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The following information is composed of excerpts related to rear services from various lectures. It is provided for the reader's information pending the preparation of a complete chapter on this topic.

I. Composition of the army rear services organization and capabilities of the army mobile base
----- - Army rear services has 7,000 personnel and 2,500 motor vehicles assigned to it;
----- - Army Mobile Missile Technical Base (armeskaya podvizhnaya raketnaya teknicheskaya baza-APRTB) provides technical support for missile units;
----- - Army Mobile Base (armeyskaya podvizhnaya baza-APB-) includes a transportation regiment and provides supplies and materiel;
----- - Independent Traffic Control Battalion (Otdel'nyy dorozhno-komendantskiy batal'on-ODKB) are assigned two each per army and one per tank army;
----- - Independent Bridging Company (Otdel'no-mostostroit' yelnaya rota-OMOSTR), one each;
----- - Independent Technical Vehicle Recovery Battalion (Otdel'nyy batal'on evakuatsii i tekhniki-OBET) is assigned for technical support;
----- - Independent Tracked Vehicle Recovery Company (Otdel'naya rota evakuatsii avtotraktorov - OBEAT) is assigned for technical support;
----- - Independent Engineer Repair and Recovery Company (Otdel'naya inzhenernaya remontno evakuatsionnaya rota- OIRER) is assigned for technical support;
----- - Independent Medical Detachment (Otdel'nyy meditsinskiy otryad OMO) has 10 to 12 per Army, six per tank army, and is assigned for medical support;
----- - Independent Medical Transportation Company (Otdel'naya avtomobil' naya sanitarnaya rota) is assigned for medical support;
----- - Army Anti-Epidemic Detachment (armeyskiy sanitarnyy protivoepidemicheskiy otryad - ASPEO) is assigned for medical support;
------ Army Medical Reinforcing Detachment (armeyskiy otryad meditsinskogo usileniya - AOMU) is assigned for medical support;
----- - Veterinary and Epizoic Detachment (Veterinarno-epizooticheskiy otryad-VEO) is assigned for medical support.

In addition there are a postal service unit, shopping center (magazine), a branch of the state bank, logistics signal communications battalion and separate chemical decontamination battalion organic to the army's rear services. The army may be enforced by Front logistical units and installations such as: tank repair battalion, separate automobile repair battalion, and etc.

Army's mobile base

It is appointed to maintain stores and supply reserves and to deliver them to the units.

----- - Army's mobile base headquarters and its signal platoon: This element can detach a separate detachment (division) (army's mobile base detachment (division); it's communications are provided by a base signal platoon. ----- - Motor transport regiment: with a total transportation capacity of 5,030 tons (of which 690 tons POL) in the combined arms army and 3,390 in the tank army.
----- - Army logistic stores depots:
----- - Artillery stores depot: 2,000 tons
----- - POL stores depot: 3,000 cubic meters
----- - Foodstuff depot: 400 tons
----- - Armored depot: 1,000 tons
----- - Motor and tractor depot: 150 tons
----- - Engineer stores depot: 250 tons
----- - Signals stores depot: 80 tons
----- - Chemical stores depot: 300 tons
----- - Commercial goods depot: 40 tons
----- - Medical stores depot: 60 tons
----- - Quartering stores depot: 25 tons
-------TOTAL about 7,000 tons

----- - Independent service company: can handle 2,500 tons daily.
----- - Independent logistic engineer company: can perform 6,000 cubic meters of engineer work (digging) daily.
----- - Independent logistic chemical protection company: consists of six platoon and can accomplish the following in 24 hours:
----- - Decontamination of personnel: 6,000 men
----- - Decontamination of vehicles: 400 vehicles
----- - Decontamination of routes: 25 km
----- - Decontamination of clothing: more than 1,000 pairs of clothing.
----- - mechanized bakery: can bake 18 tons of bread in 24 hours.
----- - Commercial goods base (T35): can store 40 tons of goods.

The chief of depot is subordinate to the chief of army's mobile base. He is also subordinate to the army's support arms and services chief in accounting matters for the relevant stores.

II. Deployment and movement of the rear services

The most important problem in the establishment of the rear services are the supply of materials, the timely evacuation of casualties, and the recovery of disabled vehicles. During an operation logistical units and installations of the army are positioned in accordance with the following principles:
----- - The logistical units and installations within the army offensive area of operation and in the direction of the main attack must be positioned to support the main forces under favorable conditions.
----- - The rear services of the army will be placed as close as possible to the combat forces with consideration given to the assigned mission, characteristics of the operation, depth of operational deployment, mission of rear services units, condition of access roads, and conditions of the terrain.
----- - In positioning the rear services consideration is given to their activities, communications and command and control.
----- - Utmost importance is accorded to maneuvering logistical forces against the enemy.

III. Rear services positioning

Before launching an offensive operation the rear services will be positioned as follows: the Army Mobile Base, the Army Mobile Technical Missile Base, and the Army Motor Transport Regiment are positioned 40-60 km from the FEBA. The Independent Medical Detachment (in reserve), the Independent Army Anti-Epidemic Medical Detachment, and the Army Reinforcing Medical Detachment will be positioned between the first and second-echelon divisions so as not to be too far removed from the rear services headquarters.

The Independent Medical Detachment and the recovery units attached for reinforcement of the first-echelon divisions will be positioned in the division offensive area. If the area designated for the Army Mobile Base in occupied by other units, the Army Mobile Base will move to the rear of its designated position. Reserve positions, approximately 15-20 km distant from the designated positions of the mobile base, will be prepared for the Army Mobile Base and for the Army Mobile Missile Technical Base. A section of the Army Mobile Base may be detached and positioned separately in support of those forces that are operating on separate axes.

IV. Movement of rear services units and installations

The movement of rear services units and installations depends on the momentum of the attack, regrouping of the forces, condition of the access roads, and condition of transport vehicles. As the offensive movement gathers momentum, logistical units move more frequently and, as such, reduce their supply capability. During the advance of first-echelon divisions, the Independent Medical Detachments, units of the Medical Transportation Company, and recovery units follow closely. The Army Mobile Base changes its location so as not to be further than 125 km from divisional depots. In other words, it will not exceed one-half the 24-hour range of the transport vehicles. If the momentum of the offensive becomes substantial, the Army Mobile Base will change its position every day. Some of the units and installations of the Rear Services, such as the Army Mobile Base, the Army Missile Technical Base, Mobile Bakeries, the Independent Armored Vehicle Recovery Battalion, and the Independent Tracked Vehicle Recovery Company, will not change positions with their complete organization but, rather will redeploy by sub-units.

V. Management of supplies in an offensive operation

The higher echelon is responsible for the timely supply of the subordinate echelon. According to this principle, the Chief of the Rear Services of the Army is responsible for the timely delivery of supplies to all subordinate units. For this purpose, he has at his disposal all transport vehicles belonging to the Army and the forces. However, only the chief of Artillery is responsible for the supply of nuclear rounds. The main principles of supply of materials are as follows.
----- - First Principle The higher logistical echelon is responsible for transport to the lower echelon. For example, Army to division, division to regiment.
----- - Second Principle Transport vehicles bring in supplies from the higher echelon. For example; Army trucks will pick up from Front and deliver to Army, division trucks will pick up from Army and deliver to division.
----- - Third Principle Transport vehicles will work within two to three echelons. Trucks from the Army will pick up supplies from Front and will deliver directly to divisions. This principle will save time needed for loading and unloading.

VI. Army transportation concept

During an offensive operation, supplies are brought from Front to the Army Mobile Base, and, according to the orders of the chief of the rear services, transport vehicles of the army will be employed to transport supplies from the Front base to the army base.

Supplies from army to divisions are brought to the divisions according to a plan prepared by the army. Transport vehicles of the Army will carry supplies to divisions and in some cases even to regiments. In some cases, and, in accordance with the decisions of the chief of the rear services of the army, transport vehicles of the forces will be employed to carry supplies from the army base and even from the forward Front (mobile) base. This will be done only if the distance does not exceed the 24-hour range (the 24-hour average range is 200-250 km). In the first day of the operation, the quantity of supplies is 5,000 to 7,000 tons, and, on subsequent days, it is expected to reach 3,000 to 5,000 tons.

Basically, the first day's supplies, usually carried by transport vehicles of the forces, originate in permanent depots, Army bases, etc. Only that ammunition required for artillery preparatory fires is carried by transport vehicles of the Army. If sufficient vehicles are available, supplies will be brought from the Front mobile base to the army and carried to front-line divisions by transport vehicles of the army. Only under certain conditions will transport vehicles of the second-echelon divisions and units of the army carry supplies from the army base. If the supply distance is longer, army vehicles will carry supplies from the forward Front (mobile) Base to the army base. In some circumstances supplies will be transported by air.

VII. The management of medical support in a army offensive operation

Under modern conditions of warfare and in a nuclear environment medical support is very important. Medical supplies play a decisive role in coping with the effects of enemy weapons of mass destruction. In an NBC environment, casualty rates will be very high, from 3.8 to 5.3% daily. Casualty figures for a complete operation will be 27-42%. In a conventional combat environment, the average daily casualty rates will be from 1.1-1.3%. For a complete operation, these figures will be 7.4 to 10.4%. One to two independent medical detachments will be attached to first-echelon divisions; the remainder will be kept in Army reserve for later assistance to divisions or for employment in coping with enemy use of nuclear weapons. Each Independent Medical Detachment and division Medical Battalion has the capacity to admit 500 casualties in 24 hours and to render specialized treatment.

The Army Independent Medical Detachments will be placed in the following positions: for the rotation of employment with divisional medical battalions in cases where these battalions lose their operational effectiveness. The complete cycle of activities of the division medical battalion or of the Army Independent Medical Detachment is as follows: deployment, admission of casualties, rendering of medical treatment, evacuation to hospitals, closing down its activities, and redeployment to another location. The cycle will require two twenty-four hour periods. The evacuation of casualties from division is carried out by the chief surgeon of the division, using transport organic to the division Medical Battalion or the Independent Medical Detachment. Evacuation of casualties from division Medical Battalion or the Independent Medical Detachment to Front hospitals is arranged and executed by the chief surgeon of the army. This evacuation is carried out by vehicles of the Medical Transportation Company. One time evacuation capacity: division Medical Battalion (80 casualties); Army Independent Medical Detachment (160 casualties); and Medical Transportation Company (1,000 casualties).

Should the enemy use bacteriological weapons, the net number of casualties will increase. The following measures will therefore be applied in the army: diagnostic reconnaissance and prophylactic measures, including precautionary vaccination of all personnel, safeguarding the potability of water supplies, control and inspection of newly-arrived supplies, quarantine of personnel infected with contagious diseases, etc.

VIII. Management of recovery and repair of tank material, tracked and wheeled vehicles

The role and importance of technical service/support have increased considerably under conditions of modern warfare. Maintenance of technical vehicles in operational status and the rapid repair of disabled vehicles have a decisive effect upon the course of operations, ever since modern armies became users of large numbers of various types of technical vehicles and a great number of those became disabled during an operation. During the Great Patriotic War, tank and infantry armies lost 8-9% of their tanks and vehicles; in a nuclear environment, it is expected that they will lose 12-15% of their vehicles within the first 24 hours.

The repair elements of the forces have the capability to repair 100% of the slightly damaged vehicles and 15-20% of vehicles with medium damage. Based upon experiences gathered in exercises, losses in the course of an offensive operation in a nuclear environment will be as follows: tanks (50-80%); APCs (30-40%); and motor vehicles (40-60%). Losses suffered in the course of a conventional operation will still be extensive due to the time required and the length of the operation. In the course of one operation, 400 tanks, 300 BTRs and more than 3,000 motor vehicles may require light damage repair. With the exception of the Independent Engineer Repair and Recovery Company, there are no other repair facilities in the Army. Repair facilities of the forces are capable of handling slight damage repairs only.

In some circumstances, when the momentum of the attack is not high, the army may be reinforced with the following repair units: Independent Tank Repair Battalion, one to two (artilleriyskaya masterskaya) organic to army artillery troops and a Mobile Signal Equipment Workshop. The Independent Tank Repair Battalion has the capacity of repairing ten tanks with medium damage in twenty-four hours. It is also capable of repairing four sets of major components (kimplekty). The Independent Motor Vehicle Repair Battalion has the capability of returning to duty 27 medium damaged vehicles and 40 slightly damaged vehicles, within 24 hours. Combat technical vehicles will be evacuated in cycles calculated for minimum loss of time. Repair is carried out in the most expedient manner, and the repaired vehicles are immediately thrown back into battle.

One of the fundamental methods of repair is the direct replacement of damaged parts by new ones; such an operation requires less time. Recovery units (the Independent Armored Vehicle Recovery Battalion, the Independent Tracked Vehicle Recovery Company) will establish a collection point for disabled vehicles (SPPM-sbornyy punkt povrezhdennykh mashin) in an area close to a large concentration of such damaged equipment and bring the disabled vehicles from the forces to that location. From these collection points, disabled vehicles are evacuated to the repair workshops of Front or Army (the Army does not have any of its own). Some of the Army's recovery vehicles may be employed to evacuate vehicles from areas where there are many damaged vehicles or in some cases, may be attached to first-echelon divisions to evacuate the disabled vehicles from division disabled vehicle collection points.