Rear Services are an inseparable part of the armed forces of the country. This
includes units, large units and rear service installations combined with
storage sites for supplies and equipment, which are to form an organic part of
units, large units, and operational entities. This includes units, large units
and rear service installations directly under the control of the central organs
of the rear services. Rear services may be divided into three distinct
categories: rear services of the forces, operational rear services, and rear
services of the Center.
Rear services of the forces:
This includes rear service units and subunits, which have control of mobile
storage assets and form an organic part of major units, units, and subunits,
and whose mission it is to provide direct supply, and technical and medical
support under any type of conditions or circumstances.
The operational rear services:
This includes rear service units, major units, and installations, which form an
organic part of operational entities and are assigned to provide all around
rear service support for the forces. The operational rear services includes the
Front rear services, Navy, military district (okrug) and PVO district,
district, army rear services (missile, infantry, armor, air forces, air
defense), air forces, naval air and naval bases. Organization of the
operational rear services is not fixed and depends upon the combat composition,
mission of operational entities, and the combat environment in the theater of
strategic military action.
Rear services of the Center:
This includes large units, units, and rear service installations, which are
directly subordinate to the Main Administration of the Center, Ministry of
Defense and the branches of the armed forces. During peacetime, all support in
the form of armed forces supplies, missile propellants, POL, rations, clothing,
pharmaceuticals as well as medical support are provided by a single system of
supply services of military districts and groups of forces; during wartime, the
above services are provided through the Front rear services organization, by
useing military district facilities (units and rear service installations) and
by taking advantage of local assets.
II. The tasks and likely composition of the Front rear services
Rear services support consists of a number of measures concerning the
organization of the rear services, preparation and utilization of the
communications routes and transportation means, and provision of materiel,
technical, medical and other types of support and services to the troops. In
Front operations, such support is provided by the rear services of the troops,
armies and Front.
The rear services of the troops and of the armies are completely mobile and
maintain the following amount of supplies: in a division, for four to five
days; in the army, for six to seven days of combat action.
The Front rear services constitutes the materiel and technical base for rear
service support of the troops throughout the entire depth of the Front's
offensive operation. The tasks of the Front's rear services echelon are the
----- - Supplying the troops with all kinds of supplies, timely establishment
and maintaining of specified reserves, and their continuous delivery to the
----- - Preparation and reliable operations of supply routes and transportation
means along with the organization of commandant and traffic control services on
the Front's main suppply routes;
----- - Collection, evacuation and repair of damaged vehicles and weapons;
----- - Providing medical assistance and treatment of the wounded and sick,
taking anti-epidemic and preventive (sanitary) measures during the Front
----- - Organization of protection, security and defense of the rear services
installations and keeping order in the Front's rear services area;
----- - Performing the tasks concerning veterinary and quartering services of
the troops and the utilization of local and captured resources.
The command and control of the Front's rear services is exercised by the Front
commander through the Front staff, the deputy Front commander for rear
services, and the chiefs of services directly subordinate to him. The staff of
the Front rear services and the following chiefs of services are subordinate to
the chief of the Front's rear services (deputy Front commander for rear
services): chiefs of: motor transport service, motor routes, military
communications service, POL supply service, medical service, foodstuff supply
service, clothing supply service, veterinary service, quartering service and
military trade service.
The following service elements are directly subordinate to the Front commander:
----- - Rocket and artillery armaments service;
----- - Armored vehicles service;
----- - Motor and tractor service;
----- - Engineer service;
----- - Chemical service.
The composition of Front rear services is not permanent and depends on the
compositon of the troops, the missions of the Front, the nature of the theater
of military operations and the volume of tasks to be accomplished by the
Front's rear services. The composition of the Front rear services can be as
----- - Forward and rear bases of the Front with various supply depots and
----- - Mobile rocket technical bases and other units involved in providing
support for rocket units organic to the troops;
----- - Units and large units of railroad, highways, motor transportation,
----- - Front forward hospital bases, Front rear hospital bases, independent
medical detachments and other special medical units and facilities;
----- - Military communications service elements;
----- - Repair and evacuation units and facilities in support of the combat
troops and services;
----- - Rear services signal communications units and facilities.
----- - Field military trading stores, bank offices, and military mail;
----- - Rear service security (guard) units and large units.
In addition, special loading and unloading facilities and specialized
facilities of communications routes may be allocated to the Front.
The total strength of the Front's rear services may reach the following
----- - The number of large units, units, and independent installations: 250 -
----- - Personnel: 160,000 - 170,000
----- - Vehicles: 25,000 - 27,000
The responsibility for timely supplying of the troops with weapons, combat
vehicles and equipment and other materiel means belongs to the chiefs of arms
and services. This should be taken into account in organization of the rear
services support in Front offensive operations.
III. Organizational Composition, Tasks and Capabilities of Front Rear
Service Units, Large Units and Installations:
Forward Front bases:
The forward Front bases are designated to maintain a specific amount of
materiel reserves and insure their timely delivery to army (troops) bases. They
are also assigned to conduct repairs of clothing, equipment, vehicles, and
large assemblies of POL and food service technical equipment. They also
reprocess POL reserves, provide laundry service, and supply bread.
Front bases are self sufficient in transportation means even when they are
located far away from railroads. They can move to new locations by their
organic transportation means. The capacity of supplies maintained in a forward
Front base is 7,000 tons which can supply supported troops for three to four
days without outside replenishment. Each forward Front base can supply one to
two armies and the Front's units and large units, the support of which is
assigned to the forward base.
The forward Front base consists of a base headquarters, one depot for each type
of supply item, two independent service companies, an independent rear service
engineer company, an independent rear service chemical protection company,
three mechanical field bakery plants, maintenance facilities to repair the
equipment of the POL supply service as well as large technical equipment of
food and clothing supply services, a mobile POL reprocessing station for motor
fuel, two mechanical field laundry detachments, a materiel testing laboratory
and military mail station.
The headquarters of the forward Front base consists of a base chief, deputy
chief, deputy base chief for political affairs, political section, planning and
organization section, transportation organization section, loading and
unloading section, base control section, six senior assistants to the base
chief in the following areas: armament and ammunition supply, POL, armored
supply, motor and tractor supply, food and clothing, and combat equipment.
The signal communications for the forward Front base is provided by its organic
The forward Front base depots are capable of maintaining three to four days
supplies to support the combat action of the armies. The total weight of such
an amount of supplies may reach 7,000 metric tons and more.
The capacity of each depot is as follows:
----- - Artillery depot (ammunition): 250 wagons*
----- - POL depot: 4,000 cubic meters;
----- - Food depot: up to 25 wagons*
----- - Armored depot: up to 250 wagons*
----- - Motor and tractor depot: up to 25 wagons*
----- - Engineer depot: up to 200 wagons*
----- - Signal depot: up to 70 wagons*
----- - Chemical depot: up to 150 wagons*
----- - Clothing depot: up to 150 wagons*
----- - Medical depot: 300 - 350 wagons*
----- - Topography depot: up to 500 tons
*One wagon is the equivalent of 20 tons.
Each depot can detach a subsidiary branch. The depots are subordinate to the
chief of the base and the related chiefs of services at the Front headquarters.
The depots are subordinate to the chief of the forward Front base in the
----- - Reception, distribution and delivery of supplies in accord with the
plan of the rear service chief of staff and the chiefs of the related services
at the Front headquarters;
----- - Deployment and movement of the depots;
----- - Allocation of transportation means and work force to the depots;
----- - Organization of loading and unloading;
----- - Security asnd defense of the depots;
----- - Billeting and communications.
The depots are subordinate to the Front chiefs of related services in matters
concerning security measures, resupply, preparation for the delivery of
supplies to the troops, utilization of special equipment, accounting and
organization of expenditure of supplies.
Motor transportation regiment of the forward Front base:
The motor transport regiment of the forward Front base is designated to
transport the supplies kept in the base, to supply materiel means, evacuation,
and other transportation tasks in accordance with the plans of Front rear
services staff. The motor transport regiment can lift 3,300 tons of supplies in
Independent Service Companies:
These companies are appointed to do the loading and unloading, to provide
security, traffic regulation and to support the troops operating in the base.
One service company can load and unload up to 2,500 tons in a day.
Independent Rear Service Engineer Company:
The company is designated to prepare shelters and covered dispositions for
personnel, supplies, and vehicles.
Independent Rear Service Chemical Protection Company:
The company is appointed to conduct chemical and radioactive reconnaissance, as
well as to eliminate the impact of mass destructive weapons.
Rear Front Base:
The rear Front base is designated to hold materiel reserves and ensure their
timely supply to the forward Front bases or their subsidiearies, as well as to
the troops operating in the Front rear services area. The rear Front base (rear
services base) also conducts repair of equipment, large assemblies of the
equipment belonging to POL, clothing and food services, supplies bread,
reprocesses POL and provides laundry service for the troops. The rear Front
base is normally deployed on the main railroads (at rail heads), or in the
vicinity of ports and harbors.
The rear Front base is organized with the following elements:
----- - The base headquarters;
----- - Three artillery ammunition depots, one artillery armament depot, eight
POL depots and one depot of other supplies
----- - Independent transportation battalion;
----- - Independent service battalion;
----- - Independent rear services engineer company;
----- - Independent rear services chemical protection company;
----- - Three mechanical field bakery plants;
----- - POL supply service equipment maintenance shops;
----- - Maintenance facilities for the equipment of food and clothing services;
----- - Two mobile POL reprocessing stations for motor fuel;
----- - Seven mechanical field laundry detachments;
----- - Unloading and distribution center of the Front transportation;
----- - Field military mailing service;
----- - Test laboratory.
The headquarters of the rear Front base is designated for the command and
control of the base and its structure and organization are similar to the
forward Front base headquarters which was discussed in the previous pages. In
addition, there is a command and control section of the base with an attached
The rear Front base depots maintain a large amount of materiel reserves
calculated to meet the requirements of several days of combat operations by the
Front's troops; that is approximately 75,000 metric tons. The capacity of
various depots are as follows:
----- - Artillery (ammunition) depot: 250 wagons*
----- - Artillery armaments depots: up to 250 wagons*
----- - POL depots: 8,000 cubic meters;
----- - Food depot: up to 350 wagons*;
----- - Armored equipment depot: up to 250 wagons*
----- - Motor and tractor depot: up to 150 wagons*
----- - Engineer depot: up to 200 wagons*
----- - Signal depot: up to 100 wagons*
----- - Chemical depot: up to 500 wagons*
----- - Clothing depot: up to 150 wagons*
----- - Medical depot: up to 800 tons;
----- - Veterinary depot: up to 7 wagons*;
----- - Billeting supplies depot: up to 50 tons;
* One wagon is the equivalent of 20 tons.
Each depot can detach two branches. The depots are subordinate to the chief of
the rear Front base and the Front chiefs of services in the same way as it was
mentioned in the case of the forward Front bases.
The permanent and stationary depots located in the Front rear service area can
also be included in the composition of the rear Front base area.
The independent transport battalion of the rear Front base:
This unit is designated for internal transportation in the base area. In some
situations, it can also be employed in transportation of supplies to the troops
for a short time in accordance with the Front rear services plan. The battalion
can lift in one trip 1,100 tons of supplies.
Independent Service battalion:
This unit is appointed to conduct loading and unloading work, to provide
security, traffic regulation, and also to support the troops operating in the
base which do not have organic supply forces and means. The battalion can load
and unload up to 7,500 tons of cargo in a day, and also can accomplish up to
2,500 cubic meters of field engineering work.
Motor Transport Brigades:
Motor transport brigades are employed to conduct transportation of supplies,
evacuation and other types of transport services in accordance with the plan of
the Front rear services staff. These brigades provide transportation services
between the rear Front base and the forward Front bases. A motor transport
brigade can lift 6,600 tons of cargo, including 1,440 tons of POL, in one trip.
The brigade is organized into three motor transport battalions, one heavy motor
transport battalion, two POL transport battalions, a service company, mobile
maintenance shops and medical center.
Road Construction and Traffic Control Brigade:
Such brigades are employed to prepare and restore the motor communications
routes of the Front and to provide traffic control and regulation along the
routes. The capacity of one road construction and commandant's service traffic
control brigade is 900 kilometers, which means that along this distance, it can
provide for the repair of the roads as well as traffic control and signal
communications. The brigade is organized into the brigade headquarters, three
road construction, traffic control and commandant's service battalions, one
independent road construction battalion, one independent bridging battalion,
one independent special bridging battalion, signal platoon, reconnaissance
platoon, chemical protection platoon, repair shop, etc. One to three road
construction traffic control and commandant's service brigades can be in the
composition of the Front rear services.
Bridge Construction Brigade:
The bridge construction brigade is part of a central reserve and is employed to
reinforce the active operations of the Fronts. Its mission is to construct
crossings over the wide rivers which link motor routes. The brigade is
organized into a brigade headquarters, two bridge construction battalions, two
independent bridging battalions, two special bridge construction battalions, a
bridge and machinery repair base, reconnaissance platoon, signal platoon, and
The pipeline brigades are designated to provide POL transport through field
pipelines. One to two pipeline brigades may be found in the Front. Each brigade
can establish 600 kilometers of pipeline. The pipeline brigade is organized
into four independent pipeline battalions, independent signal battalion,
independent motor transport battalion, independent engineer and technical
company helicopter company, medical center etc. The brigade, in a 24 hour
period, can transport up to 800 tons of fuel by using 100 mm pipelines, and
2,000 tons of fuel by using 150 mm pipelines, for a distance of 75 - 150 km,
and also can construct 65 - 75 kilometers of pipeline.
Independent Rocket Fuel Transportation Battalion:
The battalion is organized into three rocket fuel transport companies, mobile
motor vehicles maintenance shop, and a signal platoon. The battalion can lift,
in one trip 640 tons of rocket fuel.
Front Rocket Fuel Depots:
The Front's rocket fuel depots are designated to hold rocket fuel reserves at
the Front level. Each depot can hold up to 500 cubic meters of rocket fuel.
Forward Front Hospital Bases:
The forward Front hospital bases consist of large mobile medical units which
are assigned to provide medical support to the Front's first- echelon armies.
They receive casualties and provide specialized medical treatment. There may be
as many as 6 forward Front hospital bases. The total capacity of forward Front
hospital bases is up to 6,500 beds. The forward Front hospital base deploys in
one, two, or three locations. It can relocate in one trip by utilizing the
independent ambulance battalion of the Front and its organic vehicles. The
forward Front hospital base consists of the following elements:
----- - The base headquarters;
----- - Two triage hospitals: each one consisting of 500 beds;
----- - Four field multi-purpose (polyclinic) hospitals, each with the capacity
of 300 beds;
----- - Nine field mobile surgery hospitals of 200 beds each;
----- - Three field mobile internal hospitals (for internal diseases) of 200
----- - Two field mobile psychiatric hospitals of 200 beds each;
----- - Two field mobile epidemic disease hospitals of 200 beds each;
----- - One hospital for specially dangerous epidemic diseases;
----- - Hospital for lightly wounded of up to 1,000 beds;
----- - Specialized medical assistance (aid) detachment;
----- - Independent medical support battalion for the base itself;
----- - Blood bank station;
----- - X-ray mobile group;
----- - Mobile oxygen station;
----- - Military mail station.
Rear Front Hospital Bases:
The rear Front hospital base consists of large medical units appointed to
receive wounded and sick and provide them with specialized medical treatment at
the Front rear service area. There may be two to three rear hospitals bases in
a Front. The total capacity of such bases is up to 20,000 beds, including 5,900
beds in mobile field hospitals and 14,100 in evacuation hospitals. The rear
Front hospital bases are normally deployed in two to three locations on rail
heads and are transported by railroad. Their transportation via motor routes
requires, in addition to their organic vehicles, 700 - 800 motor vehicles. The
base consists of the following elements:
----- - Three triage hospitals of 500 beds each;
----- - Four field mobile multi-purpose hospitals of 300 beds each;
----- - Nine mobile field surgery hospitals of 200 beds each;
----- - Three mobile field internal hospitals of 200 beds each;
----- - Two mobile field psychiatric hospitals of 200 beds each;
----- - A mobile field hospital for dangerous epidemic diseases with 200 beds;
----- - A mobile field special epidemic dangerous diseases hospital with 200
----- - Five evacuation hospitals of 400 beds each;
----- - Ten evacuation hospitals of 500 beds each;
----- - Six hospitals for lightly wounded of 1,000 beds each;
----- - Independent motorized medical company;
----- - Specialized medical aid detachment;
----- - Independent hospital base support battalion;
----- - Two blood bank stations;
----- - Two mobile oxygen stations;
----- - Mobile x-ray group;
----- - Military mail station.
Independent Ambulance Battalions:
Ambulance battalions are designated to evacuate wounded and sick at the Front
and army levels and also to transport the hospital installations to specified
areas. Their number is normally dependent on the number of the forward Front
hospital bases. An ambulance battalion can carry up to 3,000 wounded and sick
in one trip. The battalion is organized into two ambulance companies, hospital
transportation company, mobile maintenance workshop, medical center and supply
Independent Air Ambulance Regiment:
The air ambulance regiment is assigned to evacuate critically wounded and sick.
It is organized into three squadrons with a total of 32 AN-26. The regiment can
airlift in one trip 180 casualties.
Repair and Evacuation Units and Installations:
The repair and evacuation units and installations are under command of the
chiefs of their related services. They can be listed as follows:
----- - Front rocket weaponry repair shop;
----- - Front artillery repair shop;
----- - Front radar repair shop;
----- - Front anti-aircraft artillery repair shop;
----- - Front air defense missiles (SAM) repair shop.
----- - Independent artillery armament evacuation battalion;
----- - Independent tank repair battalion;
----- - Independent tank recovery battalion;
----- - Mobile tank repair shop;
----- - Mobile repair plant to repair large tank assemblies;
----- - Independent armored vehicles evacuation battalion;
----- - Independent recovery, repair and restoration battalion;
----- - Independent battalion for recovery, repair, and restoration of the main
assemblies of motor vehicles;
----- - Independent battalion for recovery, repair, and restoration of the main
assemblies of tracked vehicles;
----- - Independent motor and tractor vehicles evacuation battalion;
----- - Independent engineer vehicles repair battalion;
----- - Independent repair battalion for large assemblies of engineer vehicles;
----- - Signal repair base;
----- - Mobile signal repair shop.
Railroad brigades are designated to establish or restore Front railroads. A
railroad brigade is organized into a brigade headquarters, two railroad
construction battalions, three railroad bridge construction battalions,
independent mechanized railroad battalion, independent railroad signal
communications battalion, independent railroad technical battalion, independent
motor transport battalion, independent wood preparation battalion independent
railroad exploitation company, technical reconnaissance company, chemical
protection company, etc.
Independent Railroad Exploitation Regiment:
The regiment is intended for the exploitation and use of individual areas of
the Front railroads. It is organized into two movement battalions, one steam
engine battalion, a service battalion, and a signal company.
Independent Railroad Bridge Construction Regiment:
The railroad bridge construction regiment is assigned to restore large railroad
bridges in support of Front operations. The regiment is organized into two
bridge construction battalions, one technical battalion, and a material
Independent Signal Regiment of the Front Rear Services:
The signal regiment organic to the Front rear services establishes signal
communications between the Front rear command posts and the rear command posts
of the armies and large units, as well as with large units and units of the
Front rear services. The regiment has two signal battalions.
Rear Service Security (Guard) Division:
The rear service security division, employed at the Front level, has the
----- - Establishing the security and defense of vital installations along the
supply routes and of the main objectives (depots);
----- - Fighting enemy infiltration groups in the rear service area;
----- - Conducting reconnaissance and inspection of terrain and built-up areas,
and searching for and recovering weapons, ammunition and other military
property from local inhabitants;
----- - Keeping law and order in the rear service area;
----- - Preventing the local population from trespassing into military
off-limits areas, and extending assistance to recover disabled and stranded
----- - Organization of POW camps and guarding the camps;
The division is organized into the following elements:
Division headquarters, three to four guard (security) regiments, independent
reserve battalion, independent convoy guard battalion, independent signal
company, independent engineer company, independent training company, chemical
protection platoon, and prisoners of war centers, etc.
V. Support of the rear services:
Organization of rear service support is the process of planning, taking
measures concerning the preparation, deployment and survival of the rear
services, thorough rear services support for the troops and the steady and
reliable command and control of the rear services. The fundamentals of the
organization of rear service support in the Front's offensive operations should
be based on the following principles:
----- - The organization of rear service support should comply with the plan of
conducting the operations and with the missions of the troops;
----- - The grouping of forces and means of the rear services should be capable
of supporting the combat operations of the troops under all conditions, with or
without the employment of nuclear weapons;
----- - The main efforts of the rear service should be concentrated on
supporting that grouping of troops which is assigned to accomplish the main
----- - Insuring sustainability of the groupings of the troops in terms of rear
----- - In operational formations of the ground forces rear service support
should be organized in the interest of all troops participating with them in
The rear is the grouping of rear services forces and means assigned to conduct
rear service support of the troops in the operation.
The deployment of the Front rear services echelon is conducted in the framework
of plans prepared in advance. It includes the transition of the rear services
echelon from peacetime to wartime status through mobilization of rear services
elements which is normally carried out concurrently with the deployment of the
combat forces organic to the Front. The process includes upgrading all rear
services echelons to a state of full combat readiness, mobilization of rear
services, movement of additional logistical support units, large units and
installations, supplies and stores to the theater of action and the deployment
of the rear services echelon in accordance with the requirements set for the
logistic support of combat actions in specific situations.
The operational organization of the rear services is the grouping of rear
services troops and means into a structure organized to provide rear service
support to the troops. In Front offensive operations the grouping of rear
services forces and means is established in echelons, within the limits of the
rear services area along the main directions of troop actions.
The Front's forward rear service base is relocated once every three days, when
the speed of attack is 40 - 60 kilometers per day; so that its distance from
the army's mobile base should not exceed 150 km, which is a half-day march by
the Front's transport vehicles.
The Front rear services deploy and operate in the Front's rear area. The
boundaries of the Front rear area are defined as follows: at the flanks, by the
boundaries with adjacent Fronts; at the rear, by the rear boundary of the Front
specified in the directive of the commander-in-chief; and forward by the rear
boundaries of armies' mobile bases.
In the (iskhodniye nastupatelhaya rayon), the forming up
position for the attack, the depth of the Front's rear area reaches up to 300 -
400 km, while in the course of the offensive operations it may increase to 800
- 900 or more. The Front rear services elements deploy in echelons throughout
the depth of the rear services area on the main axes of combat operations.
Their main efforts are allocated in support of the troops conducting the main
Depending on their missions, mobility, and method of operation, Front rear
services units, large units, and installations are grouped into two echelons,
i.e., the forward echelon and the second-echelon of the Front's rear services.
Forward echelon of Rear services:
The forward echelon of the Front's rear services is composed of the following
----- - Forward Front bases;
----- - Rocket engineering units and rocket fuel depots;
----- - Forward Front hospital bases;
----- - Pipeline units and large units;
----- - Front mobile repair units and installations, etc.
In the forming up position for the attack the units and installations included
in Front rear service forward echelon are grouped in accordance with the axes
of the first-echelon armies' operations. If the available rear services forces
and means are not sufficient, a single grouping is established to support two
The forward Front's bases are deployed close to the railroads at a distance of
80 - 100 km from the mobile army bases. To ensure the dispersed deployment of
the forward Front base, an area of 150 square kilometers is required for its
deployment. When the Front has only one forward base, it is recommended that it
deploy in two locations. The bulk of its elements should deploy to support the
troops operating in the direction of the main attack and a branch of the base
should deploy to support the troops conducting supporting attacks.
The Front's rocket technical units are deployed in accordance with the grouping
of rocket troops. Usually the mobile rocket technical bases of the Front deploy
at the beginning of the operation at a distance of 30 - 40 kilometers from the
location of the Front's rocket brigade, while the independent rocket park
battalion deploys 10 - 15 kilometers apart from the unloading stations, ports,
and supply airfields. The rocket fuel depots and rocket fuel transportation
units deploy close to the unloading stations and supply airfields. Branches of
rocket fuel depots are moved forward to be at a distance of not more than 50 -
70 km from rocket engineering techical bases.
The deployment of medical installations at the beginning of the operation can
be as follows:
----- - At a distance of 50 - 70 km from the front line, groups of hospitals
organic to the rear Front hospital bases are deployed and the local hospitals
of the area are also placed under their command;
----- - The forward Front hospital bases move within the armies' attack zones
in a manner to be prepared to deploy in the course of the operation. In the
absence of rear Front hospital bases, the forward Front hospital bases are
deployed in advance.
----- - The independent medical detachments deploy close to the first-echelon
troops as well as near the Front's reserves. this is done in situations when
eliminating the impact of enemy nuclear attacks may become necessary.
Under all circumstances, at the beginning of the operation, the number of
medical installations deployed in the area of each first-echelon army is
calculated to the able to deal with the treatment of all casualties received
during the first two or three days of the operation.
The pipeline brigades are deployed to provide for the flow of POL from the
permanent POL depots as well as from the Front's POL depots to the troops
operating in the main grouping of the Front elements. If two pipeline brigades
are available in the Front, a number of pipelines can be established on one or
two axes of the attack. The main field pipelines are also used to transport air
forces' fuel to the airfields, to transport POL across rivers, and to bypass
the destruction of railroad centers, and also to disperse POL reserves from
The Front's mobile repair units move in army areas at the beginning of the
operation or they are attached to the armies.
Front Rear Service Second-Echelon:
The Front's rear service second-echelon is deployed further to the rear. It is
composed of the following elements:
----- - rear Front bases;
----- - rear Front hospital base;
----- - Repair shops and other units and installations deployed to the rear of
the Front rear service areas.
The depots of the rear Front base are deployed in echelons along the railroads.
The stationary depots are located in the Front's rear area with their materiel
reserves subordinated to the rear Front base.
The order of deployment of Front bases depends on their number and the time of
their arrival in the Front. Moreover, the locations of their deployment should
be in accordance with the locations of deployment of forward Front bases and
their branches. For example, if at the beginning of the operation, there is
only one rear Front base available, then its recommended breakdown should allow
its main part to be deployed on the main rail head and a branch of the base to
be allocated to another axis. In addition a second branch of the base is kept
in reserve, for temporary deployment in the loading area or ready to move to an
important railroad extension area.
If two rear Front bases are available in the Front, then each one deploys on
one or two railroad axes. In this case a branch of the rear Front base should
deploy in an area 120 - 150 kilometers from the forward edge of the battle
area, while a second branch should be kept in reserve to be moved during the
As the experience of field exercises indicates, it is better that the rear
Front hospital bases deploy in two to three locations on the main railroad
axes. Depending on their missions and the availability of bases, their distance
from the FEBA can be from 50 - 70 km up to 200 - 300 km.
The repair shops are deployed close to the rear Front bases and local repair
facilities are also used if possible.
Rear services units and installations arriving during the operation are
deployed in appropriate areas. Depending on their missions, they should be
deployed on major railroad links or they should be included in the composition
of the first echelon of the Front's rear services and deployed accordingly.
Therefore, in the forming up position for the attack, the rear services units
and installations with less mobility -- the operation of which is closely
dependent on, and connected with, railroad movement -- should be deployed
first, while the mobile units and installations should be kept prepared to move
and follow attacking troops during the operation. For this purpose they should
stay close to the armies which they support.
Redeployment of rear service bases:
The movement and relocation of Front rear services large units, units, and
installations in the course of the operation is dependent on the rate of
advance of attacking elements and the situation.
In principal, the distance of the forward echelon of Front rear services from
the armies' rear services large units, units, and installations should not
exceed half-a-day's march by transportation means, which is about 150 km. This
will ensure daily resupply of the army's exhausted materiel reserves and also
will facilitate timely medical aid to the wounded and sick and their
evacuation. It will also insure timely recovery, repair, and restoration of
In such cases the army's mobile bases will not be able to follow closely behind
the attacking elements, and may be left behind at a distance of 100 - 200 km.
Therefore the armies' transportation means may be employed to move the supplies
from the forward Front bases, and troops transportation means may be used to
move supplies from the army's mobile bases.
According to the above-mentioned principle, the rear services large units,
units, and installations included in the composition of the Front's first rear
services echelon should relocate in the following manner:
Forward Front bases should follow the first- echelon armies. The distance
between the forward Front bases and their branches and the army's mobile base
should not exceed 150 kilometers. Therefore when the rate of advance is 45 - 50
km a day, the forward Front bases and their branches should move once every
three days. When the rate of advance is 80 - 100 km per day, they should move
once a day or once every two days. The forward Front bases may relocate in
their entire strength, or they may conduct alternate movement by moving their
branches first and following them with the bulk of the base. Frequent movement
of forward Front base is desirable, but this may decrease its capabilities and
will require a large amount of transport means in its movement.
The Front's mobile rocket technical bases follow the attacking troops in bounds
of 150 - 200 kilometers, and the independent rocket park battalions conduct
relocation in accordance with the extension and restoration of railroads and
the establishment of new materiel support airfields. The rocket fuel depots and
their branches usually move together with the mobile rocket technical bases.
The forward Front hospital bases move to the massive casualty areas and deploy
at a distance of 40 - 50 kilometers from the FEBA.
Mobile repair units move to the areas where a large number of damaged vehicles
The rear service large units, units, and installations included in Front rear
services second-echelon move in accordance with the preparation of railroad
lines. The rear Front base, during the operation, detaches its branches to
areas where railroad construction is completed, and sometimes it moves on motor
routes in the absence of railroads. In such cases it should be provided with
additional motor transport means.
All elements of the rear Front base completely relocate only at the end of the
Front's offensive operation.
VII. Front level rear service principles:
General principles of supply:
The forces will receive sufficient supplies every day in order to maintain
their prescribed norms;
Priority of supply goes to those forces which are successful;
Transport vehicles at all echelons will be used to their maximum capacity;
Forces in the second echelon will supply themselves through the use of their
In the event of a rapid advance or a successful airborne operation, supplies
will be moved by air and special air fields will be prepared to receive them;
Transloading from one vehicle to another should be avoided.
Rules governing movement of supplies and types of transport vehicles:
Up to Front Rear Base:
----- 75% by rail
----- 15% by motor vehicles
----- up to 10% by pipeline
From Front Rear Base to Front Mobile Base:
----- up to 15% by rail
----- 75% by motor vehicles
----- 10% by pipeline
----- 5% by air
From Front Mobile Base to Field Army Mobile Base:
----- 90% moved by motor vehicles
----- 5% by air
The planning for supply is conducted by the staff of the rear services in
conjunction with individual services, such as transportation, tracked vehicle,
rations, clothing, etc. The daily ranges of transport vehicles are:
----- 200 km for transport vehicles of the forces;
----- 250 km for transport vehicles of the field army;
----- 300 km for transport vehicles of Front
Rear Services Management:
Rear Services management includes planning and a series of measures concerning
readiness, deployment, operation of the rear services, comprehensive support
(obespecheniye) of the forces and firm command and control of the rear
services. The main principles of management of rear service support for the
forces in a Front offensive operation will be based on the following
----- - management of rear service support for the forces must comply with the
overall planning of the conduct of the operation and mission of the forces;
----- - the deployment of rear services forces and means should be capable of
supporting combat activities in all circumstances, in both conventional and
----- - the principal emphasis of the rear services forces should be oriented
towards supporting those forces carrying out the main mission;
----- - there must be assurance that from the rear service point-of-view the
highest degree of initiative will be available to the groupings of the forces.
----- - the management of rear services means should be carried out in such a
manner that all the units participating in a given operation might profit from
Establishment of the rear services in an offensive operation and methods of
Establishing the rear services includes a series of measures with respect to
the distribution and deployment of rear service forces and means. It also
includes establishing an environment favorable to the uninterrupted flow of
materials to the forces within the framework of the operation. The action of
establishing the rear services comprises the following:
----- - preparation of rear service large units, units, and installations for
accomplishing their mission;
----- - positioning and movement of rear service units and installations;
----- - measures for protection from the effects of weapons of mass
----- - protection and physical security of rear area targets;
----- - establishing the rear services is based on the commander's decision
within the specific operation, with consideration given to the existing
situation. Tailoring the rear services is based on the grouping of the forces.
Front level requirements concerning content and management of rear service
The plan for rear service support is part of an overall operational plan. The
rear service support plan presents the same requirements as all the other
command and control documents. Conciseness of the rear services support plan
may be achieved by applying the salient features of rear service management.
Clarity of the plan may be achieved by careful usage of rear service symbols
and of clear marking of principal truck routes, as well as through the use of
charts and diagrams. The rear service plan will be based completely on the
overall concept of the operation and the mission of the forces. The plan's
content will include items relevant to the rear service support of the forces
as prescribed by the deputy commander for rear services and other subordinate
services. The plan also gives special consideration to the support of the
forces with ammunition and technical equipment (all the items are specified in
terms of palletable units and tonnages). The deputy commander for rear services
is responsible for timely supply to the forces. Missile supply and transport by
special vehicles, supply of technical weapons, supply of armored, armored
tracked and other vehicles, are specified in a separate plan of the
chiefs-of-services subordinate to the deputy commander for rear services.
The following is usually pointed out in the Front rear service support plan for
a offensive operation:
----- - principal mission of the Front rear services;
----- - composition of the Front Rear services with consideration for attached
major units and installations within the framework of the planned offensive;
----- - the preparation and deployment of the Front rear service during
preparatory stages of the operation and its movement during the course of the
----- - Front communication routes, their maintenance, repair and
----- - supply/support of Front forces;
----- - continuous flow of supplies;
----- - medical support for Front forces;
----- - protection, security and defense of the Front rear services;
------ management of Front rear service command and control.
----- - Other subjects.
During the preparatory stage of rear service support planning, the following
principles are taken into consideration:
----- - the plan should reflect the future volume of rear service activities
within the planned operation and should be based upon the real capabilities of
the rear services;
----- - the rear services plan should be prepared in such manner as to be
applicable to both coventional and nuclear war;
----- - the plan will be prepared in accordance with the Front mission; support
measures for the immediate mission, especially for the initial two to three
days of the operation, will be reflected in much detail;
----- - the various aspects of the rear service tasks will be reflected in
separate plans (e.g. the supply, storage, and dispersal plan, the securing of
supplies, the rear service support of air, airborne and amphibious operations,
The Front rear service plan only mentions the most important elements:
----- - while in peacetime, a sufficient amount of time is available for the
preparation of the plan; this may not be the case at the onset of hostilities
or during a war situation. It is therefore imperative that the plan be prepared
within the shortest period of time;
----- - schematics used in preparation of the rear service support plan should
use a format permitting its processing by computers;
----- - the rear service support plan is prepared with the use of an overlay as
well as written comments, or in a narrative form with a map annex.
The plan will be signed by the rear services chief of staff as well as the
chief of rear services and must be coordinated with the chief of staff of the
Front and authenticated by the Front Commander.
Preparation, nature and usage of communications routes in a Front offensive
operation and mission and capabilities of the road construction and traffic
Communications routes are one of the most important elements in an offensive
operation. In offensive operations the Front will use all available routes
(railroads, waterways, airways, roads, pipelines).
Railroads: In the Front area, there should always be available two to three
frontal and two to three lateral (rocade) railroads with a capability of
handling 70 round trip trains (para poyezdov) within 24-hours. In the course of
an operation, one to two railheads will be established, which should increase
the capacity by up to 30 round-trip trains. The speed of laying a railroad with
two brigades may be may up to 40-45 km within 24 hours. In case of total or
massive destruction, this figure should be cut in half to 20-22 km per 24
At the Field Army echelon: All types of access routes will be used in the
course of an operation; as well as all types of transport vehicles such as
railways, highways, waterways, and pipelines. Two to three rocade rail lines
and two to three railroads perpendicular to the FEBA will be laid. Their
capacity will be approximately 60-70 round-trip trains. One-to-two railheads
will be established with a capacity of twenty to thirty roundtrip trains. The
above will depend upon the availability of railroad brigades at Front.
Two-to-three R/S distribution stations (raspredelitel'nyye
stantsii) will be established and R/P distribution ports will be
designated on the waterways. For the movement of the forces and for the
transportation of supplies by motor vehicles, Frontal truck routes
(Frontovaya voyennoavtomobilnaya doroga) will be designated
leading from Front bases to field army bases. The capabilities of the railroad
brigades include 20-25 km of construction within 24-hours or nine km under
conditions of massive destruction. Two to three distribution stations as well
as two in reserve may be allocated per field army. Also, per field army, the
following unloading stations may be allocated: one per division; two to three
per field army mobile base. Temporary unloading sites: one-to-two per Front.
Waterways: per Front, one distribution port (raspredelitel/nyye
porty - V/P) and for the field army one unloading point will be
Military Motor Vehicle Routes: (Frontovyye voyenno-avtomobil/nyye
dorogy - FVAD): will connect Front bases with their sections and their
sections with the field army mobile bases. One FVAD will be established behind
every first echelon army. Its capability should be up to l0,000 motor vehicles
Field main pipeline (Polevoy magistral'nyy trubovod - PMT):
Its mission is to bring in POL from permanent depots and Front depots to the
main concentration of Front forces. It is laid in the direction of the main
e. Air Transport of Supplies (Aerodromno-materiyal'noye obespecheniye -
AMO): It is organized to provide supply support through airfields.
There will be seven or eight such airfields to provide supply support per
Front. Arrangements will be made to exploit all kinds of transport completely.
For this purpose, a network of supply routes will be established and technical
Road Construction and Traffic Control Brigade (Dorozhno- komendantskaya
brigada - DKBR): The brigade consists of three road construction and
traffic control battalions, one road construction battalion, one bridging
battalion and one special bridging battalion. Its mission is to prepare,
maintain and restore communications routes of the Front; its mission is also to
control all traffic. The brigade is capable of the following:
----- - coverage of routes within a 900 kilometer radius
----- - it can deploy three complete sets (komplekty) of service stations and
25 dispatch centers.
----- - it can establish l60 traffic control points.
----- - it is capable of constructing underwater bridges ll0 meters long, with
a carrying capacity of l6 tons.
----- - it can perform evacuation work of up to 4500 cubic meters.
----- - it can repair roads up to 90 km.
----- - it can repair pavement up to l0 km.
Establishing the front rear services in a Front defensive operation:
The establishment of the Front rear services depends upon the conditions under
which the defensive posture is assumed, types of weapons to be employed,
mission of the Front and the order of battle. The Front rear area will be
designated for the deployment of the Front rear services. Its size is not
prescribed and may extend to the depth of up to 500 km. The possibilities of
initiating offensive action by the Front forces without delay will be taken
into consideration. The preparation of the rear service units and installations
for their mission of supporting the forces in an operation consists of the
following: providing rear service units and installations with personnel
replacements and with technical means and materials, the conduct of training
(combat, political and special), and the preparation and readiness of rear
service technical units for the accomplishment of their mission.
Rear service support of Front Forces in a defensive situation:
The governing principles of rear service management of Front forces in a
defensive operation and management of rear services depend on the circumstances
under which the defensive posture had to be assumed by the forces and upon the
types of weapons used by the belligerent forces. In comparison with an
offensive situation, the composition of rear service forces in Front defense is
rather limited. If, in the course of operations, the Front is forced to assume
a defensive posture, it will probably be the result of having suffered numerous
casualties; also, the levels of supply storage will be low. Hospitals will be
filled with casualties. In the case in which the Front goes over to defensive
positions prepared in advance, rear services forces, according to plan, would
deploy rapidly and the levels of supply would be high.
Supply Management of Air Defense Surface-to-Air Missiles:
Supply of surface-to-air missiles for Front air defense forces is carried out
with due regard for the number of missiles allocated for a specific planned
operation. The requirement is calculated on the basis of the operational
mission and the necessary replenishment of supply levels for future actions
after the end of the planned operation. The distribution of missiles allocated
for a specific operation is carried out by the Front air defense chief. The
number of missiles varies in accordance with enemy activities and the
importance of a given direction. At the beginning of the operation, all air
defense units should have their maximum number of missiles on hand. During the
preparatory stage of an operation, the required documents designating the
levels of expenditure of the various types of missiles are issued. Directives
are published specifying the rates of replacement, locations for SAM depots,
methods of movement, availability, issue, distribution and the time limits on
their readiness are specified. The chief of air defense, in conjunction with
the chief of artillery armament will manage the flow of SAM supplies. The chief
of air defense will provide the chief of artillery armament with the following
----- - number of missile launching pads within Front;
----- - supplying the launchers with missiles;
----- - the location and sites of the technical battalions of SAM regiments. In
addition to the above, the following matters must be coordinated: methods of
missile issue, times of delivery, a listing and the number of missiles to be
issued, directions for supply vehicle movements, arrangement for the change of