Name four types of artillery. What is a principal functional and operational
role or characteristics of each type?
(Task - Explain types of Soviet artillery)
----- Types of artillery are guns, howitzers, mortars, multiple rocket
launchers, anti-tank guns. Guns are longer range and fire at lower trajectory
and are used for counter battery and longer range fire missions. Howitzers fire
at higher angle and are used for large volume of fire at closer targets.
Mortars have very high angle and most are of smaller caliber and given to
infantry units for their organic artillery support. Multiple rocket launchers
have massive salvos of fire in short time intervals, but with periods between
to reload. They are used against area targets. Now they are used to deliver
mines and bomblets as well. Anti-tank guns are specifically designed to fight
tanks with direct fire.
Name and describe the Soviet definitions for three phases of artillery fire
(terms for fire support in a breakthrough attack).
( Task - Describe the Soviet definitions for types of artillery fire.)
---- Soviet artillery fire phases are fire preparation, assault support fire,
and accompanying fire support. In addition there is the special period called
overlapping fire. Fire preparation is begun at a calculated time prior to the
combat troops arriving at the enemy positions. It is designed to cover their
advance. Assault support fire is conducted from the time the first troops reach
the enemy positions until they penetrate to the defending brigade reserve area.
It is generally in the form of curtains of fire laid on lines ahead of the
advancing troops. Accompanying fire support is provided after the combined arms
units reach their immediate missions until the end of the battle. It is
provided by a more decentralized allocation of artillery with artillery
battalions attached to or in direct support of individual infantry and tank
Describe three methods of fire employed by Soviet artillery.
(Task - Describe the Soviet definitions for types of artillery fire).
----- Soviet terms for methods of fire include static barrage, rolling barrage,
concentration fire, successive concentration of fire, fire curtain, and massive
fire. See lesson notes and list of definitions for details.
What are the Soviet definitions for levels of destruction of artillery targets?
(Task - Describe the Soviet definitions for artillery terms)
---- Terms for levels of destruction are annihilation, suppression,
destruction, and harassment. See lesson notes and list of definitions for
What are three principle phases (steps) in Soviet decision making process?
(Task - Describe the general Soviet sequence and procedure for decision
---- The principle phases include: clarifying the mission, estimate of the
situation, making deductions, and formulating the decision. Clarifying the
mission includes understanding the higher commander's concept of the operation
and the role and place of your formation in achieving the aims of the higher
commander. Estimate of the situation includes sections for enemy, friendly, and
adjacent forces and for terrain, economy, political situation, and other
conditions. Making deductions is done during both the clarification and
estimate steps in that conclusions are drawn related to what should be done.
The decision puts all the forgoing together in terms of what is to be done. It
includes the commander's statement of his concept of the operation and aim and
then the missions assigned to subordinate forces.
Describe the different duties and responsibilities of the RAG commander,
artillery battalion commander, and regimental chief of artillery.
(Task - Describe the relationship between combined arms commander, chief of
artillery, commanders of artillery units, and commanders of artillery groups.)
---- The duties are given in the class notes.
What are the Soviet method for forming artillery groups, their role and
purpose, and the norms for their size.
(Task - Describe the Soviet procedure and purpose for forming artillery groups
at regiment, division, and army level.)
---- Artillery groups are formed by temporary assignment of several artillery
battalions to work together under a common commander for the duration (usually
of the fire preparation and assault support fire phases). They may be
battalions all from a common headquarters (regiment or brigade) or they may
come from different parent formations. The role of the group is to improve
effectiveness of fire, coordination and control. See the lecture notes and
handbook for more details and norms for sizes.
What are the roles and missions for anti-tank reserves and the norms for their
(Task - Describe the Soviet anti-tank reserve.)
---- The antitank reserve is formed from organic and attached anti-tank gun and
guided missile units. It is designated to fight enemy tanks, especially those
who may be counterattacking. See the lecture notes and viewgraphs for details
of roles, missions and norms.
What do the Soviets mean by "combat support measures"?
(Task - Describe Soviet combat support measures.)
---- The list of activities included in combat support measures varies slightly
with the level (tactical or operational etc). The main measures are:
reconnaissance, protection against mass destruction weapons, maskirovka,
security, radio-electronic combat, topogeodetic support, meteorological
support. rear service support, and technical support.
Describe the purpose and content of the "Report and suggestions of the
chief of rocket troops and artillery".
(Task - Describe the sequence and procedure for work by the chief of artillery
in the decision making process.)
---- During the commander's process for clarifying his mission and making his
decision he may call upon some or all of the chiefs of combat arms, special
troops, and services to report on the status of their own forces and their
assessment of the enemy's similar forces. They will also report on tasks
assigned them from higher headquarters and suggest the optimum methods for
employment of their troops to achieve the commander's aims. See lecture notes
What types of artillery instructions are prepared by the chief of rocket troops
and artillery and what are their functions?
(Task - Describe the types of artillery documents prepared by the artillery
---- There are two types of artillery instructions - one is the artillery
instruction or combat order sent to the commander of an artillery unit directly
subordinated to the headquarters (ie. the artillery regiment in the division).
The other is the instructions on artillery sent to the chief of rocket troops
and artillery of the subordinate combined arms formation or unit (ie to the
chief of artillery of a regiment). The order to the artillery unit commander
issues him his missions and is like other orders. The instruction on artillery
informs the subordinate about the enemy, about what reinforcements he will
receive, what support he will receive from higher headquarters, and what task
he must perform in the interests of the higher headquarters, while also
supporting his own commander.
What are the following map symbols?
(Task - Describe Soviet map symbols.)
List the content of the artillery plan for front, army, and division.
What is the form of the plan?
(Task - Describe the Soviet plan map.)
---- The artillery plan is prepared on a map with written annexes. The map
shows the basic skeleton of the operation as a framework on which the artillery
units and their missions are presented in great detail. Artillery units are
shown two levels below the headquarters preparing the plan. Points included in
the graphic part are: enemy situations, targets for rocket and artillery fire,
situations and missions of friendly forces and boundaries between them,
missions of rocket troops in nuclear strikes, parameters of nuclear strikes,
directions of movement, deployment areas, artillery groupings, penetration
areas, density of artillery, areas for locations and deployment lines for
anti-tank reserves, maneuver of artillery units, areas of radar coverage for
air defense artillery, and other information. See lesson notes.
Describe three standard types of Soviet report documents.
( Task - Describe types of artillery documents).
---- Documents are classified as troop control, information and accountability,
and reference documents. All are discussed in detail in the Handbook and the
extracts provided to the class.
Determine the artillery requirements for a front on the basis of the
---- 4 armies in the first-echelon
---- with breakthrough along two axes
---- first axis - one army opposed by British on 10 km
---- first axis - one army opposed by Dutch on 8 km
---- second axis - one army opposed by US on 9 km
---- fourth army is in secondary attack across a wide area.
Calculate the width of penetration area for a front:
---- given 2 artillery divisions of 22 bns and 15 bns;
---- 3 armies in first-echelon and each has 4 bns in arty regt.
What major points does the chief of RT&A emphasize in his suggestions to
the front commander?
The report and suggestions includes: assessment of enemy nuclear and artillery
capabilities, assessment of friendly nuclear and artillery forces and means;
requirements for and availability of supplies, ammunition and nuclear warheads;
recommendations on the use of rockets and artillery, distribution of artillery
to subordinate headquarters, requirements for artillery for breakthrough,
duration, timing and ammunition expenditure for preparatory fire and assault
support fire; and recommendations on combat support, interaction, and troop
control of artillery.
Explain two methods used to assess and calculate the army requirements for
artillery in the breakthrough.
(Task - Analyze how the combat employment of artillery is determined on the
basis of requirements given in norms and instructions.)
---- The basic methods are based on the number of guns required to suppress or
destroy the expected number of targets, or the number of guns required to
created the densities required per kilometer according to standard norms, or on
the number of battalions required to create the standard sized artillery
What are four of the steps in organizing artillery support for an army
(Task - Describe how artillery support for offensive operations is organized.)
---- The standard steps in organizing artillery support are: making the
decision, planning the action, conveying the decision, organizing troop control
and signals, monitoring and assisting subordinates, preparing FUP areas, and
collecting stockpiles of materials. Other steps include political preparation
and creating groupings of troops.
Determine the artillery requirement for first-echelon regiments in the
---- 19th MRR RAG should have 3 artillery battalions;
---- 20th MRR RAG should have 4 artillery battalions;
---- 21st MRR RAG should have 4 artillery battalions;
---- DAG is to have 6 artillery battalions;
---- 24th TR will have its own organic artillery unit.
---- DAG 6 bns + RAG19 3 bns + RAG20 4 bns + RAG21 4 bns=17 bns required.
Available are Div arty regt 4 bns + 3 regimental bns=7 artillery bns.
Therefor 10 additional artillery battalions are required to support
Determine the length of a fire strike in support for the commitment of a
second-echelon regiment on the basis of the following assumptions.
---- total effective equivalent target area at line of commitment=200 ha;
---- required rounds per hectare is 50;
---- use 122 mm howitzer as standard weapon;
---- total of 160 guns will be available for fire strike.
Answer using the formula shows: 200=(160 x N) ÷ 50; N=62.5 rounds per gun;
According to the table of rate of fire the 122 can fire 65 rounds in 20 min and
55 rounds in 15 min. So the duration of the fire strike should be approximately
Which of the following is not a mission of artillery during the preparatory
fire to support the commitment of the second echelon?
---- A. destroy enemy nuclear means;
X---- B. commit artillery units into gaps between first echelon forces;
---- C. destroy enemy nuclear means;
---- D. relaibly suppress enemy anti-tank defenses;
---- E. destroy enemy troop control systems.
Which of the following is not a step in determining front artillery
---- A. deduct targets hit by air forces;
----B. subtract quantity of available artillery organic to army artillery;
---- C. total requirement of first echelon armies is the front
X---- D. suppress enemy personnel, weapons, and tanks in strong points.
Which of the following is not a method used to decrease the quantity of
X---- A. deliver larger prepositioned stock of ammunition;
---- B. extend the duration of preparatory fire;
---- C. assign targets to air and tanks;
---- D. reduce width of penetration area.
Which of the following points is not part of the graphic artillery plan?
---- A. area of radar coverage and positions of air defense artillery;
---- B. penetration areas and artillery positions there;
---- C. missions of rocket troops in initial and subsequent nuclear strikes;
X---- D. distribution of engineer troop units to first echelon formations;
---- E. areas and locations of anti-tank reserves.
Which of the following issues is not included in the suggestions of the
CRT&A to his commander?
---- A. suggestion on width of breakthrough area and direction of main attack;
---- B. duration of artillery preparatory fire;
X---- C. time to initiate operation;
---- D. form for assault support fire and its depth;
---- E. suggestion on interaction during critical phases of combat.
Which of the following actions is not one of the measures conducted by the
chief of rocket troops and artillery when organizing artillery for an
---- A. make decisions on employment of RT&A troops;
---- B. organize interaction;
X---- C. conduct fire from temporary positions;
---- D. organize troop control.
Which of the following activities is not a component of planning combat
employment of artillery
---- A. determine needs of first echelon formations (units) for attached
X---- B. destroy enemy command and control systems;
---- C. organize movement of artillery to cover deployment of main forces and
repel likely enemy aggression;
---- D. organize artillery action of artillery forces while committing the
second echelon troops.
True or False: Mark the following statements either true or false.
F Artillery from second-echelon divisions generally is used in planned
preparatory fire for the breakthrough.
T Divisions on the main axis of attack receive reinforcements of 4-5 additional
F Artillery from second-echelon army is generally used in preparatory fire for
T The enemy situation and major groupings are depicted as part of the artillery
T Artillery from the second-echelon army is generally sent forward to be used
in preparatory fire p;rior to commitment of the second-echelon army.
F Front maintains an artillery reserve during breakthrough operations.
T Artillery groups of adjacent large units may be called on to inflict losses
on enemy in support of a counterblow.
T Front creates an anti-tank reserve for the duration of offensive
F Suggestions of the CRT&A include recommendations on distribution of
artillery to second-echelon divisions.
F The CRT&A of division commands the division artillery group.