troops. Special purpose radio technical means (spitsnaz
s) are also deployed in the crossing area. Air
defense rocket means assigned to cover rear service targets move along with
covered targets to water obstacles and cross to the far bank.
Radar means cross with army first-echelon forces in order to be able to quickly
detect enemy aircraft and warn troops about them.
When enemy air forces actively operate during the conduct of assault river
crossings, friendly fighter aircraft patrolling in the air or located in an
on-call (standby) status on the airfields are employed against them. If the
airfields of fighter aircraft are a long distance from the crossing sites,
necessary measures are taken to move them to forward airfields.
Organization of Air Defense of Army Second-Echelon (Reserve) Forces
During Their Movement and Commitment into Combat
Air defense cover of second-echelon troops in their assembly areas is
provided by the following located in the areas of deployment of second-echelon
- their organic air defense means;
- fighter aircraft;
- national air defense forces.
During their movement to the line of commitment into combat, their air defense
cover is reinforced by air defense rocket units and radio technical units of
special designation (spitsnaz).
The organic air defense troops of the army's second-echelon forces cover them
during their movement. Army's air defense means deploy on directions of the
movements of second-echelon forces in the vicinity of the following important
- crossing sites;
- road junctions;
- built-up areas;
- open terrain segments;
The commitment of the army's second-echelon into combat is covered by the
- army air defense rockets and artillery;
- adjacent divisions air defense means;
- air defense means of the army's second-echelon troops.
Warning the army's second-echelon about the aerial enemy is conducted by the
army's air defense (PVO) command posts. Simultaneously, commitment of the
army's second-echelon may be supported by fighter aviation.
Organization of Air Defense During Repulsion of Enemy Counterstrikes
Air defense cover for forces assigned to repel enemy counterstrikes is provided
by their organic air defense forces and means. To reinforce the air defense of
forces operating on the likely directions of enemy main attacks, in accordance
with the decision of the army commander, army's air defense means may be
shifted from other directions. Assistance is requested from front
fighter aviation when needed.
If while conducting counterstrikes (counterblows) the enemy employs air assault
troops, such troops are destroyed by air defense means during their flight and
during their dropping (landing). Air defense troops also provide air defense
for troops engaged in combat with enemy airborne assault troops on the ground.
Organization of Control of Air Defense Troops During Preparation
and Conduct of Army Offensive Operations
Control of the air defense troops by the army commander during the offensive
operation is exercised through the chief of air defense troops.
Direct responsibility of control of the air defense troops is borne by the
army's chief of air defense troops and his staff.
Control of air defense troops includes the following:
- the process of distributing targets among air defense means;
- sustaining and continuing control of actions of air defense troops by air
defense chiefs of divisions and commanders of army's air defense large units
and units whose efforts are directed toward the accomplishment of the assigned
- all-around support of combat actions.
To control air defense troops, mobile air defense control points are
established in the army at two positions (one composed of the forces and means
of army's radio technical battalion and the other by army's air defense
directorate). They move and relocate in an alternate form.
In the division and regiment control of air defense means is conducted from the
air defense control points and i the air defense units from their command
Army air defense large units and units are controlled by their commanders. Air
defense means of divisions and regiments are controlled by divisions air
Control of fighter aviation is conducted from front air defense control
centers, where the deputy commander of the air army, an operational group, and
required signal and control means operate.
In army air defense control points, the forward command post of a fighter
aviation division is established. It is established under the deputy commander
of fighter aviation divisions, or another representative of the division, with
signal communication means. He is authorized to call allocated fighter aviation
to operate in the interest of army air defense.
When army air defense control points are put out of action, air defense control
must be delegated to air defense control points of one of the divisions or to
the command post of air defense rocket regiments.
Organization of Reconnaissance (Detection) of the Enemy and Warning
of the Troops
Reconnaissance (detection) of the enemy is conducted in the following forms:
- by army air defense radio technical battalions, reconnaissance, and target
acquisition radars of the reconnaissance, and control platoons of air defense;
- by chiefs of motorized rifle and tank divisions;
- by reconnaissance and target acquisition (identification) of air defense
units and subunits;
- visual observation from all command posts of the troops.
Information acquired is used to quickly detect aerial enemies and to warn air
defense means and troops about him.
Radar reconnaissance (detection) of aerial enemies in army areas is organized
by the army chief of air defense, using the air defense radio technical
battalion. In division areas it is organized by the divisional chief of air
defense, using P-15 radar, reconnaissance, and target acquisition
(identification) of divisional air defense regiments.
The army's air defense radio technical battalion may conduct reconnaissance
(detection) of the aerial enemy at a depth of 160 km (for medium and high
altitudes) and at a depth of 80 km (for the depth of low and lower altitudes)
in a frontage of 80-100 km.
By using forces and means from army radio technical battalions, two radar
companies (posts) at a distance of ten kilometers from the frontline and fifty
kilometers apart from one another are established in the area of a
first-echelon army. Across the army's front, two radar posts are deployed and
two other companies are kept in reserve to accomplish the following:
- expand radar coverage areas during the conduct of the offensive operation;
- establish a new line of radar posts.
The second line of radar posts are established by the front fifty
kilometers from the first line of radar posts.
The reconnaissance and target acquisition (identification) radar stations (CPU)
of the reconnaissance and control platoons of division air defense chiefs and
air defense units are employed for reconnaissance of the aerial enemy in
accordance with their respective plans. They are deployed in division and air
defense unit areas and are alternately relocated.
The reconnaissance and target acquisition (identification) radars of army air
defense units are also deployed in accordance with decisions of unit commanders
and are alternately relocated.
Visual observation of the aerial enemy is established by all commanders in
their command posts.
While organizing the offensive operations, radar means i the army are inactive
and reconnaissance (detection) of the enemy is conducted by front radar means.
Therefore, two to four front radar posts are deployed in the army's
The army's air defense radio technical battalion relocates once in 1-1.5 days
(24-36 hours). They move from previous positions to a distance of thirty to
Warning of Troops
Warning of troops prior to the activation of army radars is conducted in the
- in a centralized method from the command post of national air defense large
- in a decentralized method from the command post of the closest radar of
national air defense forces deployed in army areas.
When army radar becomes operational, warning of troops is conducted in the
- in a centralized method from the army air defense control points;
-in a decentralized method from the closest army radar post or from the
reconnaissance and target identification radar stations (CPU) of divisions and
air defense units.
Warning at the lower echelons (motorized rifle division, motorized rifle and
tank regiment) is conducted through signal command net and sometimes through
special warning nets.
As part of interaction, air defense control points receive information from the
air defense control points of the front and adjacent armies.
The time of transmitting information must not exceed two minutes. When
automatic control systems are used it must not exceed thirty seconds.
II. AIR DEFENSE IN ARMY DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS
Aims of Air Defense in Army Defensive Operations
Aims of air defense in army defensive operations are the following:
- to cover main forces and vital army rear service targets;
-to cover army troops during the conduct of army counterblows (counterstrikes)
against enemy air attacks;
- to quickly detect (reconnoiter) the aerial enemy.
Missions of Air Defense in Defensive Operations
Missions of air defense in defensive operations are the following:
- covering main groupings of forces, rocket and artillery troops, vital rear
service targets, and command posts against enemy air strikes;
- reconnaissance (detection) of the aerial enemy and warning of air defense
troops about him;
- fighting enemy airborne assault troops and their destruction in the air;
- covering forces conducting army counterblows (counterstrikes).
Some specifics of Air Defense in Army Defensive Operations
Air Defense During Preparation and Conduct of Counterblows
Army large units which are assigned to conduct counterblows (counterstrikes)
are covered against the air by the following:
- its organic air defense means;
- air defense units and subunits of first-echelon large units operating in
directions of counterblows (counterstrikes);
- by army's air defense rocket and artillery units.
Moreover, forces which conduct counterblows are covered by front fighter
aircraft which are patrolling in the air or are in a state of on-call (standby)
duty in airfields.
In order to intensify reconnaissance of the enemy by radar, it is recommended
that in the direction of the counterblows (counterstrikes) a radar company of
the army's air defense radio technical battalion be deployed.
The organic air defense artillery of forces which conduct counterblows conduct
their combat actions in marching columns of their related units.
Army air defense means which are allocated to support counterblows, deploy in
advance in the areas of counterblows (counterstrikes).
If the counterblow has to be launched in an area where the level of terrain
radiation is high, air defense cover is provided at the borders of contaminated
areas. However, the direction of wind must be taken into consideration.
Moreover, in such situations air defense cover is provided by fighter aircraft
which are patrolling in the air or are in a state of on-call (standby) duty in
Organization of Reconnaissance of the Enemy and Warning the Troops
Reconnaissance of the aerial enemy by radar and warning the troops in defensive
operations is organized by the army's chief of air defense (PVO). This is
accomplished in accordance with instructions from the front commander.
During organization of defensive operations at the beginning of the war
(initial phase of war) radar reconnaissance of the aerial enemy is conducted by
radio technical troops of border large units of national air defense forces.
The army deploys one to two companies and conducts duty in a closed form. When
the appropriate signal is given from the army air defense control point, they
initiate actions. The rest of the radar companies are in reserve and they are
constantly ready for deployment.
Warning the troops and rear service targets, in this situation, is conducted
from the command post of the large unit and command post of the radio technical
units of the national air defense forces.
When the army assumes the defense during the course of the conduct of
front offensive operations, army radio technical battalions establish
the first-echelon radar companies of the front. These companies are
deployed in areas which are not suitable for tanks. The distance of their line
of deployment from the frontline will be ten kilometers. They will be forty to
fifty kilometers from one another.
The number of radar companies in the first-echelon depends on the width of the
defensive frontage and terrain conditions. If the lowest area of radar coverage
is at 500 m, then the interval between radar companies across the front will be
forty to fifty kilometers.
In order to enhance reliable reconnaissance of the aerial enemy at lower
altitudes, it is recommended that reconnaissance and target identification
stations of divisional chiefs of air defense and those of air defense artillery
units are assigned and visual observation is established.
During operations on coastlines, communications are established with naval
radars. Radios in reception modes are entered in the naval radio warning net.
When the army operates on a wider front or in mountainous terrain, the army is
reinforced by front radio technical subunits.
The warning of troops and rear service targets about aerial enemy attacks is
conducted in the following forms:
- a centralized form from the army command posts;
- a decentralized form from the army radar companies or from local national air
Warning of troops in army large units and units is conducted through combat
radio nets. Methods of warning are specified by commanders of the large units
in accordance with the following:
In addition to radar reconnaissance, visual observation is established in all
air defense units and in all subunits.
III. AIR DEFENSE IN ARMY LONG-DISTANCE MARCHES
Aims of Air Defense
The aims of air defense during army long-distance marches is to maintain
fir.and striking power of army troops during the following times:
- arrival in designated areas to conduct combat missions.
Principle Missions of Air Defense During Army Marches
The principle missions of air defense during army marches (movements) are the
- covering main forces nd other vital army targets in assembly areas, during
marches, halts, daily, nightly, rest, and twenty-four hour rests, in passages,
bridges, defiles, crossings, passes, etc. against the aerial enemy and to
support organized arrival in designated areas;
- conducting enemy reconnaissance and warning air defense troops about the
enemy in coordination (interaction) with national air defense forces, and the
military district (front) in the area of jurisdiction in which army
marches are conducted.
Organization of Army Air Defenses During Long-Distance
Organization of air defense is one of the major aspects of preparing the army
for movement and march. It includes a number of measures, the most important of
which are the following:
- receiving missions and instructions from higher echelons on the conduct of
marches (movements) and air defense;
- making decisions and planning air defense;
- assigning missions on air defense to troops;
- establishing groupings of air defense troops;
- organizing troop control and coordination (interaction).
Air defense is organized in accordance with instructions from the general staff
or front commander (when the army is under front control).
During organization of army air defense in long-distance movements, the
following points are taken into consideration:
1. In assessing tactical and technical characteristics of enemy aircraft it
must e noted that enemy air strikes on army troops at a distance of up to 1,000
km from enemy airfields will be launched by enemy tactical aircraft. At longer
distances by enemy strategic aircraft.
Strikes on units march columns, railroads, bridges, and other targets will be
launched by groups of four to six or twelve to sixteen and even twenty aircraft
and sometimes more.
Flight of enemy aircraft will be conducted at low, medium, and high altitudes
under cover of fighter aircraft and under conditions of heavy radio-electronic
suppression (jamming). Therefore, during movements of army troops from the
interior of the country to the TVD, their air defense covers must be organized
through the entire depth of their movements.
2. Forms of army movements will be as follows:
a. by organic means;
b. by railroads;
c. by a combined form (using organic means and railroads).
When the army moves by its organic means air defense is organized in the
- in areas of concentration after the combat alert signal and in assembly
- covering march columns during their passage through water obstacles, mountain
passes, defiles, major built-up areas, and road junctions;
- in small and large halt areas, in areas of day (night) rest, and in
twenty-four hour rest areas.
When the army moves by railroad, air defense is organized in the following
- in embarkation, debarkation, and re-embarkation areas;
- covering railroad columns along movement routes;
- air defense cover at railroad center areas (railheads), bridges, defiles,
passes, and tunnels.
When the army moves in a combined form, air defense is organized in the
- in areas of concentration after combat alert signals and in assembly areas;
- in embarkation, debarkation, and re-embarkation areas;
- covering marching columns and railroad columns during movements;
- air defense in small and large halts, in areas of day (night) rests, and in
areas of twenty-four hour rest;
- air defense while crossing bridges, in major road junction areas, during
passage through mountain passes, defiles, and tunnels.
Conveying Instructions of the General Staff (Military District of
Front) on Air Defense
Air defense of troops during movements are conducted by army air defense troops
(i.e., army organic and attached air defense means) in coordination
(interaction) with national air defense large units, and air defense troops of
military districts, through areas which the army moves, and sometimes in
cooperation with naval air defense means.
Air defense is organized in the following ways:
- on the basis of instructions from the general staff (when the army is
directly under the Supreme High Command);
- in accordance with instructions from military districts;
- front staff (when army is under their command).
The general staff (military district command) specifies the following in their
- which large units of national air defense forces and military district
(front) air defense forces and means are deployed in the sector of army
movements and what missions are assigned to them;
- methods of interaction of army air defense troops with the above air defense
- methods of reconnaissance of the aerial enemy and warning army troops about
the flight of enemy aircraft.
Making Decisions on Air Defense During Long-Distance Marches and Army
While making decisions the army commander assesses the following factors:
- situations and capabilities of army air defense troops;
- groupings of national air defense forces and air defense means of military
districts (fronts) which are deployed in army sectors of movement
- groupings, capabilities, and characteristics of actions of the aerial enemy.
Based on the assessments of the above factors the army commander gives the
following instructions to the army's chief of air defense:
- which groupings of forces and targets must be covered at what phases;
- how interaction between army, national air defense forces, and air defense
forces and means of military districts (fronts) should be established;
- methods of conduct of reconnaissance of enemy, warning, and control of the
air defense troops during the march (movement).
Planning Army Air Defense in Long-Distance Marches and Movements
On the basis of the army commander's decisions and instructions from the higher
staff, the army's chief of air defense (PVO) prepares the plan of army air
defenses. It is planned on a map and covers the entire depth of army movements
(marches) with written instructions.
The following elements are reflected in the plan:
- deductions from assessments of aerial enemies;
- sectors and directions of army troops marches, departure areas (starting
areas), and aims of marches;
- marching formations of the army and locations for air defense troops in the
- concentration areas per combat alarm signal, assembly areas, areas of
embarkation and debarkation, areas of halts, day (night) rests, areas of
twenty-four hour rest, passes, bridges, defiles and crossings and time for
crossing them. Critical targets which need to be covered against air attacks
(rear service troops and units, crossing sites, mountain passes, defiles, road
- composition and groupings of national (military district, front) air
defense forces in army march sectors and methods of interaction with them;
- composition, capabilities, and groupings of army air defense troops and their
relocation through the entire depth of march;
- organization of defense for air defense rockets and artillery;
- air defense cover by fighter aircraft;
- radar reconnaissance and methods of control of radar reconnaissance elements;
- methods for numbering air targets during the passage of army troops through
national air defense large units and through territories of Warsaw Pat allies;
- methods of warning of marching troops;
- level of combat-readiness and duty (dijurnie) troops
of air defense forces;
- availability, delivery, and distribution of air defense rockets and shells.
In annexes to the plan diagrams of warning and signal, and required tables and
graphics are prepared.
The plan for air defense is signed by the army's chief of staff and chief of
air defense. It is approved by the army commander.
Prior to the march and during the march, the plan is coordinated with related
commanders of national air defense army and air defense chiefs of military
Combat missions on air defense are conveyed to troops by combat instructions on
air defense. These instructions are signed by the army's chief of staff and
chief of air defense.
Conduct of Air Defense Cover by Air Defense Rocket and Artillery
During Army Long-Distance Movements
When the army moves by its organic means, groupings of air defense means, in
accordance with decisions of army commanders on types of movements (marches)
formations to be established, must provide covering for main groupings of
forces against aerial enemy strikes, primarily first-echelon troops, rocket
brigades, and command posts.
The distribution of air defense units and subunits to movement directions and
marching columns must support and insure the following:
- their rapid deployment into combat formations;
- establishment of strong reconnaissance and fire systems during stops, rests,
halts, and arrival in assembly areas.
The air defense battery of motorized rifle and tank regiments, as a rule, moves
by platoons in the composition of the march column of the advance guard or the
main body in a status to be prepared to fire from movement or from short halts.
The distance between platoons must provide for fire communications.
Infantry subunits must be ready to fire against low flying targets using
infantry weapons and antiaircraft machine guns.
Air defense regiment of the division normally moves in batteries its
composition is (interspersed through) march columns in a status which provides
fire communications between batteries, i.e., batteries must be up to five
kilometers apart from one another in march columns and they must always be
prepared to fire from movement or from short halts.
It is recommended that the S-75 air defense rocket regiment be moved behind the
advance guard and at the head of the main body column. As a rule it moves on
two directions and is constantly ready to deploy into combat formation. The
distance between battalions must provide for fire communications.
At halt areas, areas of rest, and in assembly areas air defense units and
subunits prepare in order to accomplish the following:
- deploy into combat formations;
- occupy positions near movement routes;
- establish reconnaissance and troop control;
- take measures to receive warning signals about the aerial enemy.
During the movement a portion of air defense troops may deploy in advance in
critical areas such as the following:
They move to such areas with forward detachments and advance guards. If meeting
the enemy is not likely, air defense troops move in advance to those areas and
support forward detachments advance guards) and the main body. They then
reassemble behind the column of the main body and resume marching.
Reconnaissance and Control
Reconnaissance and warning is conducted by national air defense forces radars
and front radars operating at the front. In order to receive information
about flight of enemy aircraft, radios are put in reception mode at divisions
air defense control points and at command posts of air defense units. They
receive information from the aforementioned sources.
Army air defense radio technical battalions move on army routes behind or in
front of command posts. In the assembly area one to two radar companies deploy
and stay under cover. They must be constantly ready to initiate actions to
Warning within marching columns is conducted by sound and visual signals. In
order to observe the enemy and warn the troops in each column and in each
subunit air observers are assigned.
IV. AIR DEFENSE ARMY
The air defense army is an operational formation of the national air
defense forces. They are assigned to provide air defense of the following:
- main groupings of forces.
Missions of Air Defense Armies
The overall missions of air defense armies is to repulse enemy air strikes
against the following:
- political and administrative centers;
- industrial and military areas;
- other important targets located in its area.
In peacetime it destroys aircraft and other flying enemy objects which with a
hostile intent violate out air space.
Moreover, covering the following are also missions of air defense armies:
- groupings of forces;
- areas of mobilization of forces;
- naval bases;
- communication routes;
- supply bases;
- preventing breakthrough of the aerial enemy into the depth of the country.
The army's air defense missions, related to conduct of the operation are as
- air defense of ground forces during their conduct of groupings in the TVD;
- reinforce air defense of naval forces at sea and during the conduct of
operations by them;
- reinforce front air defense during their conduct of operations;
- air defense of airborne forces and military transport aviation in departure
areas of airborne assault and along their course of flight.
Combat Composition of the Air Defense Army
Composition of the air defense army is not standard. It depends on the
- significance of directions to be defended;
- characteristics of TVDs;
- dimensions of TVDs;
- number of targets to be covered;
- characteristics of enemy actions.
The air defense army will be composed of the following:
- one to two air defense corps;
- two to four air defense divisions;
- separate units of combat and combat support arms (branches of arms and
Composition of the air defense army may include the following:
- five to seven air defense rocket brigades;
- fifteen to twenty air defense rocket regiments;
- six to twelve fighter aviation regiments;
- three to six radio technical brigades (regiments);
- one separate radio reconnaissance regiment (radio regiment of special
designation - spetsnaz);
- two to three separate jamming radio technical battalions (separate radio
technical battalions of special designation -
- signal centers;
- engineer units;
- chemical protection units;
- rear service installations.
The air defense army is assigned an area of action, the boundaries of which are
specified by the general staff.
Organization of Air Defense
Organization of air defense by the air defense army is part of the preparation
of strategic operations in TVDs to repel enemy air strikes and to protect
designated targets and areas. Organization of air defense includes the
- making decisions on air defense;
- assigning missions to air defense forces and means;
- planning air defense by the air defense army;
- deploying air defense forces, establishing groupings of air defense troops,
preparing for combat actions, and maintaining constant readiness to repel enemy
- organizing air defense cover by fighter aviation;
- organizing coordination (interaction);
- organizing troops control;
- organizing all-around supporting measures including the preparation of air
defense guided rockets.
Principles for Organizing Coordination (interaction) of the Air
Defense Army With Air Defense Forces and Fighter Aviation of Fronts
The air defense army conducts air defense inside its operational area and
interacts with several military districts. Coordination (interaction) with one
front is conducted by one large unit of the air defense army.
During peacetime interaction between them is conducted through coordinated
joint action in one area. At the beginning of the attack, when a separate
front's air defense system is established, interaction between them is
conducted through coordinated actions in separate areas.
In both cases they interact in the following:
- repulsing enemy initial massive strikes;
- covering forces of military districts during their movement;
- reinforcing air defense of communication routes.
The coordination (interaction) of the air defense army and military districts
(fronts) while repulsing enemy initial strikes in one area produces
decisive impacts on repulsing enemy attacks. During this action the following
questions must be resolved:
- determining methods for conducting reconnaissance and mutual warning about
- coordinating methods for covering targets by joint actions;
- specifying and assigning (distributing) lines of commitment for fighter
aviation into combat;
- specifying methods of coordination (interaction) between fighter aircraft and
air defense rockets;
- methods of control of air defense troops in repulsing enemy initial massive
Reconnaissance of the enemy is organized by all forces and means. Special
attention is given to radio and radar reconnaissance. Radar reconnaissance is
conducted by elements of the air defense army. Front radars may also
deploy in a covered (closed) status.
Warning about the aerial enemy is conducted in the following ways:
- in a centralized method from the air defense army's (air defense large units)
- in a decentralized method from command posts of radio technical units.
Radio receivers are established at front command posts to receive
Front air defense rocket and artillery means cover their assigned
targets and supplemented the air defense system of the air defense army. Their
areas and targets are specified at the beginning of the war. Interaction in
their combat actions during enemy strikes from several directions is
established in a way to distribute their efforts (actions) to separate
directions. In this case troops to operate in first-echelon and those to
operate in second-echelon are also specified.
If enemy attacks come from one direction efforts of air defense forces and
means are conducted in one direction.
Concentration and distribution of efforts of interacting forces are basically
determined by fighter aviation. Therefore, actions of front fighter
aircraft and the air defense army must be coordinated so that the following are
- assigned troops;
\ - directions of actions;
- direction (guidance) of aircraft to targets;
The method of interaction between air defense forces and fighter aviation is
specified by single areas (in one area).
Since there are Strela-2M rockets in the units, during actions of fighter
aircraft at low altitudes, actions must be coordinated with air defense units.
Commanders of air defense large units are responsible for interaction between
fighter aviation and air defense rocket units. They must have the authority to
assign missions to fronts on related air defense issues and may
distribute targets. When actions are conducted in separate areas,
responsibility for establishing interaction is borne by the following:
- front's chief of air defense;
- front fighter aviation division commander;
- front air army's deputy commander.
During organization of interaction a unified troop control of combat system is
established. Control of combat actions of interacting forces is conducted from
command posts of air defense armies (air defense army's large unit). Overall
control is conducted by the front commander.
Planning Coordination (Interaction) of the Air Defense ArmyWith
Adjacent Air Defense Formations and With Military Districts (Fronts) and
Planning is the most important p,art of organizing interaction. Its principle
aim is to coordinate methods and forms of actions of various formations of
armed forces. This is done in the interest of destroying the aerial enemy.
Interaction of the air defense army with other formations of national air
defense forces are conducted by the commander-in-chief of the national air
defense forces. He issues instructions on interaction to each one of them.
Planning interaction between the air defense army with the military district
(front) and fleet is conducted by their related staffs. The initial data (the
basis) for planning are the instructions of the following:
- general staff;
- instructions of main commands of national air defense forces;
- main command of naval forces;
- decision of related commanders.
When the air defense army conducts interaction with several fronts, a
separate plan of interaction is worked out for each one of them.
Written Part of the Plan
The plan of interaction is prepared in written form with map or diagram
(scheme) annexes. The written part of the plan reflects the following:
- missions of interacting troops;
- composition of interacting forces and means;
- organizing interaction;
- controlling interacting forces;
- organizing support of interacting forces and means.
Graphic Part of the Plan
In the graphic part of organizing interaction the following issues are
- reconnaissance of the enemy;
- warning and mutual information about the situation;
- methods of joint action in covering front (fleet) forces in their
- methods of joint action in repulsing the initial massive strike of the aerial
- methods of joint actions in covering troops during their deployment and at
departure (FUP) areas;
- organizing joint actions while conducting offensive operations.
Map of Interaction
On the map of interaction the following are reflected:
- main directions of actions of aerial enemies, composition, and character of
- boundaries of interacting formations within which interaction is conducted;
- groupings and compositions of forces involved in interactions;
- targets to be covered;
- command posts, guidance (direction) [points, boundaries (limits) of radar
operation (ranges) areas;
- fire areas (sectors) of air defense rocket units;
- line of commitment for fighter aircraft into combat;
- areas of combat patrolling for fighter aviation in the air.
The plan is signed by the chief of staff and it is approved by the front
commander and the commander of the air defense army.
V. ORGANIZATION OF AIR DEFENSE OF SEABORNE ASSAULT
FORCES DURING THEIR MOVEMENTS IN THE SEA AND IN ITS COMBAT DURING LANDINGS
Air Defense of Seaborne Assault Forces During Movements in the Sea
Air defense is organized to cover seaborne assault forces against enemy air
strikes. Air defense is provided by air defense forces and means of ships and
seaborne assault forces. They interact with assigned front and national
air defense forces fighter aviation. Seaborne assault detachments constitute
major targets of enemy air strikes. Air defense of seaborne assault forces are
conducted in the following forms:
- direct air defense of each group or detachment;
- area air defense of all moving formations of seaborne assault forces.
Area air defense is established by creating a unified mobile air defense area,
as well as, by creating a unified fixed (not mobile) air defense area. The
former air defense system moves on-board ships while the later air defense
system provides air defense cover during embarkation of ships, during movements
in the sea and during landing of seaborne assault forces.
Reconnaissance of the aerial enemy during movements in the sea are conducted by
radar means of the following:
- ships of seaborne assault forces;
- surface ships;
- radar aircraft;
- helicopters (AWACS).
For this purpose three to four ships are deployed in a 180 degree sector. If
enemy aircraft operate at low and lower altitudes, then radar ships move at a
distance of 100-150 km in front of the seaborne assault forces. When
simultaneous use of radar helicopters is made this distance will be 50-100 km.
The principle air defense means are ships air defense means, air defense means
of seaborne assault forces such as the following:
- 57mm antiaircraft guns;
- antiaircraft machine guns.
Fighter aviation is employed to fight enemy aircraft on approach routes.
Fighter aircraft accomplish their missions by patrolling in the air. These
areas are selected on the basis of the likely direction of enemy air strikes.
Air Defense of Seaborne Assault Forces during Combat on Landings
Air defense of seaborne assault forces during landing is conducted by joint
actions of all air defense forces and means allocated for the operation. One of
the most difficult and decisive phases of seaborne assault operations is the
landing phase. The enemy in this phase will employ all his available forces to
prevent landing of seaborne assault forces.
Air defense during the conduct of landing is conducted by a unified fixed area
air defense system. For this purpose ships equipped with air defense means are
assigned maneuver areas. From these areas they support seaborne assault forces
against enemy air strikes. in addition to this ships with air defense means are
assigned to the flanks. Therefore, an area air defense system is created which
prevents enemy air strikes on seaborne assault forces. During the landing all
air defense means of ships must be at the highest combat-readiness. During
landing of seaborne assault forces, special air defense ships position
themselves close to shores and support combat of seaborne assault forces on the
Fighter aviation, from the state of patrolling in the air intercept enemy
aircraft before they launch their attacks. Patrolling areas of fighter aviation
in the air are designated on likely directions of attacks of aerial enemies.
After enemy air defense means are suppressed, fighter aircraft may conduct air
patrols over friendly forces. Moreover, independent search and destroy
operations by fighter aircraft are conducted to destroy the aerial enemy.
The surveillance of the aerial enemy is conducted on threatened directions by
- radar aircraft (AWACS);
- radar ships.
As seaborne assault forces land, their organic and attached air defense means
land as well. They take positions on the shores and continue to support the
landed forces. Fighter aviation is moved to airfields seized from the enemy.
Initially air defense of landing areas and subsequently, air defense of all
important targets and all-around defense is organized.
Air defense of seaborne assault forces on the shore are conducted by the
- its organic and attached air defense means;
- fighter aviation;
- air defense means of ships.
In the areas of combat actions a unified system of air defense by rocket and
antiaircraft means is established. The air defense system is expanded as more
enemy territory is seized. Reconnaissance is conducted by organic radar means
and special radars attached to support the operation.