AIR DEFENSE IN A STRATEGIC OPERATION IN A CONTINENTAL
Contemporary operations in TSMAs are characteristically initiated by
massive action of the air forces. This fact has been proved by the experiences
of World War II, the wars in the Near East, and the local war in Vietnam.
In the massive air force strikes large groupings of air force aviation troops
with decisive aims will participate. The following are missions the air forces
are capable of conducting:
----- - Fighting enemy air forces and suppressing enemy air defenses
(establishment of air supremacy);
----- - Direct support of ground forces;
----- - Isolation of areas of military action;
----- - Conduct of air reconnaissance;
----- - Air transportation;
----- - Participation in launching strategic strikes.
Therefore, the presence of a reliable air defense in strategic operations in
the TSMA is one of the most necessary conditions for the success of the
I. Composition and characteristics of the action of enemy air forces in the
In the Western TSMA there are 2,600 combat aircraft, including 1,700 with
nuclear capabilities and 7,500 nuclear rounds. In the future three types of
aircraft will be developed further. One for establishment of air supremacy, one
for direct support of ground forces in the combat area (attack aircraft or
shturmoviki), and the third for isolating military action.
The F-15 fighter aircraft is representative of the first category, the A-10 the
second, and the F-18 fighter-bomber is to attack deeper targets in order to
isolate the battlefield.
The main grouping of the enemy air force in the Western TSMA includes OTAG-2,
OTAG-4, and the national air forces of other allied nations. In the course of
military combat action the enemy air force will be augmented by shifting forces
from other areas and assistance from other countries. It will also include the
naval aircraft of enemy allies.
The F-14 naval tactical aircraft has great capability to breakthrough the TSMA
defense system. They destroy and suppress air defense means, conduct wide
maneuvers, fly at low altitudes, and use radio-electronic warfare means.
The results of NATO research and development show that the principal form of
employment of air and space forces is air-space operations.
Such an air-space operation is the collection of coordinated strikes of
strategic formations and large units of ballistic missiles, air forces, and
submarine-based rockets and missiles conducted in coordination with tactical
air force formations of the ground forces and large naval formations deployed
in the theater.
The aim of the initial aerospace operation is to suppress the combat power of
the Warsaw Pact, to destroy the economic and military potential of Pact
countries, to disrupt state and military control, and to seize the initiative
To achieve these objectives the enemy aerospace formations and large units will
conduct the following tasks:
----- - Destruction of strategic nuclear-delivery means;
----- - Destruction of military and economic targets which constitute the basis
of military and economic potential;
----- - Disruption of control of the states' and the armed forces;
----- - Destruction of administrative and political centers;
----- - Inflicting losses on the large grouping of the armed forces in border
areas and preventing the movement of reserves to those areas;
----- - Suppression of the Warsaw Pact countries' air defense systems.
The basic form of the combat action of the enemy air and space troops in a
nuclear war will be to launch massive strikes and successive actions.
Exercise experience shows that the enemy in the course of one to two
days can launch one to three massive nuclear strikes. In the first strike 60
percent of the nuclear rounds allocated for the offensive in the TSMA will be
employed. The operational formation of the forces and successive action of the
echelons and groups can be different. In the first air and space nuclear strike
the operational formation will consist of several multi-echeloned flights of
the air forces and the fire of rockets. The first air force echelon can consist
of two groups:
----- - Support group;
----- - Strike group.
In these groups tactical and naval aircraft from the immediate airfields, such
as those of the Second, Fourth, and Sixth OTAGs, participate. The mission of
the support group is to suppress the air defense grouping of the Warsaw Pact
countries. The mission of the strike group is to launch strikes against the
----- - Targets at the operational and tactical depth of the ground forces;
----- - Political, administrative and economic centers;
----- - Railroad and motor road complexes;
----- - Command posts of Warsaw Pact countries.
The second air echelon consists of one strike group and that is the second
echelon of the main forces of tactical and naval aircraft. The mission of the
second air echelon is to destroy newly-detected targets or targets not
previously destroyed and to support the flight of the strategic air force to
the depth of the countries.
The third air echelon consists generally of bomber aircraft of type
"V," Mirage, and B-52, deployed in the TSMA, which launch their
strike to the depth of the Warsaw Pact countries to strike against targets in
In subsequent echelons strategic bomber aircraft deployed in the United States
The number of aircraft in each echelon will vary, depending on the concept of
combat employment and the level of resistance of the air defense troops of the
Warsaw Pact forces.
Passage through the air defense system in the TSMA by the enemy air forces is
conducted by the following methods:
----- - On a wide front (1,000-1,700 km), to disperse the efforts of the air
defense troops in the TSMA;
----- - In several narrow sectors of the front (100-200 km each), on specified
directions, to sufficiently break through a deep and echeloned defense and to
support the arrival of the main air force troops on targets in the depth of the
----- - A combination of a wide front and several narrow sectors.
The duration of the initial massive nuclear strike on strategic air directions
of the Western and Southwestern TSMA's can be three to four hours. On the basis
of time analysis and the characteristics of the preparation of air and space
nuclear delivery means, the second nuclear strike will be possible after 32 to
The aim of the second strike is to concentrate the main effort of the tactical
air force and operational-tactical rockets in order to support the ground
forces, isolate the battlefield, and create favorable conditions for offensive
operations in the TSMA. Also, part of the troops will destroy targets that were
not destroyed initially.
In the interval between the first and second massive strikes of the enemy's air
and space forces the action of first-echelon tactical and naval air forces and
part of the strategic air force deployed in forward bases can be initiated.
During the strikes against Warsaw Pact country targets which are covered by air
defense forces of the Pact, and also during passage through the air defense
system of the Warsaw Pact countries, the enemy may use different forms of
combat and tactical action.
When they reach the observation range of air defense radar the tactical fighter
aviation and naval attack aircraft will deploy in groups, and the aircraft will
disperse within the groups. At the same time the aircraft will fly at a very
low (150-300 m) altitude and, furthermore, will closely follow the contour of
the ground at 30-50 m.
When they enter the radar observation area, normally active and passive jamming
of the radar is initiated. The density of active jamming is as follows:
----- - In directed jamming 25-30 volt/megahertz;
----- - By barrage jamming 0.3-0.4 volt/megahertz.
The combat formation of the tactical and naval aviation consists of two to four
or eight to twelve aircraft or more. The basis of the establishment of combat
formation should be created by pairs of aircraft. The combat formation of
aviation flight is two pairs of aircraft, which fly in a wedge, an on-line, a
column, or an "X" formation.
Likely distances between the combat formations of tactical and naval aircraft
can be as follows: intervals between aircraft across the front of 1-2 km,
distance between aircraft in depth is 4-8 km (15-30 sec); between groups 15-30
km (1-2 min). The difference in distance between the aircraft within the group
is 300-600 m. Therefore the tactical density of aircraft in the areas of air
defense and over the targets in different combat formations will be 2-4
aircraft or more in 1 minute.
The number of enemy air forces in non-nuclear war in Europe and their
operational formations in the air during launching of massive strikes can be
different. It depends on the scope of the war, the enemy's concept of
operation, and the degree of resistance of air defense troops. In any case, in
the non-nuclear phase of the war against the Warsaw pact countries, the action
of tactical and naval air aviation should be expected.
The main forces of strategic aviation and one-third of the theater based
nuclear-armed aircraft and carrier-based aircraft will be on stand-by for
action with the use of nuclear weapons. On the first day of the war the main
effort of the enemy air forces will be to concentrate on seizing air supremacy.
Their main targets will be air fields, air forces, air defense aviation,
positions of air defense rockets, radio-technical troops, command posts, and
command and control points. Subsequently, the effort of the air forces will be
directed to accomplish combat missions in connection with support of the troops
(50% of the allocated flights), isolation of the battlefield (25%), and air
Passage through enemy air defense is conducted on a wide front and in narrow
areas of the front by large groups which are deployed in echelon, in depth, in
altitude, and by massive use of radio-electronic combat means.
Open terrain requires that the enemy air force fly on a wide front to reach
their strike targets at the appropriate time by flying at low altitude and from
different directions. In mountainous terrain the enemy will use valleys and
mountains for concealed flight to the targets. When the strikes are launched
from the sea the aircraft fly at low altitudes and launch their strikes against
targets by surprise action on a wide front.
Calculations of the possible missions of the groups of enemy air forces against
targets in the war without use of nuclear weapons and the experiences of the
use of air forces in Vietnam and the Near East by the US and Israel show that,
because of the limited capability of non-nuclear means, normally many air force
groups are needed against each target. However, in recent years the use of
guided missiles and bombs armed with automatic laser and TV guidance warheads
has greatly increased the accuracy of hit and bombardment. This has cut down
the required number of aircraft groups needed to destroy a target. Launching of
surprise strikes on targets out of the observation range of radars can be
achieved by various kinds of maneuvers such as, by the action of the air force
in non-nuclear war in more compact combat formations, under heavy jamming
support, and primarily at low altitudes by using terrain contours. Up to 70
percent of tactical aircraft will operate at low altitudes. At the same time
the combat formations in echelons will be difficult, and the combat formations
will include groups of strike aircraft, groups of covering aircraft against
fighter aviation, groups of aircraft to suppress air defense rocket troops, and
special groups conducting jamming action.
The combat formation of each group and the method of its action depend on the
actual conditions of the combat situation. These conditions are as follows:
----- - Characteristics of targets and the degrees of their suppression;
----- - Resistance of the air defense system;
----- - Guidance conditions in the area of combat action;
----- - Level of training and experience of the pilots.
The experiences of the combat employment of tactical and naval aircraft in
Vietnam and the Near East require that it should be assumed that for proper
combat dispersion of fighter- bomber aviation and naval attack aircraft, the
strike can be initiated at a distance of 10-15 km up to 60-70 km.
The strike group normally flies to the target in a column of pairs or a flight
column in which the interval and distance between aircraft and pairs are
100-150 m and between flights are 1,500-2,000 m. In this case the covering
group operates on the flanks of the fighter group at distances of 3,500-5,000
The support group will accomplish missions to launch strikes of bomber and
attack aircraft against positions of air defense troops. The group allocated to
fight against fighter aircraft will conduct its struggle against the fighters
and will blockade the enemy airfields. The jamming group will remain out of
range of the air defense rocket troops while jamming air defense means by
The action of fighter and naval aviation will be conducted firmly and
decisively to inflict maximum losses on the assigned targets. Therefore, the
combat action of the air defense troops in the TSMA should match the firmness
and decisiveness of the enemy by better coordination and interaction.
Thus, the analysis of the nature of likely action of enemy air and space attack
means shows that coordination and interaction amongst the air defense troops in
the TSMA is one of the most important needs of the war, and practical knowledge
about organization, understanding, and conduct of the interaction of air
defense troops in war is one of the most important tasks of the commander and
staff at all levels.
II. Missions and composition of air defense troops in the strategic
operation in the TSMA
The air defense missions in strategic operations in the continental TSMA are
derived from the aims and missions of the operation itself.
The aim of contemporary strategic operations in the TSMA is total destruction
of the enemy's armed forces, groupings and knocking out from the war all or a
number of enemy allies. The aim of contemporary strategic operations in the
TSMA is achieved by the accomplishment of the following tasks:
----- - Destruction of the important grouping of the enemy armed forces in the
----- - Repulse of the enemy's air force strike;
----- - Destruction of enemy military and economic targets that provide
material and technical support;
----- - Destruction of the state and military command and control centers and
systems of the enemy's allied countries;
----- - Seizure and retention of important terrain in enemy territory.
The missions of the strategic operation are accomplished by the combat actions
of the formations of different services of the armed forces. Air defense
missions in a strategic operation are as follows:
Prior to the beginning of the operation (in the preparation phase):
----- - Providing cover against possible enemy air attacks for position areas,
munitions, and bases of strategic rockets;
----- - Providing air defense for important economic, industrial,
administrative, and political centers and areas, as well as important railheads
and communications centers;
----- - Providing air defense cover against enemy air attacks for front
forces during their deployment and occupation of departure areas;
----- - Providing cover for naval bases, groups of ships on naval routes,
coastal areas, and during deployment of the fleets;
----- - Providing air defense cover for airfield complexes of military
transport aviation, front air forces, and naval air forces against enemy
In the course of the strategic operation:
----- - Providing air defense cover for strategic rocket forces in the areas of
their new positions in the TSMA;
----- - Covering the fronts' forces against air strikes during the
initial and subsequent operations of the fronts, and also providing air
defense for the front (army) reserves and other formations and
operational formations of the supreme high command reserves in their deployment
areas, during their movement, and in the course of their combat action;
----- - Covering naval forces in their bases and in their dispersal areas, and
also during the conduct of naval operations and other activities against the
----- - Providing air defense cover for airborne troops and military transport
aircraft in their assembly areas, embarkation areas, during their flights, and
in the areas of combat action of airborne troops;
----- - Participation in the air operation to destroy the enemy air force
----- - Covering the airfields on which the long-range air force has
established its bases, the rear service targets of fronts and fleets,
important centers of communications routes, and other vital targets within the
boundaries of the TSMA against the enemy's air attack.
The air defense troops of fronts, the fighter aviation of the
front air armies, air defense troops and means of the fleets, and one or
two operational formations of national air defense forces are assigned to
accomplish these air defense missions in a strategic operation in the TSMA.
The number of air defense troops and means assigned for the strategic operation
in the TSMA depends on certain factors, the most important of which are as
----- - Missions to be accomplished by the fronts (fleets);
----- - Composition and characteristics of likely actions of the enemy air
----- - Number and significance of targets to be covered;
----- - Physical geographic conditions of the TSMA;
----- - Other factors.
The composition of air defense troops and means in different TSMAs will not be
standard or similar. For example, the following forces can operate in a TSMA:
----- - 100-150 air defense missile formations and units;
----- - 30-40 fighter aviation regiments;
----- - 50-70 air defense artillery units;
----- - 30-40 radio-technical formations and units;
----- - 3-4 radar patrol ships;
----- - 60-80 air defense artillery ships.
These forces are required to establish the air defense in the most appropriate
grouping, with an effective troop control system and reliable coordination
procedure. Full and continuous material support is extended to them in order to
fight the enemy's air attack forces and means in the most effective way.
The struggle against the enemy's ballistic missiles and his operational and
tactical rockets is basically conducted by destroying them in their positions
by aircraft, rocket and artillery troops, and special detachments.
III. Organization of air defense in strategic operations
Organization of air defense is part of the preparation of the strategic
operation and it is conducted on the basis of the decision for the conduct of
the war in the TSMA. In organization of air defense in a strategic operation
the following issues are included:
----- - Making the decision for air defense;
----- - Assignment of missions to air defense troops and means;
----- - Planning of the air defense in the operation;
----- - Deployment of the grouping of air defense troops and means belonging to
the different services of the armed forces;
----- - Organization of coordination (interaction);
----- - Organization of command and control;
----- - Organization of all-around support;
----- - Organization and execution of actions that provide for constant combat
readiness of the grouping established from the air defense troops and means of
the various services of the armed forces.
Planning of air defense in the strategic operation
Planning of air defense in a strategic operation is conducted on the basis of
the decision made by authority of the strategic control for the conduct of
military action in the TSMA.
General commands of different services of the armed forces, the commands of
military districts, and of fronts are called to participate in the
planning of air defense on issues related to them.
The principal planning document for the air defense troops is the national
(country's) air defense operational plan, in which the principles of
organization of air defense, troop control, coordination, and supporting
measures are reflected.
The air defense operational plan is signed by the minister of defense, the
chief of the general staff, and the commander in chief of national air defense
forces. It is approved by the supreme high commander in chief. The plans of
coordination (interaction) between the troops of national air defense forces
are organized on the basis of this plan. In the coordination plans all issues
of coordination during the execution of missions by joint action--including
missions regarding the reinforcement of air defense cover of ground forces,
reinforcement of air defense troops of the fronts, air defense cover of
airborne forces, and other missions that derive from specific conditions in the
TSMA--are illustrated in a detailed and elaborate form.
The organization of air defense is worked out in anticipation of both
contingencies--that nuclear weapons may be used by the enemy or that they will
not be used.
Air defense is planned in the entire depth of the strategic operation. In this
context air defense issues and actions are more elaborately organized to the
depth of the initial operations of the fronts and fleets and also for
the operations conducted to destroy the enemy air force grouping. The
coordination (interaction) plan of the air defense troops and means is
organized as a working document.
During the organization of coordination (interaction) plans of air defense
troops and means in the strategic operation in the TSMA the following points
----- - What air defense troops and means are assigned to air defense missions;
----- - Sequence for establishing the grouping of the air defense system;
----- - Method of expanding air defense in the TSMA during the operation;
----- - Method of restoration of air defense systems disrupted by enemy nuclear
----- - Organization of command and control of the air defense troops and
----- - Method of coordination (interaction) between air defense systems of
various operational formations;
----- - Establishment of an echeloned deployment of the principal types of
The form of organization of air defense and the coordination (interaction) of
air defense troops and means in strategic operations is conveyed to relevant
persons by an operational directive of the general staff to the commander in
chief of the national air defense forces, the commander in chief of naval
forces, and commanders of fronts.
The commander in chief of national air defense forces conveys the contents of
the general staff directive by combat instructions to the commanders of
operational formations of the national air defense forces.
On the basis of the general staff directive, in military districts, fleets, and
national air defense armies, issues related to the organization of air defense
and the coordination (interaction) of air defense troops and means in the
strategic operation in the TSMA are reflected in the plans of the first
operation of the fronts and fleets and in the air defense plan of the
national air defense operational formation.
Deployment of the national air defense troops grouping in the strategic
The deployment of the grouping of the national air defense troops is conducted
on the basis of the following factors:
----- - The need to establish a unified air defense system in the TSMA;
----- - Significance and importance of the grouping of forces and targets that
are to be covered;
----- - Depth of the operational formations of the troops in the operation;
----- - The need to create greater densities of air defense troops and means on
the main direction, and the expansion of the air defense system during the
----- - The need for close coordination (interaction) during the course of the
During the planning of the deployment of air defense troops and means assigned
to participate in the strategic operation in the TSMA, it should be considered
whether or not these troops and means in peacetime are in different states of
combat readiness and in permanent posts (grouping) located to correspond more
or less with the requirements for the establishment of the air defense system
in the forthcoming strategic operation.
The national air defense forces and a large part of the air defense troops and
means belonging to the groups of forces which have deployed are principally
grouped in such a status that they will be able to conduct air defense missions
in support of the strategic operation in the TSMA.
In the national (country) unified air defense system a system of radar
reconnaissance as well as a unified signal communication system has deployed
and it is constantly active.
The air defense troops of the military districts in peacetime are in their
permanent garrisons. Only the duty units and formations of air defense rockets
(air defense artillery and radio technical troops) are deployed. For the
accomplishment of the air defense missions during the first front
operation, they should arrive in departure areas simultaneously with the
combined arms formations and operational formations.
The fighter aviation troops of the air army are deployed in military district
areas and part of their troops conduct combat duty service.
Thus prior to full deployment of the troops for the strategic operation the
basic air defense troops and means ready for action in the TSMA are the air
defense troops of the groups of forces and the national air defense forces'
troops. They will be in constant combat readiness and will provide air defense
cover for the grouping of the ground forces and the fleets in their deployment
phase and during their occupation of departure areas. At the same time these
air defense forces will accomplish the national air defense mission.
By the proclamation of higher combat readiness, prior to the beginning of
movement, the air defense troops of the military districts fully deploy in
position and conduct air defense missions jointly with the national air defense
forces in support of the military district troops.
The air defense troops of the advancing military district troops in this phase
conduct direct air defense cover of the troops on the movement axis. The
fighter aviation troops of the air army, in order to conduct air defense
missions, detach certain elements while they are being moved to new locations.
With the beginning of the deployment of front troops and means and the
occupation of departure areas for the initial offensive operation, several
lines (belts) of air defense troops and means in the TSMA are created.
The first air defense line in the TSMA is established by the air defense troops
and means of the fronts (the air defense troops of the front and
fighter aviation troops of the front air army). In the area of each
front one to two formations of national air defense troops will operate
and also the naval air defense troops will operate on the naval directions. The
depth of this line (belt) will be 300-500 km. It is the strongest grouping of
the air defense troops and means in the TSMA.
The second air defense line (belt) in the TSMA is established by the
operational formations of the national air defense forces and the air defense
troops and means of reserve fronts. The depth of this belt can be 700-1,000 km.
For the accomplishment of the air defense missions which develop in the course
of the strategic operation (such as air defense cover for the reserve
fronts during their commitment, air defense cover of seaborne assault
operations, air defense cover during seizure of peninsula areas, air defense
cover during airborne operations), the general staff specifies the required
number of air defense troops and means. Prior to the execution of the new
missions the assigned air defense troops and means continue to conduct the
tasks previously assigned to them. They normally participate in repelling the
enemy's initial massive air strikes.
Therefore in the stage of the occupation of the departure areas by the
front forces and the fleets for the offensive operation in the TSMA a
deep and echeloned air defense system is established.
In order to maintain the viability of the air defense system and to increase
the capabilities for restoration of the air defense system which is disrupted
by the destruction of air defense troops of the national air defense forces and
front air defense means caused by the enemy nuclear rocket strikes, a
large number of measures are taken, such as:
----- - Preparation of the TSMA in the interests of air defense;
----- - Operational maskirovka;
----- - Perfection of the command and control system;
----- - Establishment of reserves;
----- - Radio electronic protection;
----- - Dispersion of material reserves;
----- - Other measures.
Troop control of the air defense troops and means in the strategic operation
in the TSMA
Troop control of the air defense troops and means in the strategic operation is
considered one of the difficult tasks for the following reasons:
----- - Limited information about the aerial enemy at the beginning of the
repulsion of the enemy's massive strikes;
----- - Active resistance of the enemy against the troop control system of the
air defense troops and means;
----- - Presence of various systems of troop control of the air defense troops
and means in the different services of the armed forces.
In addition to these, all air defense troops and means will not always conduct
their combat action simultaneously on all directions and all depths of the
TSMA. The enemy air force will commit its main forces where the main mission in
the strategic action is being accomplished.
These characteristics of the conditions of the situation for the troop control
of the air defense troops and means preclude the possibilities and
feasibilities for the establishment of a special troop control organ for the
troop control of all air defense troops and means in the TSMA because creation
of such a specific organ is practically impossible. The coordination of the
actions of the air defense troops and means in the strategic operation in the
TSMA is conducted by the general staff of the armed forces. Such coordination
is exercised to resolve the following most important missions:
----- - Distribution of the air defense troops and means among operational
formations of various services of the armed forces;
----- - Establishment of a unified system of reconnaissance and warning about
the aerial enemy in the TSMA;
----- - Coordination of the combat action of the air defense troops and means
organic to different operational formations and those organic to the national
air defense forces, in the course of the conduct of the strategic operation,
particularly in gaps between them during accomplishment of joint missions in
one area of the combat action.
Troop control of the front's air defense troops and means in the course
of the operation is exercised by the front commanders through chiefs of
the air defense troops and the air army commanders from the front's
During the repulsion of the first (initial) enemy air strikes, the coordination
of the action of the air defense troops in the TSMA is conducted by the
commander in chief of national air defense forces from the central air defense
command post and when necessary from the auxiliary air defense command post by
him or his deputy.
All troop control functions, documents, and means are established and constant
combat duty services are conducted in the auxiliary command post (Boevey
dezhurnyi- combat duty officer).
The operational level air defense troop control organs of the Warsaw Pact
countries conduct the following tasks:
----- - Assess (estimate of the situation) the air and space situation;
----- - Bring the air defense troops to the state (degree) of combat readiness
of the troops;
----- - Depending on the situation and the specified state (degree) of the
combat readiness of troops, determine the method for keeping enough combat
equipment in operational status to support and insure timely commitment to
combat of the required number of air defense troops and means;
----- - Determine (specify) measures designed to ensure and maintain the combat
capability of troops during nuclear missile strikes;
----- - Determine the most effective forms of action to be taken by the air
defense forces in the situation;
----- - Confirme a previously-made decision or make new decisions to repel
aerial strikes and convey the decision to the executing elements;
----- - Coordinate actions and maintain close interaction of air defense troops
and coordinate the actions of the air defense troops and means of the ground
forces (fronts) and fleets;
----- - Support the troops in combat action;
----- - Take measures to eliminate the consequences of the use of nuclear
weapons by the enemy and restore the disrupted grouping of forces.
The front's chief of air defense troops directly coordinates the combat
action of the front's air defense troops and means with the action of
national air defense forces. The coordinating tasks of the front's air
defense chief must include advance coordination of the following elements:
----- - Deployment areas and method of combat action of radio and radar
reconnaissance means in a unified system;
----- - Method of exchange of organized reconnaissance information (data);
----- - Method of troop control, airfield provisions, and support for the
fighter aviation troops;
----- - Control and support of the combat action of fighters with their full
tactical range and their full range for operation in the adjacent areas;
----- - Method of exchange of installation (targets) to be covered by the air
defense means of the ground forces' operational formations, with those covered
by the operational formations and formations of allied countries' national air
defense forces during the development of combat action;
----- - Method of restoration and expansion of the air defense system in the
area of the ground forces' operation in the course of war.
Organization of coordination (interaction)
Organization of coordination (interaction) amongst air defense troops and means
in the TSMA includes a number of measures directed at coordinating the combat
action of the operational formations of different services of the armed forces
in terms of aim, location, time, and form of accomplishment of assigned
Coordination of the operation of the air defense troops and means in the
fronts' areas with the action of air defense troops of Warsaw Pact
countries is conducted by operational groups detached from operational
formations and formations of the national (country) air defense forces to the
air defense command posts of the Fronts as they deploy, occupy the
departure areas, and then pass (depart) out of the boundaries (range) of the
air defense operational formations during the operation.
Coordination (interaction) of the operation of the air defense troops and means
of the fleets with the action of the fronts' air defense troops and
means and operational formations of the national air defense forces is
conducted through naval representatives detached to the front's air
defense command post and air defense army command post.
While organizing coordination between the air defense troops and means of the
fronts and the national air defense forces, efforts are normally focused
on those troops and means of the national air defense forces that are assigned
to cover the fronts' troops in departure areas and in attack (march)
zones. The method of action of these troops and means is coordinated. Moreover,
the likely maneuver of these troops in support of the front is
specified, the air defense cover of the troops on crucial lines in the attack
zone is organized, and the interception lines of fighter aircraft are
The following questions are closely addressed: which troops and means of the
front, where, when, and for wahat missions are going to deploy in the
attack zone? The intermediate airfields are specified for en route stops of
front fighter aviation during the advance of the troops, and the method
of interaction between the front's fighter aviation and air defense
means and the fighter aviation and air defense missile troops of Warsaw Pact
countries and those of adjacent fronts is determined. Moreover, a
unified system of mutual identification of friendly aircraft is specified.
Special attention is paid to the method of elaborate use of radar systems of
the allied nations' air defense forces in support of the fronts. For
this purpose the following elements are taken into consideration:
----- - Capabilities and range of operation of radars in the advance zone of
----- - Capabilities for warning front troops and means;
----- - Troop control of the front's air defense means deployed in the
advance zone of the troops;
In addition, organizational considerations concerning air defense cover of the
fronts' communications routes in the advance zone of the troops are as
----- - Method of expansion of air defense following the attacking troops of
----- - Composition of air defense operational groups and the method of their
attachment to coordinating headquarters are resolved.
In the marching phase of the fronts, the air defense operational groups
of the fronts are posted at the command post of the national air defense
forces operational formation or at the central air defense command post of the
allied nation in whose territory the fronts conduct their march. The
coordination of the operational formation of the national air defense forces
and the fronts' air defense troops is conducted through these air
defense operational groups.
During the conduct of joint operations (seaborne, airborne) the representatives
of relevant formations of the national air defense forces and naval
representatives are attached to the auxiliary command post of the commander
conducting the operation to coordinate issues of covering the airborne-seaborne
troops in their assembly areas, during their embarkation, and in the course of
In contemporary times special attention is paid to establishment of
coordination and close unification of the automatic system of command and
control designated for the air defense troops and means organic to various
services of the armed forces.
To resolve the problem of unification of different (various) automatic systems
requires primarily the resolution of the problem of timely reception and
processing of information on the air situation, space situation, nuclear
situation, and radio jamming conditions. To accomplish this, conditions are
created to receive the information directly from its original source, such as
remotely-operating radar centers (long-range operating radar centers), radar
reconnaissance aviation, radar patrol ships, and earth orbit satellites. By
establishing such a system for receiving information, the time for receiving
and sending information is shortened.
General troop control of air defense troops and means assigned to accomplish
tasks in joint operations is conducted by the commander of the joint operation.
He controls the air defense troops and means from his command post. The direct
troop control of air defense troops is conducted by the commanders of
formations of the national air defense forces (air defense chiefs of combined
arms operational formations, commanders of naval formations).
IV. Conduct of air defense in the strategic operation in the
The conduct of air defense includes the following elements:
----- - Conduct of reconnaissance to detect enemy air and space attack means;
----- - Repulse of enemy air force strikes on covered troops (targets) and
fighting enemy air reconnaissance;
----- -Maneuver to redistribute air defense troops and means among different
services of the armed forces (fronts, fleets) during changes in their
missions in the course of the operation--including the commitment of reserves;
----- - Expansion of the air defense system during the operation (arrival of
reserves in the area between the first and second air defense belts,
requirements to cover new targets and new groupings of the troops);
----- - Restoration of the air defense system destroyed by the enemy's air
Reconnaissance of the enemy's air and space attack means is a constant mission
conducted by all available means in support of the viability of the air defense
Reconnaissance of the enemy's air and space means at the strategic level is
conducted by the following systems:
----- - Reserve systems of missile forces and space control;
----- - Space reconnaissance systems;
----- - Special purpose units of the ground staff (OSNAZ);
----- - Naval units conducting patrol duty in remote ocean areas;
----- - Air reconnaissance.
Information can be acquired from these sources about the bases of strategic air
forces, areas of deployment of nuclear rocket submarines, aircraft carrier task
forces and the flight of aircraft from them, the location of enemy space
satellites (including reconnaissance, communication, guidance, and other
satellites), ballistic missile bases, and flights of strategic aircraft.
Information from these sources is communicated rapidly by direct signal
communication channels to the supreme high command, the armed forces general
staff, the command posts of different services of the armed forces and civil
defense, as well as to the fronts and fleets.
Operational reconnaissance is conducted by the air force and special purpose
(OSNAZ) troops of the fronts, air defense armies, and fleets.
Information is received from these sources and means on the relocation of the
bases of tactical and naval aircraft and aircraft flights. On individual
directions they can also provide information about the enemy's strategic air
force. Information and data are communicated to the command posts of the
fronts, fleets, and air defense armies (organic to national air defense
Information provided by strategic and operational reconnaissance is used
primarily to bring the air defense troops and means to the state of full combat
readiness in a timely manner and to take measures on concealment, deception
(maskirovka), and dispersion.
Tactical reconnaissance is conducted by the means of the following formations
and operational organizations:
----- - Radio-technical troops organic to the operational formations of the
national air defense forces;
----- - Radio-technical units (formations) of the front air defense
----- - Radar patrol ships and radar stations of naval vessels;
----- - Means of special purpose SPETNAZ units;
----- - Reconnaissance and target definition radar stations organic to air
defense missile (artillery) units and formations;
----- - Reconnaissance and guidance stations of the front air army's
----- - Visual observation posts established in all command posts.
Thus, detection of the aerial enemy during flight is conducted, and his
composition, combat formation, and distribution on different air directions are
Tactical reconnaissance means support the combat employment of active air
Repulse of enemy air strikes in the TSMA may be conducted in various
conditions. These conditions depend on the following factors:
----- - Form of initiation of war chosen by the enemy;
----- - Situation of friendly forces--whether they have deployed, or are on the
march, or are still in their permanent garrisons;
----- - Nature of enemy strikes (initial massive strike or subsequent strikes
during the operation);
----- - Where the enemy is facing difficult conditions (where difficult
conditions are created for the enemy) and where friendly troops launch their
However, in any form of initiation of war, the enemy will direct his main
efforts to gain air supremacy.
In a war initiated with the employment of nuclear weapons, the initial massive
strike can be launched in all depths of the TSMA, on the important grouping of
the troops, and vital targets.
Since generally there is no antiballistic missile defense in the TSMA,
prevention of a massive ballistic rocket strike is not possible. Combat actions
to repel enemy air force strikes are normally conducted under conditions in
which enemy nuclear missile strikes have already been launched. Under these
circumstances a complicated radioactive, chemical, and biological situation in
vast areas of the TSMA, along with numerous destroyed areas, fires, and flooded
areas, will prevail.
During the enemy's initiation of nuclear rocket strikes, maintaining the combat
capabilities of the air defense troops and means against enemy aircraft is
vitally important. This will ensure organized commitment into combat for the
repulse of enemy flights.
When the signal indicating the enemy's launch of his ballistic rockets is
received, a number of measures are taken immediately to maintain the combat
capabilities of the troops, such as: personnel not engaged in combat tasks are
moved to protective shelters, and part of the fighter aviation based on
airfields where heavy protective shelters for aircraft are not available take
off from the ground.
When war is initiated without the use of nuclear weapons, the enemy will not
normally have sufficient force to launch strikes against all targets and
important groupings of the troops at the same time. Therefore, he will launch
Under these circumstances major air battles will be initiated on individual air
directions at different times. This situation provides the possibility of
concentrating the efforts of the air defense troops and means and, particularly
the fighter aviation troops, on the most important directions threatened by the
enemy. Maneuver of the air defense means and fighter aviation is conducted to
cover the areas between the formations of the front, areas between the
fronts, and operational formations of the national air defense fores.
The fighter aviation troops are widely used at their maximum range of operation
by landing on the airfields of adjacent formations.
The action of the enemy air force can begin before the fronts (fleets)
can complete their deployment. Under such conditions the main efforts of the
enemy may concentrate on the striking air forces, airfields, destruction of
bridges, major railheads, and on the advancing troops. Generally, the efforts
of the enemy air force in such conditions will be directed at establishing air
supremacy and at isolating the areas of combat action.
Wise and effective maneuvers of fighter aviation to concentrate its efforts on
the destruction of the most threatening (dangerous) grouping of the enemy air
forces will be of major importance.
In the course of the strategic operation in the TSMA massive strikes of the
enemy's air force will concentrate primarily on the following targets:
----- - Grouping of troops operating on the main direction;
----- - Reserves during their commitment into combat;
----- - Troops crossing over major rivers;
----- - Troops seizing critical areas of straits;
----- - Troops conducting airborne (seaborne) assault operations.
In these cases the main efforts of the air defense troops and means are
concentrated in relevant areas throughout the maneuvers of the air defense
troops, on commitment of reserves into combat, and on distribution of the air
defense troops and means among operational formations of the various services
of the armed forces.
Reconnaissance and fighting the aerial enemy, conducting his operation in
echeloned form, are conducted independently in the front area, in the
area of the troops of national air defense forces, and on oceans by the air
defense troops and means of the fleets.
Expansion of the air defense system during the strategic operation is an
important element of air defense and is conducted on the basis of the Supreme
High Command's decision.
On the basis of the degree of development of the attack of front troops
as they move in the depth of the TSMA during the accomplishment of immediate
missions, the movement and relocation of the first belt of air defense troops
and means in the TSMA separates the first air defense belt from the next belt
to the rear, which is created by the border operational formations of the
national air defense forces. If necessary measures are not taken during the
accomplishment of the front's subsequent (long-range) mission, a gap
between the first and second air defense belts will develop. This excessive
depth will destroy the unity of the air defense system.
In order to fill this gap front air defense troops and means (moving
with front elements) are followed by some elements of the operational
formations of the national air defense forces. Some elements of national air
defense forces of allied countries may be assigned, when possible.
By maneuvering fighter aviation regiments to airfields previously occupied by
the front air army's fighter aircraft or by the enemy air force,
necessary conditions are created to avoid the emergence of a gap in fighter
aviation cover and for the movement forward of the interception line of fighter
aircraft assigned to repel enemy air strikes against targets in the depth of
The relocation of some air defense units (formations) from the targets that
have lost their significance and from the depth of the country (in this case
with the permission of the general staff) can be conducted to provide air
defense cover for vital installations (targets) of the front rear
In order to cover important centers on the front's communication routes,
fleet elements in their new areas reinforce the reserve front during its
commitment into combat and, to cover the troops during the airborne (seaborne)
operations, the general staff plans in advance the deployment of special air
defense troops and means, or such troops are allocated during the operation by
the decision of the Supreme High Command in accordance with the actual
conditions of the situation.
During the combat actions of the air defense troops in the TSMA,
radioelectronic combat (radioelectronic struggle) becomes vitally important. It
includes a collection of measures on protecting friendly radioelectronic means
from enemy electronic suppression, jamming enemy radioelectronic means, and
prevention of enemy detection of friendly radioelectronic means.
The principal measures directed at ensuring protection of air defense
radioelectronic means in the TSMA are taken in advance. The most important
----- - Creation of a radioelectronic zone with capabilities to resist enemy
radio jamming by the use of various types of radioelectronic stations in one
----- - Establishment of a secret radioelectronic zone (reserve-alternate);
----- - Establishment of the grouping of the air defense missile troops by
combined composition of various means;
----- - Retaining certain troop control means and other equipment in reserve.
Timely and thorough suppression of enemy radioelectronic means supporting the
combat action of his air force is particularly important. This is accomplished
by special radioelectronic prevention units.
The radio stations of the ministry of communication are mobilized into combat
The conduct of air defense in the strategic operation in the TSMA is not an
individual action, nor a single activity. It is a continuous action throughout
the entire course of the operation. In this context air defense preparation for
the subsequent operation is of vital importance. Such preparation is directed
primarily to restore the combat capabilities of troops hit by enemy strikes.
Due to some of the enemy's massive air strikes, particularly nuclear strikes,
the air defense system will be destroyed in some directions (in some areas of
the TSMA), and will be generally weakened throughout the TSMA. Through field
exercise experience, and scientific calculations of likely losses, the initial
massive strike will cause the following losses in personnel and equipment:
----- - Twenty to thirty-five percent and more when the enemy uses nuclear
----- - Five to ten percent when the enemy uses conventional weapons only.
These losses can restrict timely detection and destruction of the aerial enemy
in some directions (in individual areas) during subsequent combat actions in
the air defense system. The principal measures for restoration of the air
defense system are as follows:
----- - Restoration of troop control and reconnaissance systems;
----- - Restoration of cover by air defense missiles (air defense artillery)
and fighter aviation;
----- - Restoration of material and equipment reserves up to the required
Restoration of the air defense system in the TSMA is conducted by air defense
troops and means of the operational formations and by the commitment of supreme
high command reserves into action.
Restoration of troop control is achieved by moving troop control elements to
alternate command posts, attachment and commitment of the signal system being
in a concealed (secret) and inactive status.
Restoration of destroyed reconnaissance systems designated to detect the aerial
enemy is conducted through the commitment of individual reserve
(secret-concealed) radar posts into action and also by wide use of means
capable of conducting maneuvers, such as aircraft and patrol ships.
Restoration of air defense cover by fighter aviation is normally achieved
through rapid repair of a part of aviation equipment that have been damaged and
knocked out of action and also by the commitment of reserves and maneuver of
troops from less-threatened areas.
Restoration of air defense cover by air defense rockets is conducted through
maneuver of air defense troops and means from areas (targets) that have lost
Timely supply of material and stores for air defense troops and means in the
strategic operation plays an important role in the successful accomplishment of
combat missions. Special importance is given to the timely supply of missiles
(air defense and air-to-air missiles) and specialized POL. The most important
supply issue is the establishment of necessary material reserves and their
appropriate dumping in echelons, particularly in the air defense armies and